Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Pre-insertion resistor

27 Determination of Regimes of the Equivalent Generator Based On Projective Geometry: The Generalized Equivalent Generator

Authors: A. A. Penin

Abstract:

Requirements that should be met when determining the regimes of circuits with variable elements are formulated. The interpretation of the variations in the regimes, based on projective geometry, enables adequate expressions for determining and comparing the regimes to be derived. It is proposed to use as the parameters of a generalized equivalent generator of an active two-pole with changeable resistor such load current and voltage which provide the current through this resistor equal to zero.

Keywords: Equivalent generator, geometric circuits theory, circuits regimes, load characteristics, variable elements.

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26 A 1.5V,100MS/s,12-bit Current-Mode CMOSS ample-and-Hold Circuit

Authors: O. Hashemipour, S. G. Nabavi

Abstract:

A high-linearity and high-speed current-mode sampleand- hold circuit is designed and simulated using a 0.25μm CMOS technology. This circuit design is based on low voltage and it utilizes a fully differential circuit. Due to the use of only two switches the switch related noise has been reduced. Signal - dependent -error is completely eliminated by a new zero voltage switching technique. The circuit has a linearity error equal to ±0.05μa, i.e. 12-bit accuracy with a ±160 μa differential output - input signal frequency of 5MHZ, and sampling frequency of 100 MHZ. Third harmonic is equal to –78dB.

Keywords: Zero-voltage-technique, MOS-resistor, OTA, Feedback-resistor.

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25 Memristor: The Missing Circuit Element and its Application

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

Memristor is also known as the fourth fundamental passive circuit element. When current flows in one direction through the device, the electrical resistance increases and when current flows in the opposite direction, the resistance decreases. When the current is stopped, the component retains the last resistance that it had, and when the flow of charge starts again, the resistance of the circuit will be what it was when it was last active. It behaves as a nonlinear resistor with memory. Recently memristors have generated wide research interest and have found many applications. In this paper we survey the various applications of memristors which include non volatile memory, nanoelectronic memories, computer logic, neuromorphic computer architectures low power remote sensing applications, crossbar latches as transistor replacements, analog computations and switches.

Keywords: Memristor, non-volatile memory, arithmatic operation, programmable resistor.

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24 Resistor-less Current-mode Universal Biquad Filter Using CCTAs and Grounded Capacitors

Authors: T. Thosdeekoraphat, S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, S. Santalunai, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents a current-mode universal biquadratic filter. The proposed circuit can apparently provide standard functions of the biquad filter: low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, band-reject and all-pass functions. The circuit uses 4 current controlled transconductance amplifiers (CCTAs) and 2 grounded capacitors. In addition, the pole frequency and quality factor can be adjusted by electronic method by adjusting the bias currents of the CCTA. The proposed circuit uses only grounded capacitors without additional external resistors, the proposed circuit is considerably appropriate to further developing into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Resistor-less, Current-mode, Biquad filter, CCTA.

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23 Transient Analysis and Mitigation of Capacitor Bank Switching on a Standalone Wind Farm

Authors: Ajibola O. Akinrinde, Andrew Swanson, Remy Tiako

Abstract:

There exist significant losses on transmission lines due to distance, as power generating stations could be located far from some isolated settlements. Standalone wind farms could be a good choice of alternative power generation for such settlements that are far from the grid due to factors of long distance or socio-economic problems. However, uncompensated wind farms consume reactive power since wind turbines are induction generators. Therefore, capacitor banks are used to compensate reactive power, which in turn improves the voltage profile of the network. Although capacitor banks help improving voltage profile, they also undergo switching actions due to its compensating response to the variation of various types of load at the consumer’s end. These switching activities could cause transient overvoltage on the network, jeopardizing the end-life of other equipment on the system. In this paper, the overvoltage caused by these switching activities is investigated using the IEEE bus 14-network to represent a standalone wind farm, and the simulation is done using ATP/EMTP software. Scenarios involving the use of pre-insertion resistor and pre-insertion inductor, as well as controlled switching was also carried out in order to decide the best mitigation option to reduce the overvoltage.

Keywords: Capacitor banks, IEEE bus 14-network, Pre-insertion resistor, Standalone wind farm.

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22 First Order Filter Based Current-Mode Sinusoidal Oscillators Using Current Differencing Transconductance Amplifiers (CDTAs)

Authors: S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents new current-mode oscillator circuits using CDTAs which is designed from block diagram. The proposed circuits consist of two CDTAs and two grounded capacitors. The condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation can be adjusted by electronic method. The circuits have high output impedance and use only grounded capacitors without any external resistor which is very appropriate to future development into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Current-mode, Quadrature Oscillator, Block Diagram, CDTA.

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21 The Application of Homotopy Method In Solving Electrical Circuit Design Problem

Authors: Talib Hashim Hasan

Abstract:

This paper describes simple implementation of homotopy (also called continuation) algorithm for determining the proper resistance of the resistor to dissipate energy at a specified rate of an electric circuit. Homotopy algorithm can be considered as a developing of the classical methods in numerical computing such as Newton-Raphson and fixed point methods. In homoptopy methods, an embedding parameter is used to control the convergence. The method purposed in this work utilizes a special homotopy called Newton homotopy. Numerical example solved in MATLAB is given to show the effectiveness of the purposed method

Keywords: electrical circuit homotopy, methods, MATLAB, Newton homotopy

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20 Performance Analysis of BPJLT with Different Gate and Spacer Materials

Authors: Porag Jyoti Ligira, Gargi Khanna

Abstract:

The paper presents a simulation study of the electrical characteristic of Bulk Planar Junctionless Transistor (BPJLT) using spacer. The BPJLT is a transistor without any PN junctions in the vertical direction. It is a gate controlled variable resistor. The characteristics of BPJLT are analyzed by varying the oxide material under the gate. It can be shown from the simulation that an ideal subthreshold slope of ~60 mV/decade can be achieved by using highk dielectric. The effects of variation of spacer length and material on the electrical characteristic of BPJLT are also investigated in the paper. The ION / IOFF ratio improvement is of the order of 107 and the OFF current reduction of 10-4 is obtained by using gate dielectric of HfO2 instead of SiO2.

Keywords: BPJLT, double gate, high-k, spacer.

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19 Comparative Performance Analysis of Nonlinearity Cancellation Techniques for MOS-C Realization in Integrator Circuits

Authors: Hasan Çiçekli, Ahmet Gökçen, Uğur Çam

Abstract:

In this paper, a comparative performance analysis of mostly used four nonlinearity cancellation techniques used to realize the passive resistor by MOS transistors, is presented. The comparison is done by using an integrator circuit which is employing sequentially Op-amp, OTRA and ICCII as active element. All of the circuits are implemented by MOS-C realization and simulated by PSPICE program using 0.35μm process TSMC MOSIS model parameters. With MOS-C realization, the circuits became electronically tunable and fully integrable which is very important in IC design. The output waveforms, frequency responses, THD analysis results and features of the nonlinearity cancellation techniques are also given.

Keywords: Integrator circuits, MOS-C realization, nonlinearity cancellation, tunable resistors.

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18 Low Frequency Noise Behavior of Independent Gate Junctionless FinFET

Authors: A. Kamath, Z. X. Chen, C. J. Gu, F. Zheng, X. P. Wang, N. Singh, G-Q. Lo

Abstract:

In this paper we use low frequency noise analysis to understand and map the current conduction path in a multi gate junctionless FinFET.  The device used in this study behaves as a gated resistor and shows excellent short channel effect suppression due to its multi gate structure. Generally for a bulk conduction device like the junctionless device studied in this work, the low frequency noise can be modelled using the mobility fluctuation model; however for this device we can also see the effect of carrier fluctuations on the LFN characteristic. The noise characteristic at different gate bias and also the possible location of the traps is explained.

Keywords: LFN analysis, junctionless, Current conduction path, FinFET.

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17 Realization of Electronically Tunable Current- Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CFTAs

Authors: Prungsak Uttaphut

Abstract:

An implementation of current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillators is presented. Using CFTA-based lossy integrators, odd and odd/even phase systems can be realized with following advantages. The condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation can be orthogonally tuned. The high output impedances facilitate easy driving an external load without additional current buffers. The proposed MSOs provide odd or even phase signals that are equally spaced in phase and equal amplitude. The circuit requires one CFTA, one resistor and one grounded capacitor per phase without additional current amplifier. The results of PSPICE simulations using CMOS CFTA are included to verify theory.

Keywords: multiphase sinusoidal oscillator, current-mode, CFTA, lossy integrator

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16 Variable-Relation Criterion for Analysis of the Memristor

Authors: Qingjiang Li, Hui Xu, Haijun Liu, Xiaobo Tian

Abstract:

To judge whether the memristor can be interpreted as the fourth fundamental circuit element, we propose a variable-relation criterion of fundamental circuit elements. According to the criterion, we investigate the nature of three fundamental circuit elements and the memristor. From the perspective of variables relation, the memristor builds a direct relation between the voltage across it and the current through it, instead of a direct relation between the magnetic flux and the charge. Thus, it is better to characterize the memristor and the resistor as two special cases of the same fundamental circuit element, which is the memristive system in Chua-s new framework. Finally, the definition of memristor is refined according to the difference between the magnetic flux and the flux linkage.

Keywords: Memristor, Fundamental, Variable-Relation Criterion, Memristive system

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15 Development of a Spark Electrode Ignition System for an Explosion Vessel

Authors: Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Mizuan Minhat

Abstract:

This paper presents development of an ignition system using spark electrodes for application in a research explosion vessel. A single spark is aimed to be discharged with quantifiable ignition energy. The spark electrode system would enable study of flame propagation, ignitability of fuel-air mixtures and other fundamental characteristics of flames. The principle of the capacitive spark circuit of ASTM is studied to charge an appropriate capacitance connected across the spark gap through a large resistor by a high voltage from the source of power supply until the initiation of spark. Different spark energies could be obtained mainly by varying the value of the capacitance and the supply current. The spark sizes produced are found to be affected by the spark gap, electrode size, input voltage and capacitance value.

Keywords: Ignition, Spark Electrode, Flame

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14 Neuron-Based Control Mechanisms for a Robotic Arm and Hand

Authors: Nishant Singh, Christian Huyck, Vaibhav Gandhi, Alexander Jones

Abstract:

A robotic arm and hand controlled by simulated neurons is presented. The robot makes use of a biological neuron simulator using a point neural model. The neurons and synapses are organised to create a finite state automaton including neural inputs from sensors, and outputs to effectors. The robot performs a simple pick-and-place task. This work is a proof of concept study for a longer term approach. It is hoped that further work will lead to more effective and flexible robots. As another benefit, it is hoped that further work will also lead to a better understanding of human and other animal neural processing, particularly for physical motion. This is a multidisciplinary approach combining cognitive neuroscience, robotics, and psychology.

Keywords: Robot, neuron, cell assembly, spiking neuron, force sensitive resistor.

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13 Real Time Force Sensing Mat for Human Gait Analysis

Authors: Darwin Gouwanda, S. M. N. Arosha Senanayake, M. M. Danushka Ranjana Marasinghe, Mervin Chandrapal, Jeya Mithra Kumar, Tung Mun Hon, Yulius

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. This instrument mainly consists of three main elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and data acquisition device. In order to control and to process the incoming signals from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader program are developed using Labview 8.0. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning and switching circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat.

Keywords: Force platform, Force sensing resistor, human gait analysis

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12 Application of Boost Converter for Ride-through Capability of Adjustable Speed Drives during Sag and Swell Conditions

Authors: S. S. Deswal, Ratna Dahiya, D. K. Jain

Abstract:

Process control and energy conservation are the two primary reasons for using an adjustable speed drive. However, voltage sags are the most important power quality problems facing many commercial and industrial customers. The development of boost converters has raised much excitement and speculation throughout the electric industry. Now utilities are looking to these devices for performance improvement and reliability in a variety of areas. Examples of these include sags, spikes, or transients in supply voltage as well as unbalanced voltages, poor electrical system grounding, and harmonics. In this paper, simulations results are presented for the verification of the proposed boost converter topology. Boost converter provides ride through capability during sag and swell. Further, input currents are near sinusoidal. This eliminates the need of braking resistor also.

Keywords: Adjustable speed drive, power quality, boost converter, ride through capabilities.

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11 Design, Development and Analysis of Automated Storage and Retrieval System with Single and Dual Command Dispatching using MATLAB

Authors: M. Aslam, Farrukh, A. R. Gardezi, Nasir Hayat

Abstract:

Automated material handling is given prime importance in the semi automated and automated facilities since it provides solution to the gigantic problems related to inventory and also support the latest philosophies like just in time production JIT and lean production. Automated storage and retrieval system is an antidote (if designed properly) to the facility sufferings like getting the right material , materials getting perished, long cycle times or many other similar kind of problems. A working model of automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS) is designed and developed under the design parameters specified by Material Handling Industry of America (MHIA). Later on analysis was carried out to calculate the throughput and size of the machine. The possible implementation of this technology in local scenario is also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS), Material handling, Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), Lightdependent resistor (LDR)

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10 Signal Generator Circuit Carrying Information as Embedded Features from Multi-Transducer Signals

Authors: Sheroz Khan, Mustafa Zeki, Shihab Abdel Hameed, AHM Zahirul Alam, Aisha Hassan Abdalla, A. F. Salami, W. A. Lawal

Abstract:

A novel circuit for generating a signal embedded with features about data from three sensors is presented. This suggested circuit is making use of a resistance-to-time converter employing a bridge amplifier, an integrator and a comparator. The second resistive sensor (Rz) is transformed into duty cycle. Another bridge with varying resistor, (Ry) in the feedback of an OP AMP is added in series to change the amplitude of the resulting signal in a proportional relationship while keeping the same frequency and duty cycle representing proportional changes in resistors Rx and Rz already mentioned. The resultant output signal carries three types of information embedded as variations of its frequency, duty cycle and amplitude.

Keywords: Integrator, Comparator, Bridge Circuit, Resistanceto-Time Converter, Conditioning Circuit.

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9 Real Time Multi-Sensory Force Sensing Mat for Sports Biomechanics and Human Gait Analysis

Authors: D. Gouwanda, S. M. N. A. Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper presents a real time force sensing instrument that is designed for human gait analysis purposes. It is capable of recording and monitoring ground reaction forces exerted by human foot during various activities such as walking, running and jumping in real time. In overall, force sensing mat mainly consists of three elements: the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and data acquisition device. Force sensing mat is the mat that contains an array of force sensing elements. To control and process the incoming signal from the force sensing mat, Force-Logger and Force-Reloader are developed using National Instrument Labview. This paper describes the architecture of the force sensing mat, signal conditioning circuit and the real time streaming of the incoming data from the force sensing mat. Additionally, a preliminary experiment dataset is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Force platform, force sensing resistor, human gait analysis.

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8 Third Order Current-mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with High Output Impedances

Authors: Kritphon Phanruttanachai, Winai Jaikla

Abstract:

This article presents a current-mode quadrature oscillator using differential different current conveyor (DDCC) and voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA) as active elements. The proposed circuit is realized fro m a non-inverting lossless integrator and an inverting second order low-pass filter. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be electronically/orthogonally controlled via input bias currents. The circuit description is very simple, consisting of merely 1 DDCC, 1 VDTA, 1 grounded resistor and 3 grounded capacitors. Using only grounded elements, the proposed circuit is then suitable for IC architecture. The proposed oscillator has high output impedance which is easy to cascade or dive the external load without the buffer devices. The PSPICE simulation results are depicted, and the given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The power consumption is approximately 1.76mW at ±1.25V supply voltages.

Keywords: Current-mode, oscillator, integrated circuit, DDCC, VDTA

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7 Investigation of Constant Transconductance Circuit for Low Power Low-Noise Amplifier

Authors: Wei Yi Lim, M. Annamalai Arasu, M. Kumarasamy Raja, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of wide-swing constant transconductance (gm) bias circuit that generates bias voltage for low-noise amplifier (LNA) circuit design by using an off-chip resistor is demonstrated. The overall transconductance (Gm) generated by the constant gm bias circuit is important to maintain the overall gain and noise figure of the LNA circuit. Therefore, investigation is performed to study the variation in Gm with process, temperature and supply voltage (PVT).  Temperature and supply voltage are swept from -10 °C to 85 °C and 1.425 V to 1.575 V respectively, while the process conditions are also varied to the extreme and the gm variation is eventually concluded at between -3 % to 7 %. With the slight variation in the gm value, through simulation, at worst condition of state SS, we are able to attain a conversion gain (S21) variation of -3.10 % and a noise figure (NF) variation of 18.71 %. The whole constant gm circuit draws approximately 100 µA from a 1.5V supply and is designed based on 0.13 µm CMOS process. 

Keywords: Transconductance, LNA, temperature, process.

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6 CMOS Positive and Negative Resistors Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross-Coupled Regulated Transistors

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch, Nobuhiko Nakano

Abstract:

Two types of floating active resistors based on a complementary regulated cascode topology with cross-coupled regulated transistors are presented in this paper. The first topology is a high swing complementary regulated cascode active resistor. The second topology is a complementary common gate with a regulated cross coupled transistor. The small-signal input resistances of the floating resistors are derived. Three graphs of the input current versus the input voltage for different aspect ratios are designed and plotted using the Cadence Spectre 0.18-µm Rohm Semiconductor process. The total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted for three different aspect ratios with different input-voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies. From the simulation results, it is observed that a resistance of approximately 8.52 MΩ can be obtained from supply voltage at  ±0.9 V.

Keywords: Complementary common gate, complementary regulated cascode, current mirror, floating active resistors.

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5 A Novel Four-Transistor SRAM Cell with Low Dynamic Power Consumption

Authors: Arash Azizi Mazreah, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani, Hamid Barati, Ali Barati

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell for very high density and low power embedded SRAM applications as well as for stand-alone SRAM applications. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 20% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also proposed cell uses two word-lines and one pair bit-line. Read operation perform from one side of cell, and write operation perform from another side of cell, and swing voltage reduced on word-lines thus dynamic power during read/write operation reduced. The fabrication process is fully compatible with high-performance CMOS logic technologies, because there is no need to integrate a poly-Si resistor or a TFT load. HSPICE simulation in standard 0.25μm CMOS technology confirms all results obtained from this paper.

Keywords: Positive feedback, leakage current, read operation, write operation, dynamic energy consumption.

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4 Ultra Fast Solid State Ground Fault Isolator

Authors: I Made Darmayuda, Zhou Jun, Krishna Mainali, Simon Ng Sheung Yan, Saisundar S, Eran Ofek

Abstract:

Personnel protection devices are cardinal in safety hazard applications. They are widely used in home, office and in industry environments to reduce the risk of lethal shock to human being and equipment safety. This paper briefly reviews various personnel protection devices also describes the basic working principle of conventional ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) or ground fault isolator (GFI), its disadvantages and ways to overcome the disadvantages with solid-state relay (SSR) based GFI with ultrafast response up on fault implemented in printed circuit board. This solid state GFI comprises discrete MOSFET based alternating current (AC) switches, linear optical amplifier, photovoltaic isolator and sense resistor. In conventional GFI, current transformer is employed as a sensing element to detect the difference in current flow between live and neutral conductor. If there is no fault in equipment powered through GFI, due to insulation failure of internal wires and windings of motors, both live and neutral currents will be equal in magnitude and opposite in phase.

Keywords: current transformer, electrocution, GFCI, GFI

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3 A High-Frequency Low-Power Low-Pass-Filter-Based All-Current-Mirror Sinusoidal Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: A. Leelasantitham, B. Srisuchinwong

Abstract:

A high-frequency low-power sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is presented through the use of two 2nd-order low-pass current-mirror (CM)-based filters, a 1st-order CM low-pass filter and a CM bilinear transfer function. The technique is relatively simple based on (i) inherent time constants of current mirrors, i.e. the internal capacitances and the transconductance of a diode-connected NMOS, (ii) a simple negative resistance RN formed by a resistor load RL of a current mirror. Neither external capacitances nor inductances are required. As a particular example, a 1.9-GHz, 0.45-mW, 2-V CMOS low-pass-filter-based all-current-mirror sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is demonstrated. The oscillation frequency (f0) is 1.9 GHz and is current-tunable over a range of 370 MHz or 21.6 %. The power consumption is at approximately 0.45 mW. The amplitude matching and the quadrature phase matching are better than 0.05 dB and 0.15°, respectively. Total harmonic distortions (THD) are less than 0.3 %. At 2 MHz offset from the 1.9 GHz, the carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 90.01 dBc/Hz whilst the figure of merit called a normalized carrier-to-noise ratio (CNRnorm) is 153.03 dBc/Hz. The ratio of the oscillation frequency (f0) to the unity-gain frequency (fT) of a transistor is 0.25. Comparisons to other approaches are also included.

Keywords: Sinusoidal quadrature oscillator, low-pass-filterbased, current-mirror bilinear transfer function, all-current-mirror, negative resistance, low power, high frequency, low distortion.

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2 Optimization by Means of Genetic Algorithm of the Equivalent Electrical Circuit Model of Different Order for Li-ion Battery Pack

Authors: V. Pizarro-Carmona, S. Castano-Solis, M. Cortés-Carmona, J. Fraile-Ardanuy, D. Jimenez-Bermejo

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to optimize the Equivalent Electric Circuit Model (EECM) of different orders to obtain greater precision in the modeling of Li-ion battery packs. Optimization includes considering circuits based on 1RC, 2RC and 3RC networks, with a dependent voltage source and a series resistor. The parameters are obtained experimentally using tests in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Due to the high non-linearity of the behavior of the battery pack, Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used to solve and optimize the parameters of each EECM considered (1RC, 2RC and 3RC). The objective of the estimation is to minimize the mean square error between the measured impedance in the real battery pack and those generated by the simulation of different proposed circuit models. The results have been verified by comparing the Nyquist graphs of the estimation of the complex impedance of the pack. As a result of the optimization, the 2RC and 3RC circuit alternatives are considered as viable to represent the battery behavior. These battery pack models are experimentally validated using a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation platform that reproduces the well-known New York City cycle (NYCC) and Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycles for electric vehicles. The results show that using GA optimization allows obtaining EECs with 2RC or 3RC networks, with high precision to represent the dynamic behavior of a battery pack in vehicular applications.

Keywords: Li-ion battery packs modeling optimized, EECM, GA, electric vehicle applications.

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1 Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Hendrick Maxil Zárate Rocha, Ricardo da Silva Pereira, Manoel Fernandes Martins Nogueira, Carlos R. Pereira Belchior, Maria Emilia de Lima Tostes

Abstract:

This study investigates experimentally the effects of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature. In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15, 20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.

Keywords: Diesel engine, hydrogen, dual fuel, combustion analysis, performance, emissions.

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