Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Recirculation zone

11 Experimental Study of Unconfined and Confined Isothermal Swirling Jets

Authors: Rohit Sharma, Fabio Cozzi

Abstract:

A 3C-2D PIV technique was applied to investigate the swirling flow generated by an axial plus tangential type swirl generator. This work is focused on the near-exit region of an isothermal swirling jet to characterize the effect of swirl on the flow field and to identify the large coherent structures both in unconfined and confined conditions for geometrical swirl number, Sg = 4.6. Effects of the Reynolds number on the flow structure were also studied. The experimental results show significant effects of the confinement on the mean velocity fields and its fluctuations. The size of the recirculation zone was significantly enlarged upon confinement compared to the free swirling jet. Increasing in the Reynolds number further enhanced the recirculation zone. The frequency characteristics have been measured with a capacitive microphone which indicates the presence of periodic oscillation related to the existence of precessing vortex core, PVC. Proper orthogonal decomposition of the jet velocity field was carried out, enabling the identification of coherent structures. The time coefficients of the first two most energetic POD modes were used to reconstruct the phase-averaged velocity field of the oscillatory motion in the swirling flow. The instantaneous minima of negative swirl strength values calculated from the instantaneous velocity field revealed the presence of two helical structures located in the inner and outer shear layers and this structure fade out at an axial location of approximately z/D = 1.5 for unconfined case and z/D = 1.2 for confined case. By phase averaging the instantaneous swirling strength maps, the 3D helical vortex structure was reconstructed.

Keywords: Acoustic probes, 3C-2D particle image velocimetry, PIV, precessing vortex core, PVC, recirculation zone.

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10 Numerical Studies on Flow Field Characteristics of Cavity Based Scramjet Combustors

Authors: Rakesh Arasu, Sasitharan Ambicapathy, Sivaraj Ponnusamy, Mohanraj Murugesan, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The flow field within the combustor of scramjet engine is very complex and poses a considerable challenge in the design and development of a supersonic combustor with an optimized geometry. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies on flow field characteristics of different cavity based scramjet combustors with transverse injection of hydrogen have been carried out for both non-reacting and reacting flows. The numerical studies have been carried out using a validated 2D unsteady, density based 1st-order implicit k-omega turbulence model with multi-component finite rate reacting species. The results show a wide variety of flow features resulting from the interactions between the injector flows, shock waves, boundary layers, and cavity flows. We conjectured that an optimized cavity is a good choice to stabilize the flame in the hypersonic flow, and it generates a recirculation zone in the scramjet combustor. We comprehended that the cavity based scramjet combustors having a bearing on the source of disturbance for the transverse jet oscillation, fuel/air mixing enhancement, and flameholding improvement. We concluded that cavity shape with backward facing step and 45o forward ramp is a good choice to get higher temperatures at the exit compared to other four models of scramjet combustors considered in this study.

Keywords: Flame holding, Hypersonic flow, Scramjet combustor, Supersonic combustor.

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9 Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Human Carotid Artery Model Induced by Blood-Arterial Wall Interactions

Authors: Taewon Seo

Abstract:

The characteristics of physiological blood flow in human carotid arterial bifurcation model have been numerically studied using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. This computational model with the fluid-structure interaction is constructed to investigate the flow characteristics and wall shear stress in the carotid artery. As the flow begins to decelerate after the peak flow, a large recirculation zone develops at the non-divider wall of both internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) in FSI model due to the elastic energy stored in the expanding compliant wall. The calculated difference in wall shear stress (WSS) in both Non-FSI and FSI models is a range of between 5 and 11% at the mean WSS. The low WSS corresponds to regions of carotid artery that are more susceptible to atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Carotid artery, Fluid-structure interaction, Hemodynamics, Wall shear stress.

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8 Tidal Flow Patterns Near A Coastal Headland

Authors: Fu E. Tang, Daoyi Chen

Abstract:

Experimental investigations were carried out in the Manchester Tidal flow Facility (MTF) to study the flow patterns in the region around and adjacent to a hypothetical headland in tidal (oscillatory) ambient flow. The Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was used for visualization, with fluorescent dye released at specific points around the headland perimeter and in its adjacent recirculation zone. The flow patterns can be generalized into the acceleration, stable flow and deceleration stages for each halfcycle, with small variations according to location, which are more distinct for low Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC) cases. Flow patterns in the mixing region are unstable and complex, especially in the recirculation zone. The flow patterns are in agreement with previous visualizations, and support previous results in steady ambient flow. It is suggested that the headland lee could be a viable location for siting of pollutant outfalls.

Keywords: Planar laser-induced Fluorescence, recirculation zone, tidal flow, wake flows

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7 Flow Visualization and Characterization of an Artery Model with Stenosis

Authors: Anis S. Shuib, Peter R. Hoskins, William J. Easson

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases, principally atherosclerosis, are responsible for 30% of world deaths. Atherosclerosis is due to the formation of plaque. The fatty plaque may be at risk of rupture, leading typically to stroke and heart attack. The plaque is usually associated with a high degree of lumen reduction, called a stenosis.It is increasingly recognized that the initiation and progression of disease and the occurrence of clinical events is a complex interplay between the local biomechanical environment and the local vascular biology. The aim of this study is to investigate the flow behavior through a stenosed artery. A physical experiment was performed using an artery model and blood analogue fluid. An axisymmetric model constructed consists of contraction and expansion region that follow a mathematical form of cosine function. A 30% diameter reduction was used in this study. The flow field was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Spherical particles with 20μm diameter were seeded in a water-glycerol-NaCl mixture. Steady flow Reynolds numbers are 250. The area of interest is the region after the stenosis where the flow separation occurs. The velocity field was measured and the velocity gradient was investigated. There was high particle concentration in the recirculation zone. High velocity gradient formed immediately after the stenosis throat created a lift force that enhanced particle migration to the flow separation area.

Keywords: Stenosis artery, Biofluid mechanics, PIV

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6 Numerical Investigation of Baffle Effect on the Flow in a Rectangular Primary Sedimentation Tank

Authors: M. Shahrokhi, F. Rostami, M.A. Md Said, S. Syafalni

Abstract:

It is essential to have a uniform and calm flow field for a settling tank to have high performance. In general, the recirculation zones always occurred in sedimentation tanks. The presence of these regions may have different effects. The nonuniformity of the velocity field, the short-circuiting at the surface and the motion of the jet at the bed of the tank that occurs because of the recirculation in the sedimentation layer, are affected by the geometry of the tank. There are some ways to decrease the size of these dead zones, which would increase the performance. One of the ways is to use a suitable baffle configuration. In this study, the presence of baffle with different position has been investigated by a finite volume method, with VOF (Volume of Fluid) model. Besides, the k-ε turbulence model is used in the numerical calculations. The results indicate that the best position of the baffle is obtained when the volume of the recirculation region is minimized or is divided to smaller part and the flow field trend to be uniform in the settling zone.

Keywords: Sedimentation tanks, Baffle, Numerical Modeling, VOF, Circulation Zone

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5 Cold Flow Investigation of Primary Zone Characteristics in Combustor Utilizing Axial Air Swirler

Authors: Yehia A. Eldrainy, Mohammad Nazri Mohd. Jaafar, Tholudin Mat Lazim

Abstract:

This paper presents a cold flow simulation study of a small gas turbine combustor performed using laboratory scale test rig. The main objective of this investigation is to obtain physical insight of the main vortex, responsible for the efficient mixing of fuel and air. Such models are necessary for predictions and optimization of real gas turbine combustors. Air swirler can control the combustor performance by assisting in the fuel-air mixing process and by producing recirculation region which can act as flame holders and influences residence time. Thus, proper selection of a swirler is needed to enhance combustor performance and to reduce NOx emissions. Three different axial air swirlers were used based on their vane angles i.e., 30°, 45°, and 60°. Three-dimensional, viscous, turbulent, isothermal flow characteristics of the combustor model operating at room temperature were simulated via Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code. The model geometry has been created using solid model, and the meshing has been done using GAMBIT preprocessing package. Finally, the solution and analysis were carried out in a FLUENT solver. This serves to demonstrate the capability of the code for design and analysis of real combustor. The effects of swirlers and mass flow rate were examined. Details of the complex flow structure such as vortices and recirculation zones were obtained by the simulation model. The computational model predicts a major recirculation zone in the central region immediately downstream of the fuel nozzle and a second recirculation zone in the upstream corner of the combustion chamber. It is also shown that swirler angles changes have significant effects on the combustor flowfield as well as pressure losses.

Keywords: cold flow, numerical simulation, combustor;turbulence, axial swirler.

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4 CFD Simulations of a Co-current Spray Dryer

Authors: Saad Nahi Saleh

Abstract:

This paper presents the prediction of air flow, humidity and temperature patterns in a co-current pilot plant spray dryer fitted with a pressure nozzle using a three dimensional model. The modelling was done with a Computational Fluid Dynamic package (Fluent 6.3), in which the gas phase is modelled as continuum using the Euler approach and the droplet/ particle phase is modelled by the Discrete Phase model (Lagrange approach).Good agreement was obtained with published experimental data where the CFD simulation correctly predicts a fast downward central flowing core and slow recirculation zones near the walls. In this work, the effects of the air flow pattern on droplets trajectories, residence time distribution of droplets and deposition of the droplets on the wall also were investigated where atomizing of maltodextrin solution was used.

Keywords: Spray, CFD, multiphase, drying, droplet, particle.

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3 CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots

Authors: K. Vasudeva Karanth, N. Yagnesh Sharma

Abstract:

Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible. This paper attempts to explore the effect of boundary layer suction slots corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller with converging configurations for the slots. The analysis shows that the converging suction slots located on the impeller blade about 25% from the trailing edge, significantly improves the static pressure recovery across the fan. Also it is found that Slots provided at a radial distance of about 12% from the leading and trailing edges marginally improve the static pressure recovery across the fan.

Keywords: Boundary layer suction converging slot, Flowseparation, Sliding mesh, Unsteady analysis, Recirculation zone, Jetsand wakes.

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2 Numerical Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Improved Performance using Splitter Vanes

Authors: N. Yagnesh Sharma, K. Vasudeva Karanth

Abstract:

The flow field in a centrifugal fan is highly complex with flow reversal taking place on the suction side of impeller and diffuser vanes. Generally performance of the centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing splitter vanes so as to improve the diffusion process. An extensive numerical whole field analysis on the effect of splitter vanes placed in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible using CFD. This paper examines the effect of splitter vanes corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller and diffuser. The analysis shows that the splitter vanes located near the diffuser exit improves the static pressure recovery across the diffusing domain to a larger extent. Also it is found that splitter vanes located at the impeller trailing edge and diffuser leading edge at the mid-span of the circumferential distance between the blades show a marginal improvement in the static pressure recovery across the fan. However, splitters provided near to the suction side of the impeller trailing edge (25% of the circumferential gap between the impeller blades towards the suction side), adversely affect the static pressure recovery of the fan.

Keywords: Splitter vanes, Flow separation, Sliding mesh, Unsteady analysis, Recirculation zone, Jets and wakes.

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1 A Multiple Inlet Swirler for Gas Turbine Combustors

Authors: Yehia A. Eldrainy, Hossam S. Aly, Khalid M. Saqr, Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar

Abstract:

The central recirculation zone (CRZ) in a swirl stabilized gas turbine combustor has a dominant effect on the fuel air mixing process and flame stability. Most of state of the art swirlers share one disadvantage; the fixed swirl number for the same swirler configuration. Thus, in a mathematical sense, Reynolds number becomes the sole parameter for controlling the flow characteristics inside the combustor. As a result, at low load operation, the generated swirl is more likely to become feeble affecting the flame stabilization and mixing process. This paper introduces a new swirler concept which overcomes the mentioned weakness of the modern configurations. The new swirler introduces air tangentially and axially to the combustor through tangential vanes and an axial vanes respectively. Therefore, it provides different swirl numbers for the same configuration by regulating the ratio between the axial and tangential flow momenta. The swirler aerodynamic performance was investigated using four CFD simulations in order to demonstrate the impact of tangential to axial flow rate ratio on the CRZ. It was found that the length of the CRZ is directly proportional to the tangential to axial air flow rate ratio.

Keywords: Swirler, Gas turbine, CFD, Numerical simulation, Recirculation zone, Swirl number

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