Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 510

Search results for: Switching frequency

450 Rapid Frequency Response Measurement of Power Conversion Products with Coherence-Based Confidence Analysis

Authors: Tomi Roinila, Aki Taskinen, Matti Vilkko

Abstract:

Switched-mode converters play now a significant role in modern society. Their operation are often crucial in various electrical applications affecting the every day life. Therefore, the quality of the converters needs to be reliably verified. Recent studies have shown that the converters can be fully characterized by a set of frequency responses which can be efficiently used to validate the proper operation of the converters. Consequently, several methods have been proposed to measure the frequency responses fast and accurately. Most often correlation-based techniques have been applied. The presented measurement methods are highly sensitive to external errors and system nonlinearities. This fact has been often forgotten and the necessary uncertainty analysis of the measured responses has been neglected. This paper presents a simple approach to analyze the noise and nonlinearities in the frequency-response measurements of switched-mode converters. Coherence analysis is applied to form a confidence interval characterizing the noise and nonlinearities involved in the measurements. The presented method is verified by practical measurements from a high-frequency switchedmode converter.

Keywords: Switched-mode converters, Frequency analysis, CoherenceAnalysis.

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449 Application of Wavelet Neural Networks in Optimization of Skeletal Buildings under Frequency Constraints

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Amin Ghorbani

Abstract:

The main goal of the present work is to decrease the computational burden for optimum design of steel frames with frequency constraints using a new type of neural networks called Wavelet Neural Network. It is contested to train a suitable neural network for frequency approximation work as the analysis program. The combination of wavelet theory and Neural Networks (NN) has lead to the development of wavelet neural networks. Wavelet neural networks are feed-forward networks using wavelet as activation function. Wavelets are mathematical functions within suitable inner parameters, which help them to approximate arbitrary functions. WNN was used to predict the frequency of the structures. In WNN a RAtional function with Second order Poles (RASP) wavelet was used as a transfer function. It is shown that the convergence speed was faster than other neural networks. Also comparisons of WNN with the embedded Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and with approximate techniques and also with analytical solutions are available in the literature.

Keywords: Weight Minimization, Frequency Constraints, Steel Frames, ANN, WNN, RASP Function.

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448 Blind Low Frequency Watermarking Method

Authors: Dimitar Taskovski, Sofija Bogdanova, Momcilo Bogdanov

Abstract:

We present a low frequency watermarking method adaptive to image content. The image content is analyzed and properties of HVS are exploited to generate a visual mask of the same size as the approximation image. Using this mask we embed the watermark in the approximation image without degrading the image quality. Watermark detection is performed without using the original image. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking method is robust against most common image processing operations, which can be easily implemented and usually do not degrade the image quality.

Keywords: Blind, digital watermarking, low frequency, visualmask.

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447 Incremental Algorithm to Cluster the Categorical Data with Frequency Based Similarity Measure

Authors: S.Aranganayagi, K.Thangavel

Abstract:

Clustering categorical data is more complicated than the numerical clustering because of its special properties. Scalability and memory constraint is the challenging problem in clustering large data set. This paper presents an incremental algorithm to cluster the categorical data. Frequencies of attribute values contribute much in clustering similar categorical objects. In this paper we propose new similarity measures based on the frequencies of attribute values and its cardinalities. The proposed measures and the algorithm are experimented with the data sets from UCI data repository. Results prove that the proposed method generates better clusters than the existing one.

Keywords: Clustering, Categorical, Incremental, Frequency, Domain

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446 Slugging Frequency Correlation for Inclined Gas-liquid Flow

Authors: V. Hernandez-Perez, M. Abdulkadir, B. J. Azzopardi

Abstract:

In this work, new experimental data for slugging frequency in inclined gas-liquid flow are reported, and a new correlation is proposed. Scale experiments were carried out using a mixture of air and water in a 6 m long pipe. Two different pipe diameters were used, namely, 38 and 67 mm. The data were taken with capacitance type sensors at a data acquisition frequency of 200 Hz over an interval of 60 seconds. For the range of flow conditions studied, the liquid superficial velocity is observed to influence the frequency strongly. A comparison of the present data with correlations available in the literature reveals a lack of agreement. A new correlation for slug frequency has been proposed for the inclined flow, which represents the main contribution of this work.

Keywords: slug frequency, inclined flow

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445 A Low Power High Frequency CMOS RF Four Quadrant Analog Mixer

Authors: M. Aleshams, A. Shahsavandi

Abstract:

This paper describes a CMOS four-quadrant multiplier intended for use in the front-end receiver by utilizing the square-law characteristic of the MOS transistor in the saturation region. The circuit is based on 0.35 um CMOS technology simulated using HSPICE software. The mixer has a third-order inter the power consumption is 271uW from a single 1.2V power supply. One of the features of the proposed design is using two MOS transistors limitation to reduce the supply voltage, which leads to reduce the power consumption. This technique provides a GHz bandwidth response and low power consumption.

Keywords: RF-Mixer, Multiplier, cut-off frequency, power consumption

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444 High-Frequency Spectrum Analysis of VFTO Generated inside Gas Insulated Substations

Authors: M. A. Abd-Allah, A. Said, Ebrahim A. Badran

Abstract:

Worldwide many electrical equipment insulation failures have been reported caused by switching operations, while those equipments had previously passed all the standard tests and complied with all quality requirements. The problem is mostly associated with high-frequency overvoltages generated during opening or closing of a switching device. The transients generated during switching operations in a Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) are associated with high frequency components in the order of few tens of MHz. The frequency spectrum of the VFTO generated in the 220/66 kV Wadi-Hoff GIS is analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform technique. The main frequency with high voltage amplitude due to the operation of disconnector (DS5) is 5 to 10 MHz, with the highest amplitude at 9 MHz. The main frequency with high voltage amplitude due to the operation of circuit breaker (CB5) is 1 to 25 MHz, with the highest amplitude at 2 MHz. Mitigating techniques damped the oscillating frequencies effectively. The using of cable terminal reduced the frequency oscillation effectively than that of OHTL terminal. The using of a shunt capacitance results in vanishing the high frequency components. Ferrite rings reduces the high frequency components effectively especially in the range 2 to 7 MHz. The using of RC and RL filters results in vanishing the high frequency components.

Keywords: GIS, VFTO, Mitigation Techniques, Frequency spectrum, FFT, EMTP/ATP.

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443 A New IFO Estimation Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.

Keywords: Estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset.

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442 Specific Frequency of Globular Clusters in Different Galaxy Types

Authors: Ahmed H. Abdullah, Pavel Kroupa

Abstract:

Globular clusters (GC) are important objects for tracing the early evolution of a galaxy. We study the correlation between the cluster population and the global properties of the host galaxy. We found that the correlation between cluster population (NGC) and the baryonic mass (Mb) of the host galaxy are best described as 10 −5.6038Mb. In order to understand the origin of the U -shape relation between the GC specific frequency (SN) and Mb (caused by the high value of SN for dwarfs galaxies and giant ellipticals and a minimum SN for intermediate mass galaxies≈ 1010M), we derive a theoretical model for the specific frequency (SNth). The theoretical model for SNth is based on the slope of the power-law embedded cluster mass function (β) and different time scale (Δt) of the forming galaxy. Our results show a good agreement between the observation and the model at a certain β and Δt. The model seems able to reproduce higher value of SNth of β = 1.5 at the midst formation time scale.

Keywords: Galaxies, dwarf, globular cluster, specific frequency, formation time scale.

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441 Kuehne + Nagel's PharmaChain: IoT-Enabled Product Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Identification

Authors: Rebecca Angeles

Abstract:

This case study features the Kuehne + Nagel PharmaChain solution for ‘cold chain’ pharmaceutical and biologic product shipments with IOT-enabled features for shipment temperature and location tracking. Using the case study method and content analysis, this research project investigates the application of the structurational model of technology theory introduced by Orlikowski in order to interpret the firm’s entry and participation in the IOT-impelled marketplace.

Keywords: Internet of things, IoT, radio frequency identification, supply chain management, business intelligence.

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440 Static and Dynamic Characteristics of an Appropriated and Recessed n-GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT

Authors: A. Hamdoune, M. Abdelmoumene, A. Hamroun

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to simulate static I-V and dynamic characteristics of an appropriated and recessed n-GaN/AlxGa1-xN/GaN high electron mobility (HEMT). Using SILVACO TCAD device simulation, and optimized technological parameters; we calculate the drain-source current (lDS) as a function of the drain-source voltage (VDS) for different values ​​of the gate-source voltage (VGS), and the drain-source current (lDS) depending on the gate-source voltage (VGS) for a drain-source voltage (VDS) of 20 V, for various temperatures. Then, we calculate the cut-off frequency and the maximum oscillation frequency for different temperatures.

We obtain a high drain-current equal to 60 mA, a low knee voltage (Vknee) of 2 V, a high pinch-off voltage (VGS0) of 53.5 V, a transconductance greater than 600 mS/mm, a cut-off frequency (fT) of about 330 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) of about 1 THz.

Keywords: n-GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT, drain-source current (IDS), transconductance (gm), cut-off frequency (fT), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax).

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439 Comparison of Frequency Converter Outages: A Case Study on the Swedish TPS System

Authors: Y. A. Mahmood, A. Ahmadi, R. Karim, U. Kumar, A.K. Verma, N. Fransson

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper isunavailability of the two main types of conveSwedish traction power supply (TPS) system, i.e.static converter. The number of outages and the ouused to analyze and compare the unavailability oconverters. The mean cumulative function (MCF)analyze the number of outages and the unavailabthe forced outage rate (FOR) concept has been uoutage rates. The study shows that the outagesfailure occur at a constant rate by calendar timconverter stations, while very few stations havedecreasing rate. It has also been found that the stata higher number of outages and a higher outage ratcompared to the rotary converter types. The resultsthat combining the number of outages and the fgives a better view of the converters performasupport for the maintenance decision. In fact, usingdoes not reflect reality. Comparing these two indein identifying the areas where extra resources are maintenance planning and where improvementsoutage in the TPS system.KeywordsFrequency Converter, Forced OuCumulative Function, Traction Power Supply, ESystems.

Keywords: Frequency Converter, Forced Outage Rate, Mean Cumulative Function, Traction Power Supply, Electrified Railway Systems.

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438 Exact Evaluation Method for Error Performance Analysis of Arbitrary 2-D Modulation OFDM Systems with CFO

Authors: Jaeyoon Lee, Dongweon Yoon, Hoon Yoo, Sanggoo Kim

Abstract:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communications used in consumer applications such as digital broadcasting, wireless networking and broadband internet access. In the OFDM system, carrier frequency offset (CFO) causes intercarrier interference (ICI) which significantly degrades the system error performance. In this paper we provide an exact evaluation method for error performance analysis of arbitrary 2-D modulation OFDM systems with CFO, and analyze the effect of CFO on error performance.

Keywords: Carrier frequency offset, Probability of error, Inter-channel interference, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

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437 Identification of Outliers in Flood Frequency Analysis: Comparison of Original and Multiple Grubbs-Beck Test

Authors: Ayesha S. Rahman, Khaled Haddad, Ataur Rahman

Abstract:

At-site flood frequency analysis is used to estimate flood quantiles when at-site record length is reasonably long. In Australia, FLIKE software has been introduced for at-site flood frequency analysis. The advantage of FLIKE is that, for a given application, the user can compare a number of most commonly adopted probability distributions and parameter estimation methods relatively quickly using a windows interface. The new version of FLIKE has been incorporated with the multiple Grubbs and Beck test which can identify multiple numbers of potentially influential low flows. This paper presents a case study considering six catchments in eastern Australia which compares two outlier identification tests (original Grubbs and Beck test and multiple Grubbs and Beck test) and two commonly applied probability distributions (Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) and Log Pearson type 3 (LP3)) using FLIKE software. It has been found that the multiple Grubbs and Beck test when used with LP3 distribution provides more accurate flood quantile estimates than when LP3 distribution is used with the original Grubbs and Beck test. Between these two methods, the differences in flood quantile estimates have been found to be up to 61% for the six study catchments. It has also been found that GEV distribution (with L moments) and LP3 distribution with the multiple Grubbs and Beck test provide quite similar results in most of the cases; however, a difference up to 38% has been noted for flood quantiles for annual exceedance probability (AEP) of 1 in 100 for one catchment. This finding needs to be confirmed with a greater number of stations across other Australian states.

Keywords: Floods, FLIKE, probability distributions, flood frequency, outlier.

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436 Study on Performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Linear FM and Transient Signal Analysis

Authors: Azeemsha Thacham Poyil, Nasimudeen KM

Abstract:

This research paper presents some methods to assess the performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Time-Frequency representation of non-stationary signals, in comparison with the other representations like STFT, Spectrogram etc. The simultaneous timefrequency resolution of WVD is one of the important properties which makes it preferable for analysis and detection of linear FM and transient signals. There are two algorithms proposed here to assess the resolution and to compare the performance of signal detection. First method is based on the measurement of area under timefrequency plot; in case of a linear FM signal analysis. A second method is based on the instantaneous power calculation and is used in case of transient, non-stationary signals. The implementation is explained briefly for both methods with suitable diagrams. The accuracy of the measurements is validated to show the better performance of WVD representation in comparison with STFT and Spectrograms.

Keywords: WVD: Wigner Ville Distribution, STFT: Short Time Fourier Transform, FT: Fourier Transform, TFR: Time-Frequency Representation, FM: Frequency Modulation, LFM Signal: Linear FM Signal, JTFA: Joint time frequency analysis.

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435 An Adaptive Setting of Frequency Relay with Consideration on Load and Power System Dynamics

Authors: J. Mirzaei, H. Kazemi Kargar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for setting frequency relays based on the dynamic of power system. A simplified model of the power system based on the load-frequency control loop will be developed to be used instead of the complete model of the power system. The effects of the equipments and their responses on the frequency variations of the power plant will be investigated and then a method for adaptive settings of frequency relays will be explained. The proposed method will be investigated by analyzing a simplified model of a power plant by MATLAB software.

Keywords: Adaptive Settings, Frequency Relay (FR), PowerSystem Dynamics, SFR model.

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434 Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles

Authors: Jing-Gang Xie

Abstract:

The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.

Keywords: General relativity theory, particles, photons, quantum gravity model, gravitational frequency shift.

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433 A New Load Frequency Controller based on Parallel Fuzzy PI with Conventional PD (FPI-PD)

Authors: Aqeel S. Jaber, Abu Zaharin Ahmad, Ahmed N. Abdalla

Abstract:

The artificial intelligent controller in power system plays as most important rule for many applications such as system operation and its control specially Load Frequency Controller (LFC). The main objective of LFC is to keep the frequency and tie-line power close to their decidable bounds in case of disturbance. In this paper, parallel fuzzy PI adaptive with conventional PD technique for Load Frequency Control system was proposed. PSO optimization method used to optimize both of scale fuzzy PI and tuning of PD. Two equal interconnected power system areas were used as a test system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller compared with different PID and classical fuzzy PI controllers in terms of speed response and damping frequency.

Keywords: Load frequency control, PSO, fuzzy control.

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432 A Novel FFT-Based Frequency Offset Estimator for OFDM Systems

Authors: Mahdi Masoumi, Mehrdad Ardebilipoor, Seyed Aidin Bassam

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel frequency offset (FO) estimator for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Simplicity is most significant feature of this algorithm and can be repeated to achieve acceptable accuracy. Also fractional and integer part of FO is estimated jointly with use of the same algorithm. To do so, instead of using conventional algorithms that usually use correlation function, we use DFT of received signal. Therefore, complexity will be reduced and we can do synchronization procedure by the same hardware that is used to demodulate OFDM symbol. Finally, computer simulation shows that the accuracy of this method is better than other conventional methods.

Keywords: DFT, Estimator, Frequency Offset, IEEE802.11a, OFDM.

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431 A Low Complexity Frequency Offset Estimation for MB-OFDM based UWB Systems

Authors: Wang Xue, Liu Dan, Liu Ying, Wang Molin, Qian Zhihong

Abstract:

A low-complexity, high-accurate frequency offset estimation for multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) based ultra-wide band systems is presented regarding different carrier frequency offsets, different channel frequency responses, different preamble patterns in different bands. Utilizing a half-cycle Constant Amplitude Zero Auto Correlation (CAZAC) sequence as the preamble sequence, the estimator with a semi-cross contrast scheme between two successive OFDM symbols is proposed. The CRLB and complexity of the proposed algorithm are derived. Compared to the reference estimators, the proposed method achieves significantly less complexity (about 50%) for all preamble patterns of the MB-OFDM systems. The CRLBs turn out to be of well performance.

Keywords: CAZAC, Frequency Offset, Semi-cross Contrast, MB-OFDM, UWB

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430 Multiple Crack Identification Using Frequency Measurement

Authors: J.W. Xiang, M. Liang

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to detect multiple cracks based on frequency information. When a structure is subjected to dynamic or static loads, cracks may develop and the modal frequencies of the cracked structure may change. To detect cracks in a structure, we construct a high precision wavelet finite element (EF) model of a certain structure using the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI). Cracks can be modeled by rotational springs and added to the FE model. The crack detection database will be obtained by solving that model. Then the crack locations and depths can be determined based on the frequency information from the database. The performance of the proposed method has been numerically verified by a rotor example.

Keywords: Rotor, frequency measurement, multiple cracks, wavelet finite element method, identification.

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429 Frequency-Energy Characteristics of Local Earthquakes using Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT)

Authors: O. H. Colak, T. C. Destici, S. Ozen, H. Arman, O. Cerezci

Abstract:

The wavelet transform is one of the most important method used in signal processing. In this study, we have introduced frequency-energy characteristics of local earthquakes using discrete wavelet transform. Frequency-energy characteristic was analyzed depend on difference between P and S wave arrival time and noise within records. We have found that local earthquakes have similar characteristics. If frequency-energy characteristics can be found accurately, this gives us a hint to calculate P and S wave arrival time. It can be seen that wavelet transform provides successful approximation for this. In this study, 100 earthquakes with 500 records were analyzed approximately.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform, Frequency-EnergyCharacteristics, P and S waves arrival time.

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428 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: Frequency deviation, OCT & SCT, SFRA, Transformer winding.

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427 Blind Channel Estimation for Frequency Hopping System Using Subspace Based Method

Authors: M. M. Qasaymeh, M. A. Khodeir

Abstract:

Subspace channel estimation methods have been studied widely, where the subspace of the covariance matrix is decomposed to separate the signal subspace from noise subspace. The decomposition is normally done by using either the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the auto-correlation matrix (ACM). However, the subspace decomposition process is computationally expensive. This paper considers the estimation of the multipath slow frequency hopping (FH) channel using noise space based method. In particular, an efficient method is proposed to estimate the multipath time delays by applying multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm which is based on the null space extracted by the rank revealing LU (RRLU) factorization. As a result, precise information is provided by the RRLU about the numerical null space and the rank, (i.e., important tool in linear algebra). The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed novel method by approximately decreasing the computational complexity to the half as compared with RRQR methods keeping the same performance.

Keywords: Time Delay Estimation, RRLU, RRQR, MUSIC, LS-ESPRIT, LS-ESPRIT, Frequency Hopping.

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426 Texture Based Weed Detection Using Multi Resolution Combined Statistical and Spatial Frequency (MRCSF)

Authors: R.S.Sabeenian, V.Palanisamy

Abstract:

Texture classification is a trendy and a catchy technology in the field of texture analysis. Textures, the repeated patterns, have different frequency components along different orientations. Our work is based on Texture Classification and its applications. It finds its applications in various fields like Medical Image Classification, Computer Vision, Remote Sensing, Agricultural Field, and Textile Industry. Weed control has a major effect on agriculture. A large amount of herbicide has been used for controlling weeds in agriculture fields, lawns, golf courses, sport fields, etc. Random spraying of herbicides does not meet the exact requirement of the field. Certain areas in field have more weed patches than estimated. So, we need a visual system that can discriminate weeds from the field image which will reduce or even eliminate the amount of herbicide used. This would allow farmers to not use any herbicides or only apply them where they are needed. A machine vision precision automated weed control system could reduce the usage of chemicals in crop fields. In this paper, an intelligent system for automatic weeding strategy Multi Resolution Combined Statistical & spatial Frequency is used to discriminate the weeds from the crops and to classify them as narrow, little and broad weeds.

Keywords: crop weed discrimination, MRCSF, MRFM, Weeddetection, Spatial Frequency.

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425 Comparison of Fundamental Frequency Model and PWM Based Model of UPFC

Authors: S.A. Al-Qallaf, S.A. Al-Mawsawi, A. Haider

Abstract:

Among all FACTS devices, the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is considered to be the most versatile device. This is due to its capability to control all the transmission system parameters (impedance, voltage magnitude, and phase angle). With the growing interest in UPFC, the attention to develop a mathematical model has increased. Several models were introduced for UPFC in literature for different type of studies in power systems. In this paper a novel comparison study between two dynamic models of UPFC with their proposed control strategies.

Keywords: FACTS, UPFC, Dynamic Modeling, PWM, Fundamental Frequency.

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424 Analyzing Transformation of 1D-Functions for Frequency Domain based Video Classification

Authors: Kahraman Ayyildiz, Stefan Conrad

Abstract:

In this paper we illuminate a frequency domain based classification method for video scenes. Videos from certain topical areas often contain activities with repeating movements. Sports videos, home improvement videos, or videos showing mechanical motion are some example areas. Assessing main and side frequencies of each repeating movement gives rise to the motion type. We obtain the frequency domain by transforming spatio-temporal motion trajectories. Further on we explain how to compute frequency features for video clips and how to use them for classifying. The focus of the experimental phase is on transforms utilized for our system. By comparing various transforms, experiments show the optimal transform for a motion frequency based approach.

Keywords: action recognition, frequency, transform, motion recognition, repeating movement, video classification

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423 Optimal ECG Sampling Frequency for Multiscale Entropy-Based HRV

Authors: Manjit Singh

Abstract:

Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an extensively used index to provide a general understanding of multiple complexity of physiologic mechanism of heart rate variability (HRV) that operates on a wide range of time scales. Accurate selection of electrocardiogram (ECG) sampling frequency is an essential concern for clinically significant HRV quantification; high ECG sampling rate increase memory requirements and processing time, whereas low sampling rate degrade signal quality and results in clinically misinterpreted HRV. In this work, the impact of ECG sampling frequency on MSE based HRV have been quantified. MSE measures are found to be sensitive to ECG sampling frequency and effect of sampling frequency will be a function of time scale.

Keywords: ECG, heart rate variability, HRV, multiscale entropy, sampling frequency.

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422 Development of Intelligent Time/Frequency Based Signal Detection Algorithm for Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Waqas Ahmed, S Sajjad Haider Zaidi

Abstract:

For the past couple of decades Weak signal detection is of crucial importance in various engineering and scientific applications. It finds its application in areas like Wireless communication, Radars, Aerospace engineering, Control systems and many of those. Usually weak signal detection requires phase sensitive detector and demodulation module to detect and analyze the signal. This article gives you a preamble to intrusion detection system which can effectively detect a weak signal from a multiplexed signal. By carefully inspecting and analyzing the respective signal, this system can successfully indicate any peripheral intrusion. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a comprehensive and easy approach towards detecting and analyzing any signal that is weakened and garbled due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR). This approach finds significant importance in applications like peripheral security systems.

Keywords: Data Acquisition, fast frequency transforms, Lab VIEW software, weak signal detection.

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421 A Novel Frequency Offset Estimation Scheme for OFDM Systems

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel frequency offset estimation scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. By correlating the OFDM signals within the coherence phase bandwidth and employing a threshold in the frequency offset estimation process, the proposed scheme is not only robust to the timing offset but also has a reduced complexity compared with that of the conventional scheme. Moreover, a timing offset estimation scheme is also proposed as the next stage of the proposed frequency offset estimation. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can estimate frequency offset with lower computational complexity and does not require additional memory while maintaining the same level of estimation performance.

Keywords: OFDM, frequency offset estimation, threshold.

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