Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30831
Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production
Abstract:A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esteriﬁcation reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1339956Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 911
 Leung, D.Y.C., Wu, X. and Leung, M.K.H. (2010). A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification, Applied Energy, 87(4): 1083-1095.
 Liu, X., He, H., Wang, Y., Zhu, S. and Piao, X. (2008). Transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst, Fuel, 87(2): 216-221.
 Lam, M.K., Lee, K.T. and Mohamed, A.R. (2010). Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: A review, Biotechnology Advances, 28(4): 500-518.
 Miao, X., Li, R. and Yao, H. (2009). Effective acid-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production, Energy Conversion and Management, 50(10): 2680-2684.
 Jain, S. and Sharma, M. (2010). Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil, Bioresource technology, 101(20): 7701-7706.
 Ognjanovic, N., Bezbradica, D. and Knezevic-Jugovic, Z. (2009). Enzymatic conversion of sunflower oil to biodiesel in a solvent-free system: process optimization and the immobilized system stability, Bioresource technology, 100(21): 5146-5154.
 Shah, S. and Gupta, M.N. (2007). Lipase catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from Jatropha oil in a solvent free system, Process Biochemistry, 42(3): 409-414.
 Kim, H.J., Kang, B.S., Kim, M.J., Park, Y.M., Kim, D.K., Lee, J.S. and Lee, K.Y. (2004). Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst, Catalysis Today, 93(315-320.
 Xie, W. and Li, H. (2006). Alumina-supported potassium iodide as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 255(1-2): 1-9.
 Lopez, D.E. and Goodwin, J.G. (2005). Transesterification of triacetin with methanol on solid acid and base catalysts, Applied Catalysis A: General, 295(2): 97-105.
 Marandi, V. and Najafpour, G.D. (2001). Reaction rate model for diethyl ether from ethanol using heterogeneous catalysts, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 12:1-10.
 Liu, Q., Wang, A., Wang, X., Gao, P., Wang, X. and Zhang, T. (2008). Synthesis, characterization and catalytic applications of mesoporous³-alumina from boehmite sol, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 111(1-3): 323-333.
 Sarkar, D., Mohapatra, D., Ray, S., Bhattacharyya, S., Adak, S. and Mitra, N. (2007). Synthesis and characterization of sol-gel derived ZrO2 doped Al2O3 nanopowder, Ceramics international, 33(7): 1275-1282.
 Dominguez, J., Hernandez, J. and Sandoval, G. (2000). Surface and catalytic properties of Al2O3-ZrO2 solid solutions prepared by sol-gel methods, Applied Catalysis A: General, 197(1): 119-130.
 Enache, D., Roy-Auberger, M., Esterle, K. and Revel, R. (2003). Preparation of Al2O3-ZrO2 mixed supports; their characteristics and hydrothermal stability, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 220(1-3): 223-233.
 Feth, M.P., Bauer, M., Kickelbick, G., Metelkina, O., Schubert, U. and Bertagnolli, H. (2005). Influence of additives and post-synthesis treatment on the structural properties of sol-gel prepared alumina-doped zirconia studied by EXAFS-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, Journal of non-crystalline solids, 351(5): 432-443.
 Khalil, N., Hassan, M., Ewais, E. and Saleh, F. (2010). Sintering, mechanical and refractory properties of MA spinel prepared via co-precipitation and sol-gel techniques, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 496(1-2): 600-607.
 Jayaseelan, D.D., Rani, D.A., Nishikawa, T., Awaji, H. and Gnanam, F. (2000). Powder characteristics, sintering behavior and microstructure of sol-gel derived ZTA composites, Journal of the European Ceramic society, 20(3): 267-275.
 Bartolomé, J.F., Pecharromلn, C., Moya, J.S., Martيn, A., Pastor, J.Y. and Llorca, J. (2006). Percolative mechanism of sliding wear in alumina/zirconia composites, Journal of the European Ceramic society, 26(13): 2619-2625.
 Weng, M.T., Wei, W.C.J. and Huang, C.Y. (2007). Influence of 3Y-TZP on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al2O3-based Composites, Key Engineering Materials, 353(1540-1543.
 Klug, H.P. and Alexander, L.E. (1974). X-Ray Diffraction Procedures: For Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials, 2nd Edition, 992, Wiley-VCH.
 Heydarzadeh, J.K., Amini, G., Khalizadeh, M.A., Pazouki, M., Ghoreyshi, A.A., Rabiee, S.M. and Najafpour, G.D. (2010). Esterification of Free Fatty Acids by Heterogeneous γ-Alumina/Zirconia Catalysts for Biodiesel Synthesis, World Applied Science Journal, 9(11): 1306-1312.
 Del Monte, F., Larsen, W. and Mackenzie, J.D. (2000). Chemical interactions promoting the ZrO2 tetragonal stabilization in ZrO2–SiO2 binary oxides, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 83(6): 1506-1512.
 Das, D., Mishra, H., Parida, K. and Dalai, A. (2002). Preparation, physico-chemical characterization and catalytic activity of sulphated ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 189(2): 271-282.
 Raz, S., Sasaki, K., Maier, J. and Riess, I. (2001). Characterization of adsorbed water layers on Y2O3-doped ZrO2, Solid State Ionics, 143(2): 181-204.
 Macedo, M.I.F., Osawa, C.C. and Bertran, C.A. (2004). Sol-gel synthesis of transparent alumina gel and pure gamma alumina by urea hydrolysis of aluminum nitrate, Journal of sol-gel science and technology, 30(3): 135-140.
 Fernando, S., Karra, P., Hernandez, R. and Jha, S.K. (2007). Effect of incompletely converted soybean oil on biodiesel quality, Energy, 32(5): 844-851.