Search results for: adaptive output recurrentcerebellar model articulation control.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11178

Search results for: adaptive output recurrentcerebellar model articulation control.

11178 A WIP Control Based On an Intelligent Controller

Authors: Chih-Hui Chiu, Chun-Hsien Lin

Abstract:

In this study, a robust intelligent backstepping tracking control (RIBTC) system combined with adaptive output recurrent cerebellar model articulation control (AORCMAC) and H∞ control technique is proposed for wheeled inverted pendulums (WIPs) real-time control with exact system dynamics unknown. Moreover, a robust H∞ controller is designed to attenuate the effect of the residual approximation errors and external disturbances with desired attenuation level. The experimental results indicate that the WIPs can stand upright stably when using the proposed RIBTC.

Keywords: Wheeled inverted pendulum, backsteppingtracking control, H∞ control, adaptive output recurrentcerebellar model articulation control.

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11177 DMC with Adaptive Weighted Output

Authors: Ahmed Abbas, M.R. M Rizk, Mohamed El-Sayed

Abstract:

This paper presents a new adaptive DMC controller that improves the controller performance in case of plant-model mismatch. The new controller monitors the plant measured output, compares it with the model output and calculates weights applied to the controller move. Simulations show that the new controller can help improve control performance and avoid instability in case of severe model mismatches.

Keywords: Adaptive control, dynamic matrix control, DMC, model predictive control

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11176 Robust Adaptive Vibration Control with Application to a Robot Beam

Authors: J. Fei

Abstract:

This paper presents the adaptive control scheme with sliding mode compensator for vibration control problem in the presence of disturbance. The dynamic model of the flexible cantilever beam using finite element modeling is derived. The adaptive control with sliding mode compensator using output feedback for output tracking is developed to reject the external disturbance, and to improve the tracking performance. Satisfactory simulation results verify that the effectiveness of adaptive control scheme with sliding mode compensator.

Keywords: finite element model, adaptive control, sliding modecontrol, vibration suppression

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11175 Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Air-Fuel Ratio of Automobile Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: Ali Ghaffari, A. Hosein Shamekhi, Akbar Saki, Ehsan Kamrani

Abstract:

In order to meet the limits imposed on automotive emissions, engine control systems are required to constrain air/fuel ratio (AFR) in a narrow band around the stoichiometric value, due to the strong decay of catalyst efficiency in case of rich or lean mixture. This paper presents a model of a sample spark ignition engine and demonstrates Simulink-s capabilities to model an internal combustion engine from the throttle to the crankshaft output. We used welldefined physical principles supplemented, where appropriate, with empirical relationships that describe the system-s dynamic behavior without introducing unnecessary complexity. We also presents a PID tuning method that uses an adaptive fuzzy system to model the relationship between the controller gains and the target output response, with the response specification set by desired percent overshoot and settling time. The adaptive fuzzy based input-output model is then used to tune on-line the PID gains for different response specifications. Experimental results demonstrate that better performance can be achieved with adaptive fuzzy tuning relative to similar alternative control strategies. The actual response specifications with adaptive fuzzy matched the desired response specifications.

Keywords: Modelling, Air–fuel ratio control, SI engine, Adaptive fuzzy Control.

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11174 Effect of Adaptation Gain on system Performance for Model Reference Adaptive Control Scheme using MIT Rule

Authors: Pankaj Swarnkar, Shailendra Jain, R.K Nema

Abstract:

Adaptive control involves modifying the control law used by the controller to cope with the fact that the parameters of the system being controlled change drastically due to change in environmental conditions or in system itself. This technique is based on the fundamental characteristic of adaptation of living organism. The adaptive control process is one that continuously and automatically measures the dynamic behavior of plant, compares it with the desired output and uses the difference to vary adjustable system parameters or to generate an actuating signal in such a way so that optimal performance can be maintained regardless of system changes. This paper deals with application of model reference adaptive control scheme in first order system. The rule which is used for this application is MIT rule. This paper also shows the effect of adaptation gain on the system performance. Simulation is done in MATLAB and results are discussed in detail.

Keywords: Adaptive control system, Adaptation gain, MIT rule, Model reference adaptive control.

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11173 Model Reference Adaptive Control and LQR Control for Quadrotor with Parametric Uncertainties

Authors: Alia Abdul Ghaffar, Tom Richardson

Abstract:

A model reference adaptive control and a fixed gain LQR control were implemented in the height controller of a quadrotor that has parametric uncertainties due to the act of picking up an object of unknown dimension and mass. It is shown that an adaptive controller, unlike the fixed gain controller, is capable of ensuring a stable tracking performance under such condition, although adaptive control suffers from several limitations. The combination of both adaptive and fixed gain control in the controller architecture can result in an enhanced tracking performance in the presence parametric uncertainties.

Keywords: UAV, quadrotor, model reference adaptive control, LQR control.

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11172 Multiple Model and Neural based Adaptive Multi-loop PID Controller for a CSTR Process

Authors: R.Vinodha S. Abraham Lincoln, J. Prakash

Abstract:

Multi-loop (De-centralized) Proportional-Integral- Derivative (PID) controllers have been used extensively in process industries due to their simple structure for control of multivariable processes. The objective of this work is to design multiple-model adaptive multi-loop PID strategy (Multiple Model Adaptive-PID) and neural network based multi-loop PID strategy (Neural Net Adaptive-PID) for the control of multivariable system. The first method combines the output of multiple linear PID controllers, each describing process dynamics at a specific level of operation. The global output is an interpolation of the individual multi-loop PID controller outputs weighted based on the current value of the measured process variable. In the second method, neural network is used to calculate the PID controller parameters based on the scheduling variable that corresponds to major shift in the process dynamics. The proposed control schemes are simple in structure with less computational complexity. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes have been demonstrated on the CSTR process, which exhibits dynamic non-linearity.

Keywords: Multiple-model Adaptive PID controller, Multivariableprocess, CSTR process.

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11171 Applications of Prediction and Identification Using Adaptive DCMAC Neural Networks

Authors: Yu-Lin Liao, Ya-Fu Peng

Abstract:

An adaptive dynamic cerebellar model articulation controller (DCMAC) neural network used for solving the prediction and identification problem is proposed in this paper. The proposed DCMAC has superior capability to the conventional cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) neural network in efficient learning mechanism, guaranteed system stability and dynamic response. The recurrent network is embedded in the DCMAC by adding feedback connections in the association memory space so that the DCMAC captures the dynamic response, where the feedback units act as memory elements. The dynamic gradient descent method is adopted to adjust DCMAC parameters on-line. Moreover, the analytical method based on a Lyapunov function is proposed to determine the learning-rates of DCMAC so that the variable optimal learning-rates are derived to achieve most rapid convergence of identifying error. Finally, the adaptive DCMAC is applied in two computer simulations. Simulation results show that accurate identifying response and superior dynamic performance can be obtained because of the powerful on-line learning capability of the proposed DCMAC.

Keywords: adaptive, cerebellar model articulation controller, CMAC, prediction, identification

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11170 CSTR Control by Using Model Reference Adaptive Control and PSO

Authors: Neha Khanduja

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative analysis of continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) control based on adaptive control and optimal tuning of PID control based on particle swarm optimization. In the design of adaptive control, Model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme is used, in which the adaptation law have been developed by MIT rule & Lyapunov’s rule. In PSO control parameters of PID controller is tuned by using the concept of particle swarm optimization to get optimized operating point for minimum integral square error (ISE) condition. The results show the adjustment of PID parameters converting into the optimal operating point and the good control response can be obtained by the PSO technique.

Keywords: Model reference adaptive control (MRAC), optimal control, particle swarm optimization (PSO).

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11169 Adaptive MPC Using a Recursive Learning Technique

Authors: Ahmed Abbas Helmy, M. R. M. Rizk, Mohamed El-Sayed

Abstract:

A model predictive controller based on recursive learning is proposed. In this SISO adaptive controller, a model is automatically updated using simple recursive equations. The identified models are then stored in the memory to be re-used in the future. The decision for model update is taken based on a new control performance index. The new controller allows the use of simple linear model predictive controllers in the control of nonlinear time varying processes.

Keywords: Adaptive control, model predictive control, dynamic matrix control, online model identification

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11168 Helicopter Adaptive Control with Parameter Estimation Based on Feedback Linearization

Authors: A. R. Nemati, M. Haddad Zarif, M. M. Fateh

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive feedback linearization approach to derive helicopter. Ideal feedback linearization is defined for the cases when the system model is known. Adaptive feedback linearization is employed to get asymptotically exact cancellation for the inherent uncertainty in the knowledge of the given parameters of system. The control algorithm is implemented using the feedback linearization technique and adaptive method. The controller parameters are unknown where an adaptive control law aims to drive them towards their ideal values for providing perfect model matching between the reference model and the closed-loop plant model. The converged parameters of controller would then provide good estimates for the unknown plant parameters.

Keywords: Adaptive control, helicopter, feedback linearization, nonlinear control.

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11167 Influence of Adaptation Gain and Reference Model Parameters on System Performance for Model Reference Adaptive Control

Authors: Jan Erik Stellet

Abstract:

This article presents a detailed analysis and comparative performance evaluation of model reference adaptive control systems. In contrast to classical control theory, adaptive control methods allow to deal with time-variant processes. Inspired by the works [1] and [2], two methods based on the MIT rule and Lyapunov rule are applied to a linear first order system. The system is simulated and it is investigated how changes to the adaptation gain affect the system performance. Furthermore, variations in the reference model parameters, that is changing the desired closed-loop behaviour are examinded.

Keywords: Adaptive control systems, Adaptation gain, MIT rule, Lyapunov rule, Model reference adaptive control.

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11166 Adaptive Integral Backstepping Motion Control for Inverted Pendulum

Authors: Ö. Tolga Altınöz

Abstract:

The adaptive backstepping controller for inverted pendulum is designed by using the general motion control model. Backstepping is a novel nonlinear control technique based on the Lyapunov design approach, used when higher derivatives of parameter estimation appear. For easy parameter adaptation, the mathematical model of the inverted pendulum converted into the motion control model. This conversion is performed by taking functions of unknown parameters and dynamics of the system. By using motion control model equations, inverted pendulum is simulated without any information about not only parameters but also measurable dynamics. Also these results are compare with the adaptive backstepping controller which extended with integral action that given from [1].

Keywords: Adaptive backstepping, inverted pendulum, nonlinear adaptive control.

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11165 Improved Fuzzy Neural Modeling for Underwater Vehicles

Authors: O. Hassanein, Sreenatha G. Anavatti, Tapabrata Ray

Abstract:

The dynamics of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are highly nonlinear and time varying and the hydrodynamic coefficients of vehicles are difficult to estimate accurately because of the variations of these coefficients with different navigation conditions and external disturbances. This study presents the on-line system identification of AUV dynamics to obtain the coupled nonlinear dynamic model of AUV as a black box. This black box has an input-output relationship based upon on-line adaptive fuzzy model and adaptive neural fuzzy network (ANFN) model techniques to overcome the uncertain external disturbance and the difficulties of modelling the hydrodynamic forces of the AUVs instead of using the mathematical model with hydrodynamic parameters estimation. The models- parameters are adapted according to the back propagation algorithm based upon the error between the identified model and the actual output of the plant. The proposed ANFN model adopts a functional link neural network (FLNN) as the consequent part of the fuzzy rules. Thus, the consequent part of the ANFN model is a nonlinear combination of input variables. Fuzzy control system is applied to guide and control the AUV using both adaptive models and mathematical model. Simulation results show the superiority of the proposed adaptive neural fuzzy network (ANFN) model in tracking of the behavior of the AUV accurately even in the presence of noise and disturbance.

Keywords: AUV, AUV dynamic model, fuzzy control, fuzzy modelling, adaptive fuzzy control, back propagation, system identification, neural fuzzy model, FLNN.

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11164 Nonlinear Adaptive PID Control for a Semi-Batch Reactor Based On an RBF Network

Authors: Magdi M. Nabi, Ding-Li Yu

Abstract:

Control of a semi-batch polymerization reactor using an adaptive radial basis function (RBF) neural network method is investigated in this paper. A neural network inverse model is used to estimate the valve position of the reactor; this method can identify the controlled system with the RBF neural network identifier. The weights of the adaptive PID controller are timely adjusted based on the identification of the plant and self-learning capability of RBFNN. A PID controller is used in the feedback control to regulate the actual temperature by compensating the neural network inverse model output. Simulation results show that the proposed control has strong adaptability, robustness and satisfactory control performance and the nonlinear system is achieved.

Keywords: Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor, RBF neural networks, feed-forward and feedback control.

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11163 Application of Model Free Adaptive Control in Main Steam Temperature System of Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khaing Yadana Swe, Lillie Dewan

Abstract:

At present, the cascade PID control is widely used to control the superheating temperature (main steam temperature). As Main Steam Temperature has the characteristics of large inertia, large time-delay and time varying, etc., conventional PID control strategy cannot achieve good control performance. In order to overcome the bad performance and deficiencies of main steam temperature control system, Model Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) - P cascade control system is proposed in this paper. By substituting MFAC in PID of the main control loop of the main steam temperature control, it can overcome time delays, non-linearity, disturbance and time variation.

Keywords: Model free Adaptive Control, Cascade Control, Adaptive Control, PID.

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11162 UML Model for Double-Loop Control Self-Adaptive Braking System

Authors: Heung Sun Yoon, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an activity diagram model for double-loop control self-adaptive braking system. Since activity diagram helps to improve visibility of self-adaption. We can easily find where improvement is needed on double-loop control. Double-loop control is adopted since the design conditions and actual conditions can be different. The system is reconfigured in runtime by using double-loop control. We simulated to verify and validate our model by using MATLAB. We compared single-loop control model with double-loop control model. Simulation results show that double-loop control provides more consistent brake power control than single-loop control.

Keywords: Activity diagram, automotive, braking system, double-loop, Self-adaptive, UML, vehicle.

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11161 A Variable Structure MRAC for a Class of MIMO Systems

Authors: Ardeshir Karami Mohammadi

Abstract:

A Variable Structure Model Reference Adaptive Controller using state variables is proposed for a class of multi input-multi output systems. Adaptation law is of variable structure type and switching functions is designed based on stability requirements. Global exponential stability is proved based on Lyapunov criterion. Transient behavior is analyzed using sliding mode control and shows perfect model following at a finite time.

Keywords: Adaptive control, Model reference, Variablestructure, MIMO system.

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11160 Adaptive Nonlinear Backstepping Control

Authors: Sun Lim, Bong-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive nonlinear position controller with velocity constraint, capable of combining the input-output linearization technique and Lyapunov stability theory. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptation law of the proposed controller is derived along with the verification of the overall system-s stability. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller is robust and it can ensure transient stability of BLDCM, under the occurrence of a large sudden fault.

Keywords: BLDC Motor Control, Backstepping Control, Adaptive nonlinear control

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11159 Robust Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller Design for Flight Control Systems

Authors: Y. J. Huang, T. C. Kuo, B. W. Hong, B. C. Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust proportionalderivative (PD) based cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) for vertical take-off and landing flight control systems. Successful on-line training and recalling process of CMAC accompanying the PD controller is developed. The advantage of the proposed method is mainly the robust tracking performance against aerodynamic parametric variation and external wind gust. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated through the application of a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft control system.

Keywords: vertical takeoff and landing, cerebellar modelarticulation controller, proportional-derivative control.

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11158 The Optimized Cascade PI Controllers of the Generator Control Unit in the Aircraft Power System

Authors: W. Chayinthu, K-N. Areerak, K-L. Areerak, A. Srikaew

Abstract:

This paper presents the optimal controller design of the generator control unit in the aircraft power system. The adaptive tabu search technique is applied to tune the controller parameters until the best terminal output voltage of generator is achieved. The output response from the system with the controllers designed by the proposed technique is compared with those from the conventional method. The transient simulations using the commercial software package show that the controllers designed from the adaptive tabu search algorithm can provide the better output performance compared with the result from the classical method. The proposed design technique is very flexible and useful for electrical aircraft engineers.

Keywords: Cascade PI controllers, DQ method, Adaptive tabusearch, Generator control unit, Aircraft power system, Modeling, Simulation, Artificial Intelligence.

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11157 Design of Adaptive Controller Based On Lyapunov Stability for a CSTR

Authors: S. Anbu, N. Jaya

Abstract:

Nonlinearity is the inherent characteristics of all the industrial processes. The Classical control approach used for a generation often fails to show better results particularly for non-linear systems and in the systems, whose parameters changes over a period of time for a variety of reasons. Alternatively, adaptive control strategies provide very good performance. The Model Reference Adaptive Control based on Lyapunov stability analysis and classical PI control strategies are designed and evaluated for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which shows appreciable dynamic nonlinear characteristics.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, CSTR, Lyapunov stability, MRAS, PID.

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11156 Adaptive Functional Projective Lag Synchronization of Lorenz System

Authors: Tae H. Lee, J.H. Park, S.M. Lee, H.Y. Jung

Abstract:

This paper addresses functional projective lag synchronization of Lorenz system with four unknown parameters, where the output of the master system lags behind the output of the slave system proportionally. For this purpose, an adaptive control law is proposed to make the states of two identical Lorenz systems asymptotically synchronize up. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a novel criterion is given for asymptotical stability of the null solution of an error dynamics. Finally, some numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of our results.

Keywords: Adaptive function projective synchronization, Chaotic system, Lag synchronization, Lyapunov method

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11155 Model Reference Adaptive Approach for Power System Stabilizer for Damping of Power Oscillations

Authors: Jožef Ritonja, Bojan Grčar, Boštjan Polajžer

Abstract:

In recent years, electricity trade between neighboring countries has become increasingly intense. Increasing power transmission over long distances has resulted in an increase in the oscillations of the transmitted power. The damping of the oscillations can be carried out with the reconfiguration of the network or the replacement of generators, but such solution is not economically reasonable. The only cost-effective solution to improve the damping of power oscillations is to use power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizer represents a part of synchronous generator control system. It utilizes semiconductor’s excitation system connected to the rotor field excitation winding to increase the damping of the power system. The majority of the synchronous generators are equipped with the conventional power system stabilizers with fixed parameters. The control structure of the conventional power system stabilizers and the tuning procedure are based on the linear control theory. Conventional power system stabilizers are simple to realize, but they show non-sufficient damping improvement in the entire operating conditions. This is the reason that advanced control theories are used for development of better power system stabilizers. In this paper, the adaptive control theory for power system stabilizers design and synthesis is studied. The presented work is focused on the use of model reference adaptive control approach. Control signal, which assures that the controlled plant output will follow the reference model output, is generated by the adaptive algorithm. Adaptive gains are obtained as a combination of the "proportional" term and with the σ-term extended "integral" term. The σ-term is introduced to avoid divergence of the integral gains. The necessary condition for asymptotic tracking is derived by means of hyperstability theory. The benefits of the proposed model reference adaptive power system stabilizer were evaluated as objectively as possible by means of a theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and laboratory realizations. Damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range was investigated. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating area and the increase of the power system stability. The results of the presented work will help by the development of the model reference power system stabilizer which should be able to replace the conventional stabilizers in power systems.

Keywords: Power system, stability, oscillations, power system stabilizer, model reference adaptive control.

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11154 Conditions for Model Matching of Switched Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Output Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

Solvability of the model matching problem for input/output switched asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. The control objective is to determine the existence condition and design algorithm for a corrective controller that can match the stable-state behavior of the closed-loop system to that of a reference model. Switching operations and correction procedures are incorporated using output feedback so that the controlled switched machine can show the desired input/output behavior. A matrix expression is presented to address reachability of switched asynchronous sequential machines with output equivalence with respect to a model. The presented reachability condition for the controller design is validated in a simple example.

Keywords: Asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, model matching, input/output control.

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11153 Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Nonlinear Tank Process

Authors: A. R. Tavakolpour-Saleh, H. Jokar

Abstract:

Liquid level control of conical tank system is known to be a great challenge in many industries such as food processing, hydrometallurgical industries and wastewater treatment plant due to its highly nonlinear characteristics. In this research, an adaptive fuzzy PID control scheme is applied to the problem of liquid level control in a nonlinear tank process. A conical tank process is first modeled and primarily simulated. A PID controller is then applied to the plant model as a suitable benchmark for comparison and the dynamic responses of the control system to different step inputs were investigated. It is found that the conventional PID controller is not able to fulfill the controller design criteria such as desired time constant due to highly nonlinear characteristics of the plant model. Consequently, a nonlinear control strategy based on gain-scheduling adaptive control incorporating a fuzzy logic observer is proposed to accurately control the nonlinear tank system. The simulation results clearly demonstrated the superiority of the proposed adaptive fuzzy control method over the conventional PID controller.

Keywords: Adaptive control, fuzzy logic, conical tank, PID controller.

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11152 Using Adaptive Pole Placement Control Strategy for Active Steering Safety System

Authors: Hadi Adibi-Asl, Alireza Doosthosseini, Amir Taghavipour

Abstract:

This paper studies the design of an adaptive control strategy to tune an active steering system for better drivability and maneuverability. In the first step, adaptive control strategy is applied to estimate the uncertain parameters on-line (e.g. cornering stiffness), then the estimated parameters are fed into the pole placement controller to generate corrective feedback gain to improve the steering system dynamic’s characteristics. The simulations are evaluated for three types of road conditions (dry, wet, and icy), and the performance of the adaptive pole placement control (APPC) are compared with pole placement control (PPC) and a passive system. The results show that the APPC strategy significantly improves the yaw rate and side slip angle of a bicycle plant model.

Keywords: Adaptive control, active steering, pole placement, vehicle dynamics.

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11151 Design of Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller for Robotic Manipulators Tracking Control

Authors: T. C. Kuo, Y. J. Huang, B. W. Hong

Abstract:

This paper proposes an adaptive sliding mode controller which combines adaptive control and sliding mode control to control a nonlinear robotic manipulator with uncertain parameters. We use an adaptive algorithm based on the concept of sliding mode control to alleviate the chattering phenomenon of control input. Adaptive laws are developed to obtain the gain of switching input and the boundary layer parameters. The stability and convergence of the robotic manipulator control system are guaranteed by applying the Lyapunov theorem. Simulation results demonstrate that the chattering of control input can be alleviated effectively. The proposed controller scheme can assure robustness against a large class of uncertainties and achieve good trajectory tracking performance.

Keywords: Robotic manipulators, sliding mode control, adaptive law, Lyapunov theorem, robustness.

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11150 Variable Structure Model Reference Adaptive Control for Vehicle Steering System

Authors: Ardeshir Karami Mohammadi, Mohammadreza Saee

Abstract:

A variable structure model reference adaptive control (VS-MRAC) strategy for active steering assistance of a two wheel steering car is proposed. An ideal steering system with fixed properties and moving on an ideal road is used as the reference model, and the active steering assistance system is forced to attain the same behavior as the reference model. The proposed system can treat the nonlinear relationships between the side slip angles and lateral forces on tire, and the uncertainties on friction of the road surface, whose compensation are very important under critical situations. Simulation results show improvements on yaw rate and side slip.

Keywords: Variable Structure, Adaptive Control, Model reference, Active steering assistance.

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11149 Evolved Bat Algorithm Based Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control with LMI Criterion

Authors: P.-W. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, the stability analysis of a GA-Based adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller for a nonlinear system is discussed. First, a nonlinear plant is well-approximated and described with a reference model and a fuzzy model, both involving FLC rules. Then, FLC rules and the consequent parameter are decided on via an Evolved Bat Algorithm (EBA). After this, we guarantee a new tracking performance inequality for the control system. The tracking problem is characterized to solve an eigenvalue problem (EVP). Next, an adaptive fuzzy sliding model controller (AFSMC) is proposed to stabilize the system so as to achieve good control performance. Lyapunov’s direct method can be used to ensure the stability of the nonlinear system. It is shown that the stability analysis can reduce nonlinear systems into a linear matrix inequality (LMI) problem. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the control methodology.

Keywords: Adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control, Lyapunov direct method, swarm intelligence, evolved bat algorithm.

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