**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**883

# Search results for: constant pressure-mixing

##### 883 Pulse Generator with Constant Pulse Width

**Authors:**
Hanif Che Lah,
Wee Leong Son,
Rozita Borhan

**Abstract:**

This paper is about method to produce a stable and accurate constant output pulse width regardless of the amplitude, period and pulse width variation of the input signal source. The pulse generated is usually being used in numerous applications as the reference input source to other circuits in the system. Therefore, it is crucial to produce a clean and constant pulse width to make sure the system is working accurately as expected.

**Keywords:**
Amplitude,
Constant Pulse Width,
Frequency
Divider,
Pulse Generator.

##### 882 Electrodermal Activity Measurement Using Constant Current AC Source

**Authors:**
Cristian Chacha,
David Asiain,
Jesús Ponce de León,
José Ramón Beltrán

**Abstract:**

This work explores and characterizes the behavior of the AFE AD5941 in impedance measurement using an embedded algorithm that allows using a constant current AC source. The main aim of this research is to improve the exact measurement of impedance values for their application in EDA-focused wearable devices. Through comprehensive study and characterization, it has been observed that employing a measurement sequence with a constant current source produces results with increased dispersion but higher accuracy and a more linear behavior with respect to error. As a result, this approach leads to a more accurate system for impedance measurement.

**Keywords:**
Electrodermal Activity,
constant current AC source,
wearable,
precision,
accuracy,
impedance.

##### 881 Physical Parameter Based Compact Expression for Propagation Constant of SWCNT Interconnects

**Authors:**
Kollarama Subramanyam,
Nisha Kuruvilla,
J. P. Raina

**Abstract:**

Novel compact expressions for propagation constant (γ) of SWCNT and bundled SWCNTs interconnect, in terms of physical parameters such as length, operating frequency and diameter of CNTs is proposed in this work. These simplified expressions enable physical insight and accurate estimation of signal attenuation level and its phase change at any length for a particular frequency. The proposed expressions are validated against SPICE simulated results of lumped as well as distributed equivalent electrical RLC nets of CNT interconnect. These expressions also help us to evaluate the cut off frequencies of SWCNTs for different interconnect lengths.

**Keywords:**
Attenuation constant,
Bundled SWCNT,
CNT interconnects,
Propagation Constant.

##### 880 Computing Center Conditions for Non-analytic Vector Fields with Constant Angular Speed

**Authors:**
Li Feng

**Abstract:**

We investigate the planar quasi-septic non-analytic systems which have a center-focus equilibrium at the origin and whose angular speed is constant. The system could be changed into an analytic system by two transformations, with the help of computer algebra system MATHEMATICA, the conditions of uniform isochronous center are obtained.

**Keywords:**
Non-analytic,
center–focus problem,
Lyapunov constant,
uniform isochronous center.

##### 879 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

**Authors:**
Hoang Van Ngoc,
Nguyen Thu Huong,
Nguyen Quang Bau

**Abstract:**

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

**Keywords:**
Photon-drag effect,
constant current density,
quantum wire,
parabolic potential.

##### 878 Mass Transfer of Palm Kernel Oil under Supercritical Conditions

**Authors:**
I. Norhuda,
A. K. Mohd Omar

**Abstract:**

The purpose of the study was to determine the amount of Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) extracted from a packed bed of palm kernels in a supercritical fluid extractor using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as an environmental friendly solvent. Further, the study sought to ascertain the values of the overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of PKO evaluation through a mass transfer model, at constant temperature of 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C and pressures range from 27.6 MPa, 34.5 MPa, 41.4 MPa and 48.3 MPa respectively. Finally, the study also seeks to demonstrate the application of the overall mass transfer coefficient values in relation to temperature and pressure. The overall mass transfer coefficient was found to be dependent pressure at each constant temperature of 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. The overall mass transfer coefficient for PKO in a packed bed of palm kernels was found to be in the range of 1.21X 10-4 m min-1 to 1.72 X 10-4 m min-1 for a constant temperature of 50 °C and in the range of 2.02 X 10-4 m min-1 to 2.43 X 10-4 m min-1 for a constant temperature of 60 °C. Similar increasing trend of the overall mass transfer coefficient from 1.77 X 10-4 m min-1 to 3.64 X 10-4 m min-1 was also observed at constant temperature of 70 °C within the same pressure range from 27.6 MPa to 48.3 MPa.

**Keywords:**
Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient (D),
Supercritical
Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2),
Palm Kernel Oil (PKO).

##### 877 Analysis of Distribution of Thrust, Torque and Efficiency of a Constant Chord, Constant Pitch C.R.P. Fan by H.E.S. Method

**Authors:**
Morteza Abbaszadeh,
Parvin Nikpoorparizi,
Mina Shahrooz

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
C.F.D Test,
Counter Rotating Propeller,
H.E.S. Method,
R.S.M. Method

##### 876 Dielectric Studies on Nano Zirconium Dioxide Synthesized through Co-Precipitation Process

**Authors:**
K. Geethalakshmi,
T. Prabhakaran,
J. Hemalatha

**Abstract:**

Nano sized zirconium dioxide in monoclinic phase (m-ZrO2) has been synthesized in pure form through co-precipitation processing at different calcination temperatures and has been characterized by several techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The dielectric and capacitance values of the pelletized samples have been examined at room temperature as the functions of frequency. The higher dielectric constant value of the sample having larger grain size proves the strong influence of grain size on the dielectric constant.

**Keywords:**
capacitance,
dielectric constant,
m-ZrO2,
nano
zirconia

##### 875 Modeling and Simulation of a Serial Production Line with Constant Work-In-Process

**Authors:**
Mehmet Savsar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Production line simulator,
Push-pull system,
JIT
system,
Constant WIP,
Machine failures.

##### 874 On Quasi Conformally Flat LP-Sasakian Manifolds with a Coefficient α

**Authors:**
Jay Prakash Singh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
LP-Sasakian manifolds,
coefficient α,
quasi conformal
curvature tensor,
concircular vector field,
torse forming vector field,
η-Einstein manifold.

##### 873 Determination of Unsaturated Soil Permeability Based on Geometric Factor Development of Constant Discharge Model

**Authors:**
A. Rifa’i,
Y. Takeshita,
M. Komatsu

**Abstract:**

*k*) in both saturated and unsaturated conditions to solve this problem. More accurate and efficient field testing procedure is required to obtain permeability data that present the field condition. One of the field permeability test equipment is Constant Discharge procedure to determine the permeability coefficient. Necessary adjustments of the Constant Discharge procedure are needed to be determined especially the value of geometric factor (

*F*) to improve the corresponding value of permeability coefficient. The value of

*k*will be correlated with the value of volumetric water content (

*θ*) of an unsaturated condition until saturated condition. The principle procedure of Constant Discharge model provides a constant flow in permeameter tube that flows into the ground until the water level in the tube becomes constant. Constant water level in the tube is highly dependent on the tube dimension. Every tube dimension has a shape factor called the geometric factor that affects the result of the test. Geometric factor value is defined as the characteristic of shape and radius of the tube. This research has modified the geometric factor parameters by using empty material tube method so that the geometric factor will change. Saturation level is monitored by using soil moisture sensor. The field test results were compared with the results of laboratory tests to validate the results of the test. Field and laboratory test results of empty tube material method have an average difference of 3.33 x 10

^{-4}cm/sec. The test results showed that modified geometric factor provides more accurate data. The improved methods of constant discharge procedure provide more relevant results.

**Keywords:**
Constant discharge,
geometric factor,
permeability coefficient,
unsaturated soils.

##### 872 Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for p-Median Network Design Problem with Multiple Cable Types

**Authors:**
Chaghoub Soraya,
Zhang Xiaoyan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Approximation algorithms,
buy-at-bulk,
combinatorial
optimization,
network design,
p-median.

##### 871 Constructive Proof of Tychonoff’s Fixed Point Theorem for Sequentially Locally Non-Constant Functions

**Authors:**
Yasuhito Tanaka

**Abstract:**

We present a constructive proof of Tychonoff’s fixed point theorem in a locally convex space for uniformly continuous and sequentially locally non-constant functions.

**Keywords:**
sequentially locally non-constant functions,
Tychonoff’s
fixed point theorem,
constructive mathematics.

##### 870 Development of In Situ Permeability Test Using Constant Discharge Method for Sandy Soils

**Authors:**
A. Rifa’i,
Y. Takeshita,
M. Komatsu

**Abstract:**

The post-rain puddles problem that occurs in the first yard of Prambanan Temple are often disturbing visitor activity. A poodle layer and a drainage system had ever built to avoid such a problem, but puddles still did not stop appearing after rain. Permeability parameter needs to be determined by using a simpler procedure to find exact method of solution. The instrument modelling was proposed according to the development of field permeability testing instrument. This experiment used a proposed Constant Discharge method. Constant Discharge method used a tube poured with constant water flow from unsaturated until saturated soil condition. Volumetric water content (θ) were monitored by soil moisture measurement device. The results were correlations between k and θ which were drawn by numerical approach from Van Genutchen model. Parameters θr optimum value obtained from the test was at very dry soil. Coefficient of permeability with a density of 19.8 kN/m3 for unsaturated conditions was in range of 3 x 10-6 cm/sec (Sr=68%) until 9.98 x 10-4 cm/sec (Sr=82%). The equipment and testing procedure developed in this research was quite effective, simple and easy to be implemented on determining field soil permeability coefficient value of sandy soil. Using constant discharge method in proposed permeability test, value of permeability coefficient under unsaturated condition can be obtained without establish soil water characteristic curve.

**Keywords:**
Constant discharge method,
in situ permeability test,
sandy soil,
unsaturated conditions.

##### 869 Effect of Assumptions of Normal Shock Location on the Design of Supersonic Ejectors for Refrigeration

**Authors:**
Payam Haghparast,
Mikhail V. Sorin,
Hakim Nesreddine

**Abstract:**

The complex oblique shock phenomenon can be simply assumed as a normal shock at the constant area section to simulate a sharp pressure increase and velocity decrease in 1-D thermodynamic models. The assumed normal shock location is one of the greatest sources of error in ejector thermodynamic models. Most researchers consider an arbitrary location without justifying it. Our study compares the effect of normal shock place on ejector dimensions in 1-D models. To this aim, two different ejector experimental test benches, a constant area-mixing ejector (CAM) and a constant pressure-mixing (CPM) are considered, with different known geometries, operating conditions and working fluids (R245fa, R141b). In the first step, in order to evaluate the real value of the efficiencies in the different ejector parts and critical back pressure, a CFD model was built and validated by experimental data for two types of ejectors. These reference data are then used as input to the 1D model to calculate the lengths and the diameters of the ejectors. Afterwards, the design output geometry calculated by the 1D model is compared directly with the corresponding experimental geometry. It was found that there is a good agreement between the ejector dimensions obtained by the 1D model, for both CAM and CPM, with experimental ejector data. Furthermore, it is shown that normal shock place affects only the constant area length as it is proven that the inlet normal shock assumption results in more accurate length. Taking into account previous 1D models, the results suggest the use of the assumed normal shock location at the inlet of the constant area duct to design the supersonic ejectors.

**Keywords:**
1D model,
constant area-mixing,
constant pressure-mixing,
normal shock location,
ejector dimensions.

##### 868 Design and Development of Ferroelectric Material for Microstrip Patch Array Antenna

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Ferroelectric material,
WLAN,
WiMAX,
dielectric
constant

##### 867 Constructive Proof of the Existence of an Equilibrium in a Competitive Economy with Sequentially Locally Non-Constant Excess Demand Functions

**Authors:**
Yasuhito Tanaka

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Sequentially locally non-constant excess demand functions,
Equilibrium in a competitive economy,
Constructive mathematics

##### 866 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

**Authors:**
K. Al-Heuseen,
M. R. Hashim

**Abstract:**

The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

**Keywords:**
Electrical properties,
Gaussian distribution,
Pd-GaN Schottky diodes,
thermionic emission.

##### 865 Investigation of Constant Transconductance Circuit for Low Power Low-Noise Amplifier

**Authors:**
Wei Yi Lim,
M. Annamalai Arasu,
M. Kumarasamy Raja,
Minkyu Je

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the design of wide-swing constant transconductance (*g _{m}*) bias circuit that generates bias voltage for low-noise amplifier (LNA) circuit design by using an off-chip resistor is demonstrated. The overall transconductance (

*G*) generated by the constant

_{m}*g*bias circuit is important to maintain the overall gain and noise figure of the LNA circuit. Therefore, investigation is performed to study the variation in

_{m}*G*with process, temperature and supply voltage (PVT). Temperature and supply voltage are swept from -10 °C to 85 °C and 1.425 V to 1.575 V respectively, while the process conditions are also varied to the extreme and the

_{m}*g*variation is eventually concluded at between -3 % to 7 %. With the slight variation in the

_{m}*g*value, through simulation, at worst condition of state

_{m}*SS*, we are able to attain a conversion gain (

*S*) variation of -3.10 % and a noise figure (

_{21}*NF*) variation of 18.71 %. The whole constant

*g*circuit draws approximately 100 µA from a 1.5V supply and is designed based on 0.13 µm CMOS process.

_{m}

**Keywords:**
Transconductance,
LNA,
temperature,
process.

##### 864 Improvement Approach on Rotor Time Constant Adaptation with Optimum Flux in IFOC for Induction Machines Drives

**Authors:**
S. Grouni,
R. Ibtiouen,
M. Kidouche,
O. Touhami

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC),
InductionMachine (IM),
Rotor Time Constant,
Parameters ApproachAdaptation. Optimum rotor flux.

##### 863 Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking

**Authors:**
Peter U. Eze,
P. Udaya,
Robin J. Evans

**Abstract:**

Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, *p.* The constant correlation *p*, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from *p*. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.

**Keywords:**
Constant correlation,
medical image,
spread spectrum,
tamper detection,
watermarking.

##### 862 Design of a Constant Chord Single-Rotating Propeller using Lock and Goldstein Techniques

**Authors:**
Samrand Rashahmadi,
Morteza Abbaszadeh,
Sana Hoseyni,
Raziyeh Alizadeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Single rotating propeller,
Design,
C.F.D. test,
constant chord

##### 861 Study of Kinetics Incorporation of Ag with TCPP

**Authors:**
Rahmatollah Rahimi,
Fariba Moharrami

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Kinetics,
Silver,
TCPP,
Sitting-atop,
Theoretical
study

##### 860 Structural Properties of Polar Liquids in Binary Mixture Using Microwave Technique

**Authors:**
Shagufta Tabassum,
V. P. Pawar

**Abstract:**

The study of static dielectric properties in a binary mixture of 1,2 dichloroethane (DE) and n,n dimethylformamide (DMF) polar liquids has been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz for 11 different concentration using time domain reflectometry technique at 10ºC temperature. The dielectric relaxation study of solute-solvent mixture at microwave frequencies gives information regarding the creation of monomers and multimers as well as interaction between the molecules of the binary mixture. The least squares fit method is used to determine the values of dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant (ε_{0}), dielectric constant at high frequency (ε_{∞}) and relaxation time (τ).

**Keywords:**
Excess parameters,
relaxation time,
static dielectric constant,
time domain reflectometry.

##### 859 Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds from Contaminated Surfactant Solution using Co-Curren Vacuum Stripping

**Authors:**
Pornchai Suriya-Amrit,
Suratsawadee Kungsanant,
Boonyarach Kitiyanan

**Abstract:**

There has been a growing interest in utilizing surfactants in remediation processes to separate the hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) from aqueous solution. One attractive process is cloud point extraction (CPE), which utilizes nonionic surfactants as a separating agent. Since the surfactant cost is a key determination of the economic viability of the process, it is important that the surfactants are recycled and reused. This work aims to study the performance of the co-current vacuum stripping using a packed column for HVOCs removal from contaminated surfactant solution. Six types HVOCs are selected as contaminants. The studied surfactant is the branched secondary alcohol ethoxylates (AEs), Tergitol TMN-6 (C14H30O2). The volatility and the solubility of HVOCs in surfactant system are determined in terms of an apparent Henry’s law constant and a solubilization constant, respectively. Moreover, the HVOCs removal efficiency of vacuum stripping column is assessed in terms of percentage of HVOCs removal and the overall liquid phase volumetric mass transfer coefficient. The apparent Henry’s law constant of benzenz , toluene, and ethyl benzene were 7.00×10-5, 5.38×10-5, 3.35× 10-5 respectively. The solubilization constant of benzene, toluene, and ethyl benzene were 1.71, 2.68, 7.54 respectively. The HVOCs removal for all solute were around 90 percent.

**Keywords:**
Apparent Henry’s law constant,
Branched secondary alcohol ethoxylates,
Vacuum Stripping.

##### 858 On Bianchi Type Cosmological Models in Lyra’s Geometry

**Authors:**
R. K. Dubey

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bianchi type-I cosmological model,
variable
gravitational coupling (G) and Cosmological Constant term (β).

##### 857 Determine of Constant Coefficients to RelateTotal Dissolved Solids to Electrical Conductivity

**Authors:**
M. Siosemarde,
F. Kave,
E. Pazira,
H. Sedghi,
S. J. Ghaderi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
constant coefficients,
electrical conductivity,
Khuzestan plain and total dissolved solids.

##### 856 Prediction of Henry's Constant in Polymer Solutions using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State

**Authors:**
Somayeh Tourani,
Alireza Behvandi

**Abstract:**

The peng-Robinson (PR), a cubic equation of state (EoS), is extended to polymers by using a single set of energy (A1, A2, A3) and co-volume (b) parameters per polymer fitted to experimental volume data. Excellent results for the volumetric behavior of the 11 polymer up to 2000 bar pressure are obtained. The EoS is applied to the correlation and prediction of Henry constants in polymer solutions comprising three polymer and many nonpolar and polar solvents, including supercritical gases. The correlation achieved with two adjustable parameter is satisfactory compared with the experimental data. As a result, the present work provides a simple and useful model for the prediction of Henry's constant for polymer containing systems including those containing polar, nonpolar and supercritical fluids.

**Keywords:**
Equation of state,
Henry's constant,
Peng-Robinson,
polymer solution.

##### 855 Process Analysis through Length Consistency

**Authors:**
James E. Ponder

**Abstract:**

The requirement for consistency in physics can sometimes offer a common ground between disciplines such that their fundamental equations share a common parameter set and mathematical method for equation extraction. The parameter set shared by Relativity and Quantum Wave Mechanics enables an analysis which will be seen to be very straightforward, primarily classical in nature using linear algebra concepts, yet deriving a theoretical estimate of the value of the Gravitational Constant along with dependencies never before known.

**Keywords:**
Gravitational Constant,
Physical Consistency,
Quantum Mechanics,
Relativity.

##### 854 Creep Constitutive Equation for 2- Materials of Weldment-304L Stainless Steel

**Authors:**
Amir Hossein Daei Sorkhabi,
Farid Vakili Tahami

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Creep,
Constitutive equation,
Cold-drawn 304L
stainless steel,
Weld,
Base material