Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31103
Effect of Nano-Silver on Growth of Saffron in Flooding Stress

Authors: N. Rezvani, A. Sorooshzadeh, N. Farhadi


Saffron (Crocus sativus) is cultivated as spices, medicinal and aromatic plant species. At autumn season, heavy rainfall can cause flooding stress and inhibits growth of saffron. Thus this research was conducted to study the effect of silver ion (as an ethylene inhibitor) on growth of saffron under flooding conditions. The corms of saffron were soaked with one concentration of nano silver (0, 40, 80 or 120 ppm) and then planting under flooding stress or non flooding stress conditions. Results showed that number of roots, root length, root fresh and dry weight, leaves fresh and dry weight were reduced by 10 day flooding stress. Soaking saffron corms with 40 or 80 ppm concentration of nano silver rewarded the effect of flooding stress on the root number, by increasing it. Furthermore, 40 ppm of nano silver increased root length in stress. Nano silver 80 ppm in flooding stress, increased leaves dry weight.

Keywords: nano-silver, saffron, Flooding stress

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2528


[1] D. J. Mabberley, The Plant Book. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants, 2nded, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 154.
[2] M. K. Rangahau, Growing Saffron - The worlds most expensive spice, Crop and Food Research, 2003, vol.20, pp. 1-4.
[3] R. V. Molina, M. Valero and Y. Navarro, Temperature effects on flower formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.), Scientia Horticulturae, 2005, vol.103, pp. 361-379.
[4] E. keyhani and J. keyhani, Hypoxiya/anoxia as signaling for increased alcohol dehydrohenase activity in saffron corm, New York academy of science, Doi: 10.1196/annals.1329.056, 2004.
[5] B. F. Mathew, ÔÇÿCrocus L.- in Tutin T G, Heywood V H, Burges N A, Moore D M, Valentine D H, Walters S M and Webb D A (Eds), Flora Europaea, 2001, Vol. 5, pp. 92-9.
[6] P. Perata and A. Alpi, Plant responses to anaerobiosis, 1993, Plant Sci. Vol. 93, pp. 1-17.
[7] R. M. M. Crawford, and R. B. Andle, Oxygen deprivation stress in a changing environment, J. 1996, Exp. Bot. 47, pp. 145-159.
[8] S. Biemelt, M. R. Hajirezai, M. Melzer, Sucrose synthase activity does not restrict glycolysis in roots of transgenic potato plants under hypoxic conditions, 1999, Planta, Vol. 210, pp. 41-49.
[9] E. J. W. Visser, R. H. M. Nabben, C. W. P. M. Blom, and L. A. C. J. Voesenek, Elongation by primary lateral roots and adventitious roots during conditions of hypoxia and high ethylene concentrations, Plant Cell Environ, 1997, Vol. 20, pp. 647-653.
[10] E. J. W. Visser, R. Pierik, Inhibition of root elongation by ethylene in wetland and non-wetland plant species and the impact of longitudinal ventilation, Plant Cell Environ, 2007, Vol. 30 (1): pp. 31-38.
[11] E. M. Beyer, A potent inhibitor of ethylene action in plants, Plant Physiology, 1976a, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 268-271.
[12] A. E. Chamani, B. A. Khalighi, A. C. Joyce, E. Donald, A. Irving, B. Zamani, B. Mostofi, B. M. Kafi, 2005, Ethylene and anti-ethylene treatment effects on cut ÔÇÿFirst Red- rose, Hortic, Vol. 7(1), pp. 3-7.
[13] N. Gad, M. A. Atta-Aly, Effect of Cobalt on the Formation, Growth and Development of Adventitious Roots in Tomato and Cucumber Cuttings, 2006, Sci. Res, vol. 2(7), pp. 423-429.
[14] R. Reggiani, A role for ethylene in low-oxygen signaling in rice roots, Amino Acids, 2006, Vol. 30, pp. 31-38.
[15] J. An, M. Zhang, S. H. Wang, J. Tang, Physical, chemical and microbiological change in stored green asparagus spears as affected by coating of silver nanoparticle-pvp, LWT., 2008, Vol. 41, pp. 1100-1107.
[16] J. Eo, B. Y. Lee, Effects of ethylene, abscisic acid and auxin on fruit abscission in water dropwort (Oenanthe stolonifera DC.), Scientia Horticulturae, 2009, Vol. 123, pp. 224-227.
[17] M. Sharon, A. Kr. Choudhary, and R. Kumar, Nanotechnology in agricultural diseases and food safety, Journal of Phytology, 2010, Vol. 2(4), pp. 83-92.
[18] M. Seif sahandi, A. Sorooshzadeh, H. Rezazadeh, and H. A. Naghdiabadi, Effect of nano silver and silver nitrate on seed yield of borage. Journal of medicinal plants research, 2011, Vol. 5(2), pp. 171- 175.
[19] K. J. Bradford, Effect of soil flooding on leaf gas exchange of plants, Plant Physiol, 1983, Vol. 73, pp. 475-479.
[20] S. R. Pezeshiki, A. D. DeLaune, H. K. Klude, H. S. Choi, Photosynthesis and growth responses of cattail (Typha domingensis) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) to soil redox conditions, Aquat, Bot, 1996, Vol. 54, pp. 25-35.
[21] D. A. Gravatt, C. J. Kirby, Patterns of photosynthesis and starch allocation in seedlings of four bottomland hardwood tree species subjected to flooding, Tree Physiol, 1998, Vol. 18, pp. 411-417.
[22] J. R. Pallas, S. J. Kays, Inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene a stomatal effect, Plant Physiol, 1982, Vol. 70, pp. 598-601.
[23] R. L. Wample, R. K. Thornton, Differences in the responses of sunflower (Helanthus annuus) subjected to flooding and drought stress, Physiol, Plant, 1984, Vol. 61: pp. 611-616.
[24] R. G. Hongjun Chen, Qualls and R. Robert Blank, Effect of soil flooding on photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning and nutrient uptake in the invasive exotic Lepidium latifolium, Aquatic Botany, 2005, Vol. 82, pp. 250-268.
[25] J. W. Sij, and C. A. Swanson, Effect of petiole anoxia on phloemtransport in squash, Plant Physiol, 1973, Vol. 51: pp. 368-371.
[26] M. A. Topa, J. M. Cheeseman, Carbon and phosphorus partitioning in Pinus serotina seedlings growing under hypoxic and low-phosphorus conditions, Tree Physiol, 1992, Vol. 10, pp. 95-207.
[27] W. T. Jackson, Flooding injury studied by approach graft and split root system techniques, Am. J. Bot, 1956, Vol. 43, pp. 496-502.
[28] Z. C. Tang, T. T. Kozlowski, Some physiological and morphological responses of Quercus macrocarpa seedlings to flooding, Can. J. Res, 1982, Vol. 12, pp. 196-202.
[29] N. S. Turkova, Growth reactions in plants under excessive watering, Dokl. Acad, Nauk, SSSR, 1944, Vol. 42, pp. 87-90.
[30] M. B. Jackson and D. J. Campbell, Ethylene and water logging effects in tomato, Ann, Appl. Biol, 1975, Vol. 81, pp. 102-105.
[31] M. B. Jackson and D. J. Campbell, Waterlogging and petiole epinasty in tomato: The role of ethylene and low oxygen, New Phytol, 1976, Vol. 76, pp. 21-29.
[32] K. J. Bradford and D. R. Dilley, Effects of root anaerobiosis on ethylene production, epinasty and growt
[h of tomato plants, Plant Physiol, 1978, Vol. 61, pp. 506-509.
[33] M. B. Jackson, K. Gales, D. J. Campbell, Effect of waterlogged soil conditions on the production of ethylene and on water relationships in tomato plants, J. Exp. Bot, 1978, Vol. 29, pp. 83-193.
[34] E. Knaap, M. Sauter, R. Wilford and H. Kende, Identification of a gibberellin-induced receptor-like kinase indeepwater rice, Plant Physiol, 1996, Vol. 112, Vol.1397-1401.
[35] M. Banga, G. M., Bogemann C. W. P. M. Blom and L. A. C. J, Voesenek, Flooding resistance of Rumex speciesstrongly depends on their response to ethylene: Rapid shoot elongation or foliar senescence, Physiol Plant, 1997, Vol. 99, pp. 415-422.
[36] P. Grichko Varvara and Glick, R. Bernard, Ethylene and flooding stress in plants, Plant Physiol, Biochem, 2001, Vol. 39, pp. 1−9.
[37] C. Hongjun, G. Q. Robert, C. M. Glenn, Adaptive responses of Lepidium latifolium to soil flooding: biomass allocation, adventitious rooting, aerenchyma formation and ethylene production, Environmental and Experimental Botany, Vol. 48, pp. 119-128.
[38] K. L. C. Wang, L. Hai and J. R. Ecker, "Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling networks", Plant Cell, 2002, S131-S151 Supplement.
[39] F. B. Abeles, Ethylene in plant biology, New York, Academic press, Ant Cell Reports, 1973, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 547-555.
[40] J. P. Roustan, A. Latche and J. Fallot, Control of carrot somatic embryogenesis by AgNO3 an inhibitor of ethylene action effect on arginine decarboxilase activity, Plant Science, 1990, Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 89-95.
[41] N. L. Biddington, The influence of ethylene in plant tissue culture, Plant Growth Regulation, 1992, vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 173-178.
[42] E. C. Pua and G. L. Chi, De novo shoot morphogenesis and plant growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in vitro in relation to ethylene. Physiologia Plantarum, 1993, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 467-474.
[43] H. P. Bais, G. Sudha, B. Suresh and G. A. Ravishankar, AgNO3 influences in vitro root formation in Decalepis hamiltonii Wight, Arn, Current Science, 2000, Vol. 79, pp. 894-898.
[44] H. P. Bais, G. S. Sudha, and G. A. Ravishankar, Influence of putrescine AgNO3 and polyamine inhibitors on the morphogenetic response in untransformed and transformed tissues of Chichorium in tybus and their regenerants, 2001a, pp. 1.
[45] H. P. Bais, G. S. Sudha, and G. A. Ravishankar, Putrescine influences growth and production of coumarins in transformed and untransformed root cultures of witloof chicory (Chichorium intybus L cv Lucknow Local), Acta Physiologia Plantarum, 2001b, Vol. 23, pp. 319-327.
[46] H. P. Bais, R. T. Venkatesh, A. Chandrashekar, and G. A. Ravishankar, Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation of witl of chiocory in vitro shoot regeneration and induction of flowering, Current Science, 2001c, Vol. 80, pp. 83-87.
[47] P. Giridhar, E. P. Indu, D. Vijaya ramu, and G. A. Ravishankar, Effect of silver nitrate on in vitro shoot growth of Coffee, Tropical Science, 2003, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 144-146.
[48] E. M. Beyer, Silver ion: a potent anti-ethylene agent in cucumber and tomato. HortScience, 1976b, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 175-196.
[49] H. Turhan, The effect of silver nitrate (Ethylene inhibitor) on in vitro shoot development in potato (solanum tuberosum L.), Biotechnology, 2004, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 72-74.
[50] C. Sunandakumari, K. P. Martin, M. Chithra, and P. V. Madhusoodanan, Silver nitrate induced rooting and flowering in vitro on rare rhoeophytic woody medicinal plant, Rotula aquatica Lour, Indian Journal of Biotechnology, July 2004, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 418-421.
[51] B. K. M. Chraibi, A. latche, J. P. raustan, and J. Fallot, Stimulation of shoot regeneration from cotyledons of Helianthus annuus by ethylene inhibitors silver and cobalt, Plant Cell Reports. 1991, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 204-207.
[52] J. P. Ouma, M. M. Young, N. A. Reichert, Optimization of in vitro regeneration of multiple shoots from hypocotyl sections of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2004, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 169-173.
[53] S. D. Ganesh, and H. L. Sreenath, Silver nitrate enhanced shoot development in cultured apical shoot buds of Coffea arabica Cv Cauvery, Journal of Plantation Crops, 1996, Vol. 24, pp. 577-580.
[54] M. M. Kushad, B. W. Poovaiah, Deferal of senescence and abscission by chemical inhibition of ehtylene synthesis and action in bean explants, Plant Physiol, 1984, Vol. 76, pp. 293-296.
[55] J. Taylor, C. Whitelaw, Singal in abscission, Tencley review, 2001, No. 127. USA.
[56] A. Mishra, S. Khare, P. K. Trivedi, P. Nath, Effect of ethylene, 1- MCP, ABA and IAA on break strength, cellulose and polygalacturonase activities during cotton leaf abscission, S. Afr. J. Bot, 2008, Vol. 282, pp. 6-12.