Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1210

Search results for: minor historical architecture

1210 Modal Analysis for Study of Minor Historical Architecture

Authors: Milorad Pavlovic, Anna Manzato, Antonella Cecchi

Abstract:

Cultural heritage conservation is a challenge for contemporary society. In recent decades, significant resources have been allocated for the conservation and restoration of architectural heritage. Historical buildings were restored, protected and reinforced with the intent to limit the risks of degradation or loss, due to phenomena of structural damage and to external factors such as differential settlements, earthquake effects, etc. The wide diffusion of historic masonry constructions in Italy, Europe and the Mediterranean area requires reliable tools for the evaluation of their structural safety. In this paper is presented a free modal analysis performed on a minor historical architecture located in the village of Bagno Grande, near the city of L’Aquila in Italy. The location is characterized by a complex urban context, seriously damaged by the earthquake of 2009. The aim of this work is to check the structural behavior of a masonry building characterized by several boundary conditions imposed by adjacent buildings and infrastructural facilities.

Keywords: FEM, masonry, minor historical architecture, modal analysis.

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1209 Islamic Architecture and Its Challenges

Authors: Mohammad Torabiyan, Kazem Mosawi Nejad

Abstract:

Today architecture has become as a powerful media for introducing cultures to the world, which in turn brings about a change in the global insight, power gaining, investment, and development. Islamic architecture is based on the language of Koran and shows the depth and richness of Islam through the spiritual soul. This is in a way that belief in monotheism and faith in Islamic teachings are manifested as Islam's aesthetic thought in Islamic architecture. Unfortunately, Islamic architecture has been damaged a lot due to the lack of the necessary information, and also successive wars that have overtaken the Moslems as well as the dominance of colonizing counties. Islamic architecture is rooted in the history, culture and civilization of Moslems, but its deficiencies and shortcomings should be removed through systematizing the Islamic architecture researchers. Islamic countries should act in a way that the art of Islamic architecture shows its true place in different architecture eras and makes everybody aware that Islamic architecture has a historical root and is connected eternally to the genuineness, religious art, and Moslems' culture and civilization.

Keywords: Art, culture and civilization, Islamic architecture, Moslems.

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1208 Investigation of Minor Actinide-Contained Thorium Fuel Impacts on CANDU-Type Reactor Neutronics Using Computational Method

Authors: S. A. H. Feghhi, Z. Gholamzadeh, Z. Alipoor, C. Tenreiro

Abstract:

Currently, thorium fuel has been especially noticed because of its proliferation resistance than long half-life alpha emitter minor actinides, breeding capability in fast and thermal neutron flux and mono-isotopic naturally abundant. In recent years, efficiency of minor actinide burning up in PWRs has been investigated. Hence, a minor actinide-contained thorium based fuel matrix can confront both proliferation resistance and nuclear waste depletion aims. In the present work, minor actinide depletion rate in a CANDU-type nuclear core modeled using MCNP code has been investigated. The obtained effects of minor actinide load as mixture of thorium fuel matrix on the core neutronics has been studied with comparing presence and non-presence of minor actinide component in the fuel matrix. Depletion rate of minor actinides in the MA-contained fuel has been calculated using different power loads. According to the obtained computational data, minor actinide loading in the modeled core results in more negative reactivity coefficients. The MA-contained fuel achieves less radial peaking factor in the modeled core. The obtained computational results showed 140 kg of 464 kg initial load of minor actinide has been depleted in during a 6-year burn up in 10 MW power.

Keywords: Minor actinide burning, CANDU-type reactor, MCNPX code, Neutronic parameters.

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1207 The Use of Minor Setups in an EPQ Model with Constrained Production Period Length

Authors: Behrouz Afshar Nadjafi

Abstract:

Extensive research has been devoted to economic production quantity (EPQ) problem. However, no attention has been paid to problems where production period length is constrained. In this paper, we address the problem of deciding the optimal production quantity and the number of minor setups within each cycle, in which, production period length is constrained but a minor setup is possible for pass the constraint. A mathematical model is developed and Iterated Local Search (ILS) is proposed to solve this problem. Finally, solution procedure illustrated with a numerical example and results are analyzed.

Keywords: EPQ, Inventory control, minor setup, ILS.

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1206 Research on the Protection and Reuse Model of Historical Buildings in Chinese Airports

Authors: Jie Ouyang, Chen Nie

Abstract:

China had constructed a large number of military and civilian airports before and after World War II, and then began large-scale repairs, reconstructions or relocation of airports after the baptism of wars after World War I and World War II. The airport's historical area and its historical buildings such as terminals, hangars, and towers have adopted different protection strategies and reuse application strategies. This paper is based on the judgment of the value of airport historical buildings to study different protection and reuse strategies. The protection and reuse models of historical buildings are classified in three dimensions: the airport historical area, the airport historical building complex and its individual buildings, and combined with specific examples to discuss and summarize the technical characteristics, protection strategies and successful experiences of different modes of protection and reuse of historical areas and historical buildings of airports.

Keywords: Airport, airport area, historic airport building, protection, reuse model.

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1205 Preservation of Natural and Historical Values in Sustainable Architecture of Creative Tourism Complex of Aab-Ask, Iran

Authors: Ali Salehipour

Abstract:

Studying literature theme in the fields of tourism and sustainable development and its importance in today world and their criteria in architecture, here in this article we will also study the area where the selected site is located; beside the Aab-Ask Village located in Larijan region in Mazandaran province on the way to Haraz – one of the tourism routes of Iran. After these studies by analyzing the site, its strong potentials – such as mineral water springs (hot springs), geothermal, landscapes and ideal climate - as a tourist attraction spot in the region, and considering sustainable development criteria – with regard to limits and available facilities – a plan was offered that could change the region to provide the needs of local people and in addition change it to a place where tourism services is offered to the visitors and make it an acceptable sample of stable building in Iran. Finally the reason to make design for this complex is recovery of natural and historical values of Aab-Ask area regarding development and sustainable architecture criteria in the form of a functional sample which can be a suitable place to fulfill this goal for having lots of strong points in attracting cultural and sustainable tourist.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Tourist Complex, Development, Landscape Preservation, Culture

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1204 Comparative Study of Sustainable Architecture in Stairway-like Ushtobin Village, Iran

Authors: Ahadollah Azami, Alireza Sadeghi, Zargham OstadiAsl, Hamed Pirjani, Milad Babaei

Abstract:

Stairway Ushtobin Village is one of the five villages with original and sustainable architecture in Northwest of Iran along the border of Armenia, which has been able to maintain its environment and sustainable ecosystem. Studying circulation, function and scale (grand, medium and minor) of space, ratio of full and empty spaces, number and height of stairs, ratio of compound volume to luxury spaces, openings, type of local masonry (stone, mud, wood) and form of covering elements have been carried out in four houses of this village comparatively as some samples in this article, and furthermore, this article analyzes that the architectural shapes and organic texture of the village meet the needs of cold and dry climate. Finally, some efficient plans are offered suiting the present needs of the village to have a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Local Materials, Village Texture, Form, Skeleton

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1203 A Historical Heritage in the Architecture of the South West of Iran, Case Study: Dezfoul City

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

Iranian architects had creative ways for constructing the buildings in each climate. Some of these architectural elements were made under the ground. Shovadan is one of these underground spaces in hot-humid regions in Dezfoul and Shoushtar city that had special functions and characteristics. In this paper some subjects such as the history of Shovadan, its elements and effective factors in the formation of Shovadan in Dezfool city are discussed.

Keywords: Architecture, Dezfoul city, Shovadan, southwest of Iran.

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1202 A Four Method Framework for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Erosion, Prescriptive Architecture, Descriptive Architecture.

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1201 Daily Experiences of Racism and Forgiving Historical Offenses: An African American Experience

Authors: Bengü Ergüner-Tekinalp

Abstract:

This study explored the correlates of forgiving historical racial offenses and the relationship between daily experiences of racism and forgiving historical racial offenses. 147 African Americans participated to the study. Results indicated that guilt attribution, distrust, need of reparations, religion, and perception of apology relate to forgiving past racial offenses. In addition the more individuals experience racism related events, the less likely they forgive the past mistreatments of African Americans.

Keywords: African Americans, forgiveness, historical offenses

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1200 A Review on Development of Historical City Center and Revitalization Process in Isfahan/Iran

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelat, Maryam Imani Emadi

Abstract:

The need to protect our cultural heritage was stressed on revitalization of historical city centers in communities. The main aim of this research is to attract finance and activities to the historical city centers through the citizens and municipalities participation while cities expanded their boundaries toward suburban areas. Today the main problems which facing to the most historical city centers, is loss of their centrality through effect of urbanization on any point of the cities which is the most important issue on neglect and abandonment of the historical central area by decentralizing living, commerce and public areas. This article evaluate the ways in which city center revitalization can be effect on vitality and viability of the central area in case of Naghshe Jahan square which situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran. Constructed between 1598 and 1629, it is now an important historical site, and one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

Keywords: City centers, revitalization, urban development, vitality and viability.

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1199 Considering the Relationship between Architecture and Philosophy: Toyo Ito’s Conceptual Architecture

Authors: Serap Durmus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to exemplify the relation of architecture and philosophy over the Japanese architect Toyo Ito’s conceptual architecture. The study is practiced in ‘Architecture and Philosophy Readings’ elective course with 22 sophomore architecture students in Karadeniz Technical University Department of Architecture. It is planned as a workshop, which discusses the design philosophy of Toyo Ito’s buildings and the reflections of concept in his intellectual architecture. So, the paper contains Toyo Ito’s philosophy, his discourses and buildings and also thinking similarities with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. Thus, the workshop of course is about architecture and philosophy relationship. With this aspect, a holistic graphic representation is aimed for Toyo Ito who thinks that everything composes a whole. As a result, it can be said that architect and philosopher interaction in architecture and philosophy relation supports creative thinking. Conceptual architecture of Toyo Ito has philosophical roots and his philosophy can be read over his buildings and can be represent totally via a holistic pattern.

Keywords: Architecture, philosophy, Toyo Ito, conceptual architecture, Gilles Deleuze.

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1198 A Study of the Damages to Historical Monuments due to Climatic Factors and Air Pollution and Offering Solutions

Authors: Shoureshe Kanani, Hassan Zandi

Abstract:

Historical monuments as architectural heritage are, economically and culturally, considered one of the key aspects for modern communities. Cultural heritage represents a country-s national identity and pride and maintains and enriches that country-s culture. Therefore, conservation of the monuments remained from our ancestors requires everybody-s serious and unremitting effort. Conservation, renewal, restoration, and technical study of cultural and historical matters are issues which have a special status among various forms of art and science in the present century and this is due to two reasons: firstly, progress of humankind in this century has created a factor called environmental pollution which not only has caused new destructive processes of cultural/historical monuments but also has accelerated the previous destructive processes by several times, and secondly, the rapid advance of various sciences, especially chemistry, has lead to the contribution of new methods and materials to this significant issue.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Climatic, Historical Monuments

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1197 Architecture Exception Governance

Authors: Ondruska Marek

Abstract:

The article presents the whole model of IS/IT architecture exception governance. As first, the assumptions of presented model are set. As next, there is defined a generic governance model that serves as a basis for the architecture exception governance. The architecture exception definition and its attributes follow. The model respects well known approaches to the area that are described in the text, but it adopts higher granularity in description and expands the process view with all the next necessary governance components as roles, principles and policies, tools to enable the implementation of the model into organizations. The architecture exception process is decomposed into a set of processes related to the architecture exception lifecycle consisting of set of phases and architecture exception states. Finally, there is information about my future research related to this area.

Keywords: Architecture, dispensation, exception, governance, model

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1196 Ensuring Data Security and Consistency in FTIMA - A Fault Tolerant Infrastructure for Mobile Agents

Authors: Umar Manzoor, Kiran Ijaz, Wajiha Shamim, Arshad Ali Shahid

Abstract:

Transaction management is one of the most crucial requirements for enterprise application development which often require concurrent access to distributed data shared amongst multiple application / nodes. Transactions guarantee the consistency of data records when multiple users or processes perform concurrent operations. Existing Fault Tolerance Infrastructure for Mobile Agents (FTIMA) provides a fault tolerant behavior in distributed transactions and uses multi-agent system for distributed transaction and processing. In the existing FTIMA architecture, data flows through the network and contains personal, private or confidential information. In banking transactions a minor change in the transaction can cause a great loss to the user. In this paper we have modified FTIMA architecture to ensure that the user request reaches the destination server securely and without any change. We have used triple DES for encryption/ decryption and MD5 algorithm for validity of message.

Keywords: Distributed Transaction, Security, Mobile Agents, FTIMA Architecture.

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1195 Implementation-Oriented Discussion for Historical and Cultural Villages’ Conservation Planning

Authors: Xing Zhang

Abstract:

Since the State Council of China issued the Regulations on the Conservation of Historical Cultural Towns and Villages in 2008, formulation of conservation planning has been carried out in national, provincial and municipal historical and cultural villages for protection needs, which provides a legal basis for inheritance of historical culture and protection of historical resources. Although the quantity and content of the conservation planning are continually increasing, the implementation and application are still ambiguous. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper explores methods to enhance the implementation of conservation planning from the perspective of planning formulation. Specifically, the technical framework of "overall objectives planning - sub-objectives planning - zoning guidelines - implementation by stages" is proposed to implement the planning objectives in different classifications and stages. Then combined with details of the Qiqiao historical and cultural village conservation planning project in Ningbo, five sub-objectives are set, which are implemented through the village zoning guidelines. At the same time, the key points and specific projects in the near-term, medium-term and long-term work are clarified, and the spatial planning is transformed into the action plan with time scale. The proposed framework and method provide a reference for the implementation and management of the conservation planning of historical and cultural villages in the future.

Keywords: Conservation planning, planning by stages, planning implementation, zoning guidelines.

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1194 Role of Lemna minor Lin. in Treating the Textile Industry Wastewater

Authors: D. Sivakumar

Abstract:

Textile industry processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes; because, they produce color wastewater that is heavily polluted the environment. Therefore, textile industry wastewater has to be treated before being discharged into the environment. In this study, experiments were conducted for different process parameters like nutrient dosage and dilution ratio against the pH and contact time to remove COD and color in a textile industrial wastewater using aquatic macrophytes Lemna minor L. The experimental results showed that the maximum percentage reduction of COD and color in a textile industry wastewater by Lemna minor L. was obtained at an optimum nutrient dosage of 50g, dilution ratio of 8, pH of 8 and contact time of 4 days. Similarly, the results of validation experiments showed that the experiments were able to reproduce the obtained optimum process parameters. The maximum removal percentage of color in an aqueous solution (86.35%) is higher than the removal of color in a textile industry wastewater (82.85). Further, the first order kinetic model was fitted well with the experimental data of this present study. Finally, this study concluded that Lemna minor L. may be used for removing all types of parameters in any type of textile industry wastewater.

Keywords: Aquatic Macrophyte, Process Parameters, Textile Industry Wastewater.

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1193 Iranian Bazaars: The Illustration of Stable Thoughts

Authors: Aida Amirazodi

Abstract:

"Bazaar" is a Persian word from the language of Iranians of 2500 years ago which has entered the languages of other countries. “Bazaar", the trading or marketing place with the architectural principles and concerns, was formed in Iran because of the long experience of marketing. This has become a valuable inheritance of Islamic ideological civilization and Iranian advanced architecture and a model of Islamic-marketing places with spectacular elements and parts, and the place for economical, social and cultural exchanges. “Bazaars" are found in cities of Iran and many Islamic countries in west of Asia and north of Africa. With the stable structure and function as a symbol of social values, this place has become the economic center and the illustration of stable architecture and advanced principles. “Bazaars" as the heart of Iranian cities economy with several major and minor rows of shops, in closed and open areas, along a fixed line or branches with beautiful arcs, patios, and frameworks are among the main national inheritance of Iran and one of the important Iranian architectural treasures because of its Iranian nobility.

Keywords: Traditional Bazaar, Form of Bazaar, Iranian Architecture

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1192 Toward An Agreement on Semantic Web Architecture

Authors: Haytham Al-Feel, M.A.Koutb, Hoda Suoror

Abstract:

There are many problems associated with the World Wide Web: getting lost in the hyperspace; the web content is still accessible only to humans and difficulties of web administration. The solution to these problems is the Semantic Web which is considered to be the extension for the current web presents information in both human readable and machine processable form. The aim of this study is to reach new generic foundation architecture for the Semantic Web because there is no clear architecture for it, there are four versions, but still up to now there is no agreement for one of these versions nor is there a clear picture for the relation between different layers and technologies inside this architecture. This can be done depending on the idea of previous versions as well as Gerber-s evaluation method as a step toward an agreement for one Semantic Web architecture.

Keywords: Semantic Web Architecture, XML, RDF and Ontology.

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1191 Sustainability in Space Composition of Traditional Architecture of Hot Arid Zones of Iran

Authors: Farshad Kheiri

Abstract:

Iran Central Plateau encompasses a large proportion of this country. The weather in these flat plains is warm and arid with very little precipitation. Different attempts in architecture have been done to alleviate the weather severity of this area and create a living place compatible with humans’ comfort criteria. Investigations have showed that some of the most successful approaches in traditional architecture of the area has been forgotten or are not being used widely. As sustainability is defined as an appropriate solution for environmental, economical, and social disorders, this research is a try to demonstrate the sustainability in aforementioned architecture and based on these studies, propounds solutions for today architecture in hot arid zones.

Keywords: Hot arid climatic zone, Iranian Architecture, Sustainability, Vernacular architecture.

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1190 A Recognition Method for Spatio-Temporal Background in Korean Historical Novels

Authors: Seo-Hee Kim, Kee-Won Kim, Seung-Hoon Kim

Abstract:

The most important elements of a novel are the characters, events and background. The background represents the time, place and situation that character appears, and conveys event and atmosphere more realistically. If readers have the proper knowledge about background of novels, it may be helpful for understanding the atmosphere of a novel and choosing a novel that readers want to read. In this paper, we are targeting Korean historical novels because spatio-temporal background especially performs an important role in historical novels among the genre of Korean novels. To the best of our knowledge, we could not find previous study that was aimed at Korean novels. In this paper, we build a Korean historical national dictionary. Our dictionary has historical places and temple names of kings over many generations as well as currently existing spatial words or temporal words in Korean history. We also present a method for recognizing spatio-temporal background based on patterns of phrasal words in Korean sentences. Our rules utilize postposition for spatial background recognition and temple names for temporal background recognition. The knowledge of the recognized background can help readers to understand the flow of events and atmosphere, and can use to visualize the elements of novels.

Keywords: Data mining, Korean historical novels, Korean linguistic feature, spatio-temporal background.

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1189 Urban Transformations of the Mediterranean Cities in Light of Developments in the Modern Era

Authors: Bakr Hashem Paumey Ahmed Alashwal

Abstract:

The urban transformation processes in its framework and its general significance became a fundamental and vital subject of consideration for both the developed and the developing societies. It has become important to regulate the architectural systems adopted by the city, to sustain the present development on one hand, and on the other hand, to facilitate its future growth. Thus, the study dealt with the phenomenon of urban transformation of the Mediterranean cities, and the city of Alexandria in particular, because of its significant historical and cultural legacy, its historical architecture and its contemporary urbanization. This article investigates the entirety of cities in the Mediterranean region through the analysis of the relationship between inflation and growth of these cities and the extent of the complexity of the city barriers. We hope to analyze not only the internal transformations, but the external relationships (both imperial and post-colonial) that have shaped Alexandria city growth from the nineteenth century until today.

Keywords: Urban Transformations, Mediterranean cities, Modern Era, Alexandria.

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1188 Data Gathering and Analysis for Arabic Historical Documents

Authors: Ali Dulla

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new dataset (and the methodology used to generate it) based on a wide range of historical Arabic documents containing clean data simple and homogeneous-page layouts. The experiments are implemented on printed and handwritten documents obtained respectively from some important libraries such as Qatar Digital Library, the British Library and the Library of Congress. We have gathered and commented on 150 archival document images from different locations and time periods. It is based on different documents from the 17th-19th century. The dataset comprises differing page layouts and degradations that challenge text line segmentation methods. Ground truth is produced using the Aletheia tool by PRImA and stored in an XML representation, in the PAGE (Page Analysis and Ground truth Elements) format. The dataset presented will be easily available to researchers world-wide for research into the obstacles facing various historical Arabic documents such as geometric correction of historical Arabic documents.

Keywords: Dataset production, ground truth production, historical documents, arbitrary warping, geometric correction.

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1187 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hothumid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Hot-humid climate, Iran, Sustainable Traditional architecture, Urban planning.

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1186 Public Squares and Their Potential for Social Interactions: A Case Study of Historical Public Squares in Tehran

Authors: Asma Mehan

Abstract:

Under the thrust of technological changes, population growth and vehicular traffic, Iranian historical squares have lost their significance and they are no longer the main social nodes of the society. This research focuses on how historical public squares can inspire designers to enhance social interactions among citizens in Iranian urban context. Moreover, the recent master plan of Tehran demonstrates the lack of public spaces designed for the purpose of people’s social gatherings. For filling this gap, first the current situation of 7 selected primary historical public squares in Tehran including Sabze Meydan, Arg, Topkhaneh, Baherstan, Mokhber-al-dole, Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad have been compared. Later, the influencing elements on social interactions of the public squares such as subjective factors (human relationships and memories) and objective factors (natural and built environment) have been investigated. As a conclusion, some strategies are proposed for improving social interactions in historical public squares like; holding cultural, national, athletic and religious events, defining different and new functions in public squares’ surrounding, increasing pedestrian routs, reviving the collective memory, demonstrating the historical importance of square, eliminating visual obstacles across the square, organization the natural elements of the square, appropriate pavement for social activities. Finally, it is argued that the combination of all influencing factors which are: human interactions, natural elements and built environment criteria will lead to enhance the historical public squares’ potential for social interaction.

Keywords: Historical Square, Iranian Public Square, Social Interaction, Tehran.

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1185 Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb, Ingy M. Naguib

Abstract:

Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.

Keywords: Adaptive reuse, heritage street, historic investment, restoration, urban design.

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1184 Grid Learning; Computer Grid Joins to e- Learning

Authors: A. Nassiry, A. Kardan

Abstract:

According to development of communications and web-based technologies in recent years, e-Learning has became very important for everyone and is seen as one of most dynamic teaching methods. Grid computing is a pattern for increasing of computing power and storage capacity of a system and is based on hardware and software resources in a network with common purpose. In this article we study grid architecture and describe its different layers. In this way, we will analyze grid layered architecture. Then we will introduce a new suitable architecture for e-Learning which is based on grid network, and for this reason we call it Grid Learning Architecture. Various sections and layers of suggested architecture will be analyzed; especially grid middleware layer that has key role. This layer is heart of grid learning architecture and, in fact, regardless of this layer, e-Learning based on grid architecture will not be feasible.

Keywords: Distributed learning, Grid Learning, Grid network, SCORM standard.

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1183 Designing Creative Events with Deconstructivism Approach

Authors: Maryam Memarian, Mahmood Naghizadeh

Abstract:

Deconstruction is an approach that is entirely incompatible with the traditional prevalent architecture. Considering the fact that this approach attempts to put architecture in sharp contrast with its opposite events and transpires with attending to the neglected and missing aspects of architecture and deconstructing its stable structures. It also recklessly proceeds beyond the existing frameworks and intends to create a different and more efficient prospect for space. The aim of deconstruction architecture is to satisfy both the prospective and retrospective visions as well as takes into account all tastes of the present in order to transcend time. Likewise, it ventures to fragment the facts and symbols of the past and extract new concepts from within their heart, which coincide with today’s circumstances. Since this approach is an attempt to surpass the limits of the prevalent architecture, it can be employed to design places in which creative events occur and imagination and ambition flourish. Thought-provoking artistic events can grow and mature in such places and be represented in the best way possible to all people. The concept of event proposed in the plan grows out of the interaction between space and creation. In addition to triggering surprise and high impressions, it is also considered as a bold journey into the suspended realms of the traditional conflicts in architecture such as architecture-landscape, interior-exterior, center-margin, product-process, and stability-instability. In this project, at first, through interpretive-historical research method and examining the inputs and data collection, recognition and organizing takes place. After evaluating the obtained data using deductive reasoning, the data is eventually interpreted. Given the fact that the research topic is in its infancy and there is not a similar case in Iran with limited number of corresponding instances across the world, the selected topic helps to shed lights on the unrevealed and neglected parts in architecture. Similarly, criticizing, investigating and comparing specific and highly prized cases in other countries with the project under study can serve as an introduction into this architecture style.

Keywords: Creativity, deconstruction, event.

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1182 Architecture from Teaching to Learning to Practice: Authentic learning Tasks in Developing Professional Competencies

Authors: N. Utaberta, B. Hassanpour, M. Surat, A. I. Che Ani, N.M. Tawil

Abstract:

The concerns of education and practice of architecture do not necessarily overlap. Indeed the gap between them could be seen increasingly and less frequently bridged. We suggest that changing in architecture education and clarifying the relationship between these two can help to find and address the opportunities and unique positions to bridge this gulf.

Keywords: Architecture education, Learning, Practice, Teaching

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1181 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor

Abstract:

Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: Light, sacred architecture, liturgy, theology, church.

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