Search results for: Shock
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 139

Search results for: Shock

139 A New Shock Model for Systems Subject to Random Threshold Failure

Authors: A. Rangan, A. Tansu

Abstract:

This paper generalizes Yeh Lam-s shock model for renewal shock arrivals and random threshold. Several interesting statistical measures are explicitly obtained. A few special cases and an optimal replacement problem are also discussed.

Keywords: shock model, optimal replacement, random threshold, shocks.

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138 Computational Simulation of Imploding Current Sheath Trajectory at the Radial Phase of Plasma Focus Performance

Authors: R. Amrollahi, M. Habibi

Abstract:

When the shock front (SF) hits the central electrode axis of plasma focus device, a reflected shock wave moves radially outwards. The current sheath (CS) results from ionization of filled gas between two electrodes continues to compress inwards until it hits the out-going reflected shock front. In this paper the Lagrangian equations are solved for a parabolic shock trajectory yielding a first and second approximation for the CS path. To determine the accuracy of the approximation, the same problem is solved for a straight shock.

Keywords: Radial compression, Shock wave trajectory, Current sheath, Slog model.

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137 Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Gas-Particle Interaction of Contoured Shock-Tube Flows: A Numerical Study

Authors: Yi Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is utilized to characterize a prototype biolistic delivery system, the biomedical device based on the contoured-shock-tube design (CST), with the aim at investigating shocks induced flow instabilities within the contoured shock tube. The shock/interface interactions, the growth of perturbation at an interface between two fluids of different density are interrogated. The key features of the gas dynamics and gas-particle interaction are discussed

Keywords: Simulation, Shock wave, Particle, Interface, Supersonic, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

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136 Nonlinear Effects in Bubbly Liquid with Shock Waves

Authors: Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Marat N. Galimzianov, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Uliana O. Agisheva, Valeria A. Buzina

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of theoretical and numerical modeling of propagation of shock waves in bubbly liquids related to nonlinear effects (realistic equation of state, chemical reactions, two-dimensional effects). On the basis on the Rankine- Hugoniot equations the problem of determination of parameters of passing and reflected shock waves in gas-liquid medium for isothermal, adiabatic and shock compression of the gas component is solved by using the wide-range equation of state of water in the analitic form. The phenomenon of shock wave intensification is investigated in the channel of variable cross section for the propagation of a shock wave in the liquid filled with bubbles containing chemically active gases. The results of modeling of the wave impulse impact on the solid wall covered with bubble layer are presented.

Keywords: bubbly liquid, cavitation, equation of state, shock wave

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135 Estimation of Shock Velocity and Pressure of Detonations and Finding Their Flow Parameters

Authors: Mahmoud Zarrini, R. N. Pralhad

Abstract:

In this paper, mathematical modeling of detonation in the ground is studied. Estimation of flow parameters such as velocity, maximum velocity, acceleration, maximum acceleration, shock pressure as a result of an explosion in the ground have been computed in an appropriate dynamic model approach. The variation of these parameters with the diameter of detonation place (L), density of earth or stone (¤ü), time decay of detonation (T), peak pressure (Pm), and time (t) have been analyzed. The model has been developed from the concept of underwater explosions [Refs. [1]-[3]] with appropriate changes to the present model requirements.

Keywords: Shock velocity, detonation, shock acceleration, shock pressure.

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134 Incident Shock Wave Interaction with an Axisymmetric Cone Body Placed in Shock Tube

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

This work presents a numerical simulation of the interaction of an incident shock wave propagates from the left to the right with a cone placed in a tube at shock. The Mathematical model is based on a non stationary, viscous and axisymmetric flow. The Discretization of the Navier-stokes equations is carried out by the finite volume method in the integral form along with the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate combination of time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The numerical simulation considers a shock tube filled with air. The incident shock wave propagates to the right with a determined Mach number and crosses the cone by leaving behind it a stationary detached shock wave in front of the nose cone. This type of interaction is observed according to the time of flow.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, cone body

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133 Numerical Simulation of Inviscid Transient Flows in Shock Tube and its Validations

Authors: Al-Falahi Amir, Yusoff M. Z, Yusaf T

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to develop a new two dimensional time accurate Euler solver for shock tube applications. The solver was developed to study the performance of a newly built short-duration hypersonic test facility at Universiti Tenaga Nasional “UNITEN" in Malaysia. The facility has been designed, built, and commissioned for different values of diaphragm pressure ratios in order to get wide range of Mach number. The developed solver uses second order accurate cell-vertex finite volume spatial discretization and forth order accurate Runge-Kutta temporal integration and it is designed to simulate the flow process for similar driver/driven gases (e.g. air-air as working fluids). The solver is validated against analytical solution and experimental measurements in the high speed flow test facility. Further investigations were made on the flow process inside the shock tube by using the solver. The shock wave motion, reflection and interaction were investigated and their influence on the performance of the shock tube was determined. The results provide very good estimates for both shock speed and shock pressure obtained after diaphragm rupture. Also detailed information on the gasdynamic processes over the full length of the facility is available. The agreements obtained have been reasonable.

Keywords: shock tunnel, shock tube, shock wave, CFD.

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132 Anisotropic Constitutive Model and its Application in Simulation of Thermal Shock Wave Propagation for Cylinder Shell Composite

Authors: Xia Huang, Wenhui Tang, Banghai Jiang, Xianwen Ran

Abstract:

In this paper, a plane-strain orthotropic elasto-plastic dynamic constitutive model is established, and with this constitutive model, the thermal shock wave induced by intense pulsed X-ray radiation in cylinder shell composite is simulated by the finite element code, then the properties of thermal shock wave propagation are discussed. The results show that the thermal shock wave exhibit different shapes under the radiation of soft and hard X-ray, and while the composite is radiated along different principal axes, great differences exist in some aspects, such as attenuation of the peak stress value, spallation and so on.

Keywords: anisotropic constitutive model, thermal shock wave, X-ray, cylinder shell composite.

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131 Dust Acoustic Shock Waves in Coupled Dusty Plasmas with Kappa-Distributed Ions

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

We have considered an unmagnetized dusty plasma system consisting of ions obeying superthermal distribution and strongly coupled negatively charged dust. We have used reductive perturbation method and derived the Kordeweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdV-Burgers) equation. The behavior of the shock waves in the plasma has been investigated.

Keywords: Shock, Soliton, Coupling, Superthermal ions.

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130 Quantum Ion Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in Dissipative Warm Plasma with Fermi Electron and Positron

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

Ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in dense quantum plasmas whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions are investigated. We assume that ion velocity is weakly relativistic and also the effects of kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents is considered. By using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg–deVries–Burger (KdV-B) equation is derived.

Keywords: Ion acoustic shock waves; Quantum plasmas

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129 Effect of Assumptions of Normal Shock Location on the Design of Supersonic Ejectors for Refrigeration

Authors: Payam Haghparast, Mikhail V. Sorin, Hakim Nesreddine

Abstract:

The complex oblique shock phenomenon can be simply assumed as a normal shock at the constant area section to simulate a sharp pressure increase and velocity decrease in 1-D thermodynamic models. The assumed normal shock location is one of the greatest sources of error in ejector thermodynamic models. Most researchers consider an arbitrary location without justifying it. Our study compares the effect of normal shock place on ejector dimensions in 1-D models. To this aim, two different ejector experimental test benches, a constant area-mixing ejector (CAM) and a constant pressure-mixing (CPM) are considered, with different known geometries, operating conditions and working fluids (R245fa, R141b). In the first step, in order to evaluate the real value of the efficiencies in the different ejector parts and critical back pressure, a CFD model was built and validated by experimental data for two types of ejectors. These reference data are then used as input to the 1D model to calculate the lengths and the diameters of the ejectors. Afterwards, the design output geometry calculated by the 1D model is compared directly with the corresponding experimental geometry. It was found that there is a good agreement between the ejector dimensions obtained by the 1D model, for both CAM and CPM, with experimental ejector data. Furthermore, it is shown that normal shock place affects only the constant area length as it is proven that the inlet normal shock assumption results in more accurate length. Taking into account previous 1D models, the results suggest the use of the assumed normal shock location at the inlet of the constant area duct to design the supersonic ejectors.

Keywords: 1D model, constant area-mixing, constant pressure-mixing, normal shock location, ejector dimensions.

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128 Shock Response Analysis of Soil–Structure Systems Induced by Near–Fault Pulses

Authors: H. Masaeli, R. Ziaei, F. Khoshnoudian

Abstract:

Shock response analysis of the soil–structure systems induced by near–fault pulses is investigated. Vibration transmissibility of the soil–structure systems is evaluated by shock response spectra (SRS). Medium–to–high rise buildings with different aspect ratios located on different soil types as well as different foundations with respect to vertical load bearing safety factors are studied. Two types of mathematical near–fault pulses, i.e. forward directivity and fling step, with different pulse periods as well as pulse amplitudes are selected as incident ground shock. Linear versus nonlinear soil–structure interaction (SSI) condition are considered alternatively and the corresponding results are compared. The results show that nonlinear SSI is likely to amplify the acceleration responses when subjected to long–period incident pulses with normalized period exceeding a threshold. It is also shown that this threshold correlates with soil type, so that increased shear–wave velocity of the underlying soil makes the threshold period decrease.

Keywords: Nonlinear soil–structure interaction, shock response spectrum, near–fault ground shock, rocking isolation.

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127 Underwater Interaction of 1064 nm Laser Radiation with Metal Target

Authors: G. Toker, V. Bulatov, T. Kovalchuk, I. Schechter

Abstract:

Dynamics of laser radiation – metal target interaction in water at 1064 nm by applying Mach-Zehnder interference technique was studied. The mechanism of generating the well developed regime of evaporation of a metal surface and a spherical shock wave in water is proposed. Critical intensities of the NIR for the well developed evaporation of silver and gold targets were determined. Dynamics of shock waves was investigated for earlier (dozens) and later (hundreds) nanoseconds of time. Transparent expanding plasma-vapor-compressed water object was visualized and measured. The thickness of compressed layer of water and pressures behind the front of a shock wave for later time delays were obtained from the optical treatment of interferograms.

Keywords: laser, shock wave, metal target, underwater

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126 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: M. Farnush

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.

Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics.

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125 Study of Unsteady Behaviour of Dynamic Shock Systems in Supersonic Engine Intakes

Authors: Siddharth Ahuja, T. M. Muruganandam

Abstract:

An analytical investigation is performed to study the unsteady response of a one-dimensional, non-linear dynamic shock system to external downstream pressure perturbations in a supersonic flow in a varying area duct. For a given pressure ratio across a wind tunnel, the normal shock's location can be computed as per one-dimensional steady gas dynamics. Similarly, for some other pressure ratio, the location of the normal shock will change accordingly, again computed using one-dimensional gas dynamics. This investigation focuses on the small-time interval between the first steady shock location and the new steady shock location (corresponding to different pressure ratios). In essence, this study aims to shed light on the motion of the shock from one steady location to another steady location. Further, this study aims to create the foundation of the Unsteady Gas Dynamics field enabling further insight in future research work. According to the new pressure ratio, a pressure pulse, generated at the exit of the tunnel which travels and perturbs the shock from its original position, setting it into motion. During such activity, other numerous physical phenomena also happen at the same time. However, three broad phenomena have been focused on, in this study - Traversal of a Wave, Fluid Element Interactions and Wave Interactions. The above mentioned three phenomena create, alter and kill numerous waves for different conditions. The waves which are created by the above-mentioned phenomena eventually interact with the shock and set it into motion. Numerous such interactions with the shock will slowly make it settle into its final position owing to the new pressure ratio across the duct, as estimated by one-dimensional gas dynamics. This analysis will be extremely helpful in the prediction of inlet 'unstart' of the flow in a supersonic engine intake and its prominence with the incoming flow Mach number, incoming flow pressure and the external perturbation pressure is also studied to help design more efficient supersonic intakes for engines like ramjets and scramjets.

Keywords: Analytical investigation, compression and expansion waves, fluid element interactions, shock trajectory, supersonic flow, unsteady gas dynamics, varying area duct, wave interactions.

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124 Verification of K-ω SST Turbulence Model for Supersonic Internal Flows

Authors: J. Kolář, V. Dvořák

Abstract:

In this work, we try to find the best setting of Computational Fluid Dynamic solver available for the problems in the field of supersonic internal flows. We used the supersonic air-toair ejector to represent the typical problem in focus. There are multiple oblique shock waves, shear layers, boundary layers and normal shock interacting in the supersonic ejector making this device typical in field of supersonic inner flows. Modeling of shocks in general is demanding on the physical model of fluid, because ordinary conservation equation does not conform to real conditions in the near-shock region as found in many works. From these reasons, we decided to take special care about solver setting in this article by means of experimental approach of color Schlieren pictures and pneumatic measurement. Fast pressure transducers were used to measure unsteady static pressure in regimes with normal shock in mixing chamber. Physical behavior of ejector in several regimes is discussed. Best choice of eddy-viscosity setting is discussed on the theoretical base. The final verification of the k-ω SST is done on the base of comparison between experiment and numerical results.

Keywords: CFD simulations, color Schlieren, k-ω SST, supersonic flows, shock waves.

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123 Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Shape Effect on Shock Wave in Natural Gas Processing

Authors: Esam I. Jassim, Mohamed M. Awad

Abstract:

Natural gas flow contains undesirable solid particles, liquid condensation, and/or oil droplets and requires reliable removing equipment to perform filtration. Recent natural gas processing applications are demanded compactness and reliability of process equipment. Since conventional means are sophisticated in design, poor in efficiency, and continue lacking robust, a supersonic nozzle has been introduced as an alternative means to meet such demands. A 3-D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle is simulated using commercial Code for pressure ratio (NPR) varies from 1.2 to 2. Six different shapes of nozzle are numerically examined to illustrate the position of shock-wave as such spot could be considered as a benchmark of particle separation. Rectangle, triangle, circular, elliptical, pentagon, and hexagon nozzles are simulated using Fluent Code with all have same cross-sectional area. The simple one-dimensional inviscid theory does not describe the actual features of fluid flow precisely as it ignores the impact of nozzle configuration on the flow properties. CFD Simulation results, however, show that nozzle geometry influences the flow structures including location of shock wave. The CFD analysis predicts shock appearance when p01/pa>1.2 for almost all geometry and locates at the lower area ratio (Ae/At). Simulation results showed that shock wave in Elliptical nozzle has the farthest distance from the throat among the others at relatively small NPR. As NPR increases, hexagon would be the farthest. The numerical result is compared with available experimental data and has shown good agreement in terms of shock location and flow structure.

Keywords: CFD, Particle Separation, Shock wave, Supersonic Nozzle.

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122 Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.

Keywords: Aerodynamics compressible flow, gas dynamics, hydraulics, shock wave.

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121 Shock Induced Damage onto Free-Standing Objects in an Earthquake

Authors: Haider AlAbadi, Joe Petrolito, Nelson Lam, Emad Gad

Abstract:

In areas of low to moderate seismicity many building contents and equipment are not positively fixed to the floor or tied to adjacent walls. Under seismic induced horizontal vibration, such contents and equipment can suffer from damage by either overturning or impact associated with rocking. This paper focuses on the estimation of shock on typical contents and equipment due to rocking. A simplified analytical model is outlined that can be used to estimate the maximum acceleration on a rocking object given its basic geometric and mechanical properties. The developed model was validated against experimental results. The experimental results revealed that the maximum shock acceleration can be underestimated if the static stiffness of the materials at the interface between the rocking object and floor is used rather than the dynamic stiffness. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental results was found when the dynamic stiffness for the interface material was used, which was found to be generally much higher than corresponding static stiffness under different investigated boundary conditions of the cushion. The proposed model can be a beneficial tool in performing a rapid assessment of shock sensitive components considered for possible seismic rectification. 

Keywords: Impact, shock, earthquakes, rocking, building contents, overturning.

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120 Vibration Control of a Cantilever Beam Using a Tunable Vibration Absorber Embedded with ER Fluids

Authors: Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Geng-Fung Chen

Abstract:

This paper investigates experimental studies on vibration suppression for a cantilever beam using an Electro-Rheological (ER) sandwich shock absorber. ER fluid (ERF) is a class of smart materials that can undergo significant reversible changes immediately in its rheological and mechanical properties under the influence of an applied electric field. Firstly, an ER sandwich beam is fabricated by inserting a starch-based ERF into a hollow composite beam. At the same time, experimental investigations are focused on the frequency response of the ERF sandwich beam. Second, the ERF sandwich beam is attached to a cantilever beam to become as a shock absorber. Finally, a fuzzy semi-active vibration control is designed to suppress the vibration of the cantilever beam via the ERF sandwich shock absorber. To check the consistency of the proposed fuzzy controller, the real-time implementation validated the performance of the controller.

Keywords: Electro-Rheological Fluid, Semi-active vibration control, shock absorber, fuzzy control, Real-time control.

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119 Fuzzy Logic Control of a Semi-Active Quarter Car System

Authors: Devdutt, M. L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

The development of vehicles having best ride comfort and safety of travelling passengers is of great interest for automotive manufacturers. The effect of transmitted vibrations from car body to passenger seat is required to be controlled for achieving the same. The application of magneto-rheological (MR) shock absorber in suspension system has been considered to achieve significant benefits in this regard. This paper introduces a secondary suspension controlled semi-active quarter car system using MR shock absorber for effective vibration control. Fuzzy logic control system is used for design of controller for actual damping force generation by MR shock absorber. Performance evaluations are done related to passenger seat acceleration and displacement in time and frequency domains, in order to see the effectiveness of the proposed semi-active suspension system. Simulation results show that the semi-active suspension system provides better results compared to passive suspension system in terms of passenger ride comfort improvement.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic control, MR shock absorber, Quarter car model, Semi-active suspension system.

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118 Passenger Seat Vibration Control of Quarter Car System with MR Shock Absorber

Authors: Devdutt, M. L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

Semi-active Fuzzy control of quarter car system having three degrees of freedom and assembled with magneto-rheological (MR) shock absorber is studied in present paper. First, experimental work was performed on an MR shock absorber under different excitation conditions to obtain force-displacement and force-velocity curves. Then, for the application of experimental data in semi-active quarter car system, a polynomial model was selected. Finally, Fuzzy logic controller was designed having the combination of Forward fuzzy controller and Inverse fuzzy controller for integration in secondary suspension system of concerned model. The proposed controlled quarter car model was compared with uncontrolled system using simulation work under bump type of road excitation. Results obtained by simulation work shows the effectiveness of fuzzy controlled suspension system in improving the ride comfort and safety of travelling passengers compared to uncontrolled suspension system.

Keywords: MR shock absorber, three degrees of freedom, quarter car model, fuzzy controller.

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117 Theoretical Analysis of Self-Starting Busemann Intake Family

Authors: N. Moradian, E. Timofeev, R. Tahir

Abstract:

In this work, startability of the Busemann intake family with weak/strong conical shock, as most efficient intakes, via overboard mass spillage method is theoretically analyzed. Masterix and Candifix codes are used to numerically simulate few models of this type of intake and verify the theoretical results. Portions of the intake corresponding to various flow capture angles are considered to have mass spillage in the starting process of this intake. This approach allows for overboard mass spillage via a V-shaped slot with the tip of V coinciding with the focal point of the Busemann flow. The theoretical results, achieved using two different theories, of self-started Busemann takes with weak/strong conical shock show that significant improve in intake startability using overboard spillage technique. The starting phenomena of Busemann intakes with weak conical shock and seven different capture angles are numerically simulated at freestream Mach number of 3 to find the minimum area ratios of self-started intakes. The numerical results confirm the theoretical ones achieved by authors.

Keywords: Busemann intake, conical shock, overboard spillage, startability.

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116 Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on the Flow at the Outlet of a Propellant Nozzle

Authors: R. Haoui

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to simulate the flow at the exit of Vulcan 1 engine of European launcher Ariane 5. The geometry of the propellant nozzle is already determined using the characteristics method. The pressure in the outlet section of the nozzle is less than atmospheric pressure on the ground, causing the existence of oblique and normal shock waves at the exit. During the rise of the launcher, the atmospheric pressure decreases and the shock wave disappears. The code allows the capture of shock wave at exit of nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer to ensure convergence and avoid the calculation instabilities. The Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy coefficient (CFL) and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence. The nonlinear partial derivative equations system which governs this flow is solved by an explicit unsteady numerical scheme by the finite volume method. The accuracy of the solution depends on the size of the mesh and also the step of time used in the discretized equations. We have chosen in this study the mesh that gives us a stationary solution with good accuracy.

Keywords: Launchers, supersonic flow, finite volume, nozzles, shock wave.

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115 Influence of Non-Structural Elements on Dynamic Response of Multi-Storey Rc Building to Mining Shock

Authors: Joanna M. Dulińska, Maria Fabijańska

Abstract:

In the paper the results of calculations of the dynamic response of a multi-storey reinforced concrete building to a strong mining shock originated from the main region of mining activity in Poland (i.e. the Legnica-Glogow Copper District) are presented. The representative time histories of accelerations registered in three directions were used as ground motion data in calculations of the dynamic response of the structure. Two variants of a numerical model were applied: the model including only structural elements of the building and the model including both structural and non-structural elements (i.e. partition walls and ventilation ducts made of brick). It turned out that non-structural elements of multi-storey RC buildings have a small impact of about 10 % on natural frequencies of these structures. It was also proved that the dynamic response of building to mining shock obtained in case of inclusion of all non-structural elements in the numerical model is about 20 % smaller than in case of consideration of structural elements only. The principal stresses obtained in calculations of dynamic response of multi-storey building to strong mining shock are situated on the level of about 30% of values obtained from static analysis (dead load).

Keywords: Dynamic characteristics of buildings, mining shocks, dynamic response of buildings, non-structural elements

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114 An Approximate Engineering Method for Aerodynamic Heating Solution around Blunt Body Nose

Authors: Sahar Noori, Seyed Amir Hossein, Mohammad Ebrahimi

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to predict laminar and turbulent heating rates around blunt re-entry spacecraft at hypersonic conditions. Heating calculation of a hypersonic body is normally performed during the critical part of its flight trajectory. The procedure is of an inverse method, where a shock wave is assumed, and the body shape that supports this shock, as well as the flowfield between the shock and body, are calculated. For simplicity the normal momentum equation is replaced with a second order pressure relation; this simplification significantly reduces computation time. The geometries specified in this research, are parabola and ellipsoids which may have conical after bodies. An excellent agreement is observed between the results obtained in this paper and those calculated by others- research. Since this method is much faster than Navier-Stokes solutions, it can be used in preliminary design, parametric study of hypersonic vehicles.

Keywords: Aerodynamic Heating, Blunt Body, Hypersonic Flow, Laminar, Turbulent.

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113 Risk Management Analysis: An Empirical Study Using Bivariate GARCH

Authors: Chin Wen Cheong

Abstract:

This study employs a bivariate asymmetric GARCH model to reveal the hidden dynamics price changes and volatility among the emerging markets of Thailand and Malaysian after the Asian financial crisis from January 2001 to December 2008. Our results indicated that the equity markets are sharing the common information (shock) that transmitted among each others. These empirical findings are used to demonstrate the importance of shock and volatility dynamic transmissions in the cross-market hedging and market risk.

Keywords: multivariate ARCH, structural change, value at risk.

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112 Load Discontinuity in Shock Response and Its Remedies

Authors: Shuenn-Yih Chang, Chiu-Li Huang

Abstract:

It has been shown that a load discontinuity at the end of an impulse will result in an extra impulse and hence an extra amplitude distortion if a step-by-step integration method is employed to yield the shock response. In order to overcome this difficulty, three remedies are proposed to reduce the extra amplitude distortion. The first remedy is to solve the momentum equation of motion instead of the force equation of motion in the step-by-step solution of the shock response, where an external momentum is used in the solution of the momentum equation of motion. Since the external momentum is a resultant of the time integration of external force, the problem of load discontinuity will automatically disappear. The second remedy is to perform a single small time step immediately upon termination of the applied impulse while the other time steps can still be conducted by using the time step determined from general considerations. This is because that the extra impulse caused by a load discontinuity at the end of an impulse is almost linearly proportional to the step size. Finally, the third remedy is to use the average value of the two different values at the integration point of the load discontinuity to replace the use of one of them for loading input. The basic motivation of this remedy originates from the concept of no loading input error associated with the integration point of load discontinuity. The feasibility of the three remedies are analytically explained and numerically illustrated.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, load discontinuity, shock response, step-by-step integration

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111 Simulation of an Auto-Tuning Bicycle Suspension Fork with Quick Releasing Valves

Authors: Y. C. Mao, G. S. Chen

Abstract:

Bicycle configuration is not as large as those of motorcycles or automobiles, while it indeed composes a complicated dynamic system. People-s requirements on comfortability, controllability and safety grow higher as the research and development technologies improve. The shock absorber affects the vehicle suspension performances enormously. The absorber takes the vibration energy and releases it at a suitable time, keeping the wheel under a proper contact condition with road surface, maintaining the vehicle chassis stability. Suspension design for mountain bicycles is more difficult than that of city bikes since it encounters dynamic variations on road and loading conditions. Riders need a stiff damper as they exert to tread on the pedals when climbing, while a soft damper when they descend downhill. Various switchable shock absorbers are proposed in markets, however riders have to manually switch them among soft, hard and lock positions. This study proposes a novel design of the bicycle shock absorber, which provides automatic smooth tuning of the damping coefficient, from a predetermined lower bound to theoretically unlimited. An automatic quick releasing valve is involved in this design so that it can release the peak pressure when the suspension fork runs into a square-wave type obstacle and prevent the chassis from damage, avoiding the rider skeleton from injury. This design achieves the automatic tuning process by innovative plunger valve and fluidic passage arrangements without any electronic devices. Theoretical modelling of the damper and spring are established in this study. Design parameters of the valves and fluidic passages are determined. Relations between design parameters and shock absorber performances are discussed in this paper. The analytical results give directions to the shock absorber manufacture.

Keywords: Modelling, Simulation, Bicycle, Shock Absorber, Damping, Releasing Valve

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110 Approximate Method of Calculation of Inviscid Hypersonic Flow

Authors: F. Sokhanvar, A. B. Khoshnevis

Abstract:

In the present work steady inviscid hypersonic flows are calculated by approximate Method. Maslens' inverse method is the chosen approximate method. For the inverse problem, parabolic shock shape is chosen for the two-dimensional flow, and the body shape and flow field are calculated using Maslen's method. For the axisymmetric inverse problem paraboloidal shock is chosen and the surface distribution of pressure is obtained.

Keywords: Hypersonic flow, Inverse problem method

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