Search results for: In-phase and out-of-phase modes of instabilities
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 429

Search results for: In-phase and out-of-phase modes of instabilities

429 Acoustic Instabilities on Swirling Flames

Authors: T. Parra, R. Z. Szasz, C. Duwig, R. Pérez, V. Mendoza, F. Castro

Abstract:

The POD makes possible to reduce the complete high-dimensional acoustic field to a low-dimensional subspace where different modes are identified and let reconstruct in a simple way a high percentage of the variance of the field.

Rotating modes are instabilities which are commonly observed in swirling flows. Such modes can appear under both cold and reacting conditions but that they have different sources: while the cold flow rotating mode is essentially hydrodynamic and corresponds to the wellknown PVC (precessing vortex core) observed in many swirled unconfined flows, the rotating structure observed for the reacting case inside the combustion chamber might be not hydrodynamically but acoustically controlled. The two transverse acoustic modes of the combustion chamber couple and create a rotating motion of the flame which leads to a self-sustained turning mode which has the features of a classical PVC but a very different source (acoustics and not hydrodynamics).

Keywords: Acoustic field, POD, swirling flames.

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428 Nonlinear Thermal Hydraulic Model to Analyze Parallel Channel Density Wave Instabilities in Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor with Asymmetric Power Distribution

Authors: Sachin Kumar, Vivek Tiwari, Goutam Dutta

Abstract:

The paper investigates parallel channel instabilities of natural circulation boiling water reactor. A thermal-hydraulic model is developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in the natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR) with the incorporation of ex-core components and recirculation loop such as steam separator, down-comer, lower-horizontal section and upper-horizontal section and then, numerical analysis is carried out for parallel channel instabilities of the reactor undergoing both in-phase and out-of-phase modes of oscillations. To analyze the relative effect on stability of the reactor due to inclusion of various ex-core components and recirculation loop, marginal stable point is obtained at a particular inlet enthalpy of the reactor core without the inclusion of ex-core components and recirculation loop and then with the inclusion of the same. Numerical simulations are also conducted to determine the relative dominance between two modes of oscillations i.e. in-phase and out-of-phase. Simulations are also carried out when the channels are subjected to asymmetric power distribution keeping the inlet enthalpy same.

Keywords: Asymmetric power distribution, Density wave oscillations, In-phase and out-of-phase modes of instabilities, Natural circulation boiling water reactor

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427 Shear-Layer Instabilities of a Pulsed Stack-Issued Transverse Jet

Authors: Ching M. Hsu, Rong F. Huang, Michael E. Loretero

Abstract:

Shear-layer instabilities of a pulsed stack-issued transverse jet were studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. Jet pulsations were induced by means of acoustic excitation. Streak pictures of the smoke-flow patterns illuminated by the laser-light sheet in the median plane were recorded with a high-speed digital camera. Instantaneous velocities of the shear-layer instabilities in the flow were digitized by a hot-wire anemometer. By analyzing the streak pictures of the smoke-flow visualization, three characteristic flow modes, synchronized flapping jet, transition, and synchronized shear-layer vortices, are identified in the shear layer of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet at various excitation Strouhal numbers. The shear-layer instabilities of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet are synchronized by acoustic excitation except for transition mode. In transition flow mode, the shear-layer vortices would exhibit a frequency that would be twice as great as the acoustic excitation frequency.

Keywords: Acoustic excitation, jet in crossflow, shear-layer instability.

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426 Selection Initial modes for Belief K-modes Method

Authors: Sarra Ben Hariz, Zied Elouedi, Khaled Mellouli

Abstract:

The belief K-modes method (BKM) approach is a new clustering technique handling uncertainty in the attribute values of objects in both the cluster construction task and the classification one. Like the standard version of this method, the BKM results depend on the chosen initial modes. So, one selection method of initial modes is developed, in this paper, aiming at improving the performances of the BKM approach. Experiments with several sets of real data show that by considered the developed selection initial modes method, the clustering algorithm produces more accurate results.

Keywords: Clustering, Uncertainty, Belief function theory, Belief K-modes Method, Initial modes selection.

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425 Discrimination of Modes of Double- and Single-Negative Grounded Slab

Authors: R. Borghol, T. Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate theoretically the waves propagation in a lossless double-negative grounded slab (DNG). This study is performed by the Transverse Resonance Method (TRM). The proper or improper nature of real and complex modes is observed. They are highly dependent on metamaterial parameters, i.e. ɛr-negative, µr-negative, or both. Numerical results provided that only the proper complex modes (i.e., leaky modes) exist in DNG slab, and only the improper complex modes exist in single-negative grounded slab.

Keywords: Double-negative grounded slab, real and complex modes, single-negative grounded slab, transverse resonance method.

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424 Investigation of I/Q Imbalance in Coherent Optical OFDM System

Authors: R. S. Fyath, Mustafa A. B. Al-Qadi

Abstract:

The inphase/quadrature (I/Q) amplitude and phase imbalance effects are studied in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. An analytical model for the I/Q imbalance is developed and supported by simulation results. The results indicate that the I/Q imbalance degrades the BER performance considerably.

Keywords: Coherent detection, I/Q imbalance, OFDM, optical communications

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423 Improved K-Modes for Categorical Clustering Using Weighted Dissimilarity Measure

Authors: S.Aranganayagi, K.Thangavel

Abstract:

K-Modes is an extension of K-Means clustering algorithm, developed to cluster the categorical data, where the mean is replaced by the mode. The similarity measure proposed by Huang is the simple matching or mismatching measure. Weight of attribute values contribute much in clustering; thus in this paper we propose a new weighted dissimilarity measure for K-Modes, based on the ratio of frequency of attribute values in the cluster and in the data set. The new weighted measure is experimented with the data sets obtained from the UCI data repository. The results are compared with K-Modes and K-representative, which show that the new measure generates clusters with high purity.

Keywords: Clustering, categorical data, K-Modes, weighted dissimilarity measure

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422 Numerical Investigation of Instabilities in Free Shear Layer Produced by NS-DBD Actuator

Authors: Ilya Popov, Steven Hulshoff

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of the effects of nanosecond barrier discharge on the stability of a two-dimensional free shear layer is performed. The computations are carried out using a compressible Navier-Stokes algorithm coupled with a thermodynamic model of the discharge. The results show that significant increases in the shear layer-s momentum thickness and Reynolds stresses occur due to actuation. Dependence on both frequency and amplitude of actuation are considered, and a comparison is made of the computed growth rates with those predicted by linear stability theory. Amplitude and frequency ranges for the efficient promotion of shear-layer instabilities are identified.

Keywords: NS-DBD, plasma, actuator, flow control, instability, shear layer

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421 Developing a Regulator for Improving the Operation Modes of the Electrical Drive Motor

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

The operation modes of the synchronous motors used in the production processes are greatly conditioned by the accidentally changing technological and power indices.  As a result, the electrical drive synchronous motor may appear in irregular operation regimes. Although there are numerous works devoted to the development of the regulator for the synchronous motor operation modes, their application for the motors working in the irregular modes is not expedient. In this work, to estimate the issues concerning the stability of the synchronous electrical drive system, the transfer functions of the electrical drive synchronous motors operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained.  For that purpose, a model for investigating the frequency characteristics has been developed in the LabView environment. Frequency characteristics for assessing the transient process of the electrical drive system, operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained, and based on their assessment, a regulator for improving the operation modes of the motor has been proposed. The proposed regulator can be successfully used to prevent the irregular modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor, as well as to estimate the operation state of the drive motor of the mechanism with a changing load.

Keywords: Electrical drive system, synchronous motor, regulator, stability, transition process.

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420 Modes of Collapse of Compress–Expand Member under Axial Loading

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Aidil Khaidir Bin Muhamad, Ken Kaminishi, Dai-Heng Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, a study on the modes of collapse of compress- expand members are presented. Compress- expand member is a compact, multiple-combined cylinders, to be proposed as energy absorbers. Previous studies on the compress- expand member have clarified its energy absorption efficiency, proposed an approximate equation to describe its deformation characteristics and also highlighted the improvement that it has brought. However, for the member to be practical, the actual range of geometrical dimension that it can maintain its applicability must be investigated. In this study, using a virtualized materials that comply the bilinear hardening law, Finite element Method (FEM) analysis on the collapse modes of compress- expand member have been conducted. Deformation maps that plotted the member's collapse modes with regards to the member's geometric and material parameters were then presented in order to determine the dimensional range of each collapse modes.

Keywords: Axial collapse, compress-expand member, tubular member, finite element method, modes of collapse, thin-walled cylindrical tube.

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419 Selective Transverse Modes in a Diode End- Pumped Nd:Yag Pulsed Laser

Authors: M. Mohamadi, M. Mostamand, M. Moosavi, M. Soltanolkotabi

Abstract:

The output beam quality of multi transverse modes of laser, are relatively poor. In order to obtain better beam quality, one may use an aperture inside the laser resonator. In this case, various transverse modes can be selected. We have selected various transverse modes both by simulation and doing experiment. By inserting a circular aperture inside the diode end-pumped Nd:YAG pulsed laser resonator, we have obtained 00 TEM , 01 TEM , 20 TEM and have studied which parameters, can change the mode shape. Then, we have determined the beam quality factor of TEM00 gaussian mode.

Keywords: Beam shape, Transverse mode , Beam quality factor

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418 Multi-Modal Film Boiling Simulations on Adaptive Octree Grids

Authors: M. Wasy Akhtar

Abstract:

Multi-modal film boiling simulations are carried out on adaptive octree grids. The liquid-vapor interface is captured using the volume-of-fluid framework adjusted to account for exchanges of mass, momentum, and energy across the interface. Surface tension effects are included using a volumetric source term in the momentum equations. The phase change calculations are conducted based on the exact location and orientation of the interface; however, the source terms are calculated using the mixture variables to be consistent with the one field formulation used to represent the entire fluid domain. The numerical model on octree representation of the computational grid is first verified using test cases including advection tests in severely deforming velocity fields, gravity-based instabilities and bubble growth in uniformly superheated liquid under zero gravity. The model is then used to simulate both single and multi-modal film boiling simulations. The octree grid is dynamically adapted in order to maintain the highest grid resolution on the instability fronts using markers of interface location, volume fraction, and thermal gradients. The method thus provides an efficient platform to simulate fluid instabilities with or without phase change in the presence of body forces like gravity or shear layer instabilities.

Keywords: Boiling flows, dynamic octree grids, heat transfer, interface capturing, phase change.

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417 Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood

Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohamed Mehenni

Abstract:

In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.

Keywords: Doppler spectrum, flow mode, pattern recognition, permanent flow.

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416 Competitor Analysis to Quantify the Benefits and for Different Use of Transport Infrastructure

Authors: Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, Maria F. Sartzetaki

Abstract:

Different transportation modes have key operational advantages and disadvantages, providing a variety of different transport options to users and passengers. This paper reviews key variables for the competition between air transport and other transport modes. The aim of this paper is to review the competition between air transport and other transport modes, providing results in terms of perceived cost for the users, for destinations high competitiveness for all transport modes. The competitor analysis variables include the cost and time outputs for each transport option, highlighting the level of competitiveness on high demanded Origin-Destination corridors. The case study presents the output of a such analysis for the OD corridor in Greece that connects the Capital city (Athens) with the second largest city (Thessaloniki) and the different transport modes have been considered (air, train, road). Conventional wisdom is to present an easy to handle tool for planners, managers and decision makers towards pricing policy effectiveness and demand attractiveness, appropriate to use for other similar cases.

Keywords: Competitor analysis, generalized cost, transport economics, quantitative modelling.

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415 On the Theory of Persecution

Authors: Aleksander V. Zakharov, Marat R. Bogdanov, Ramil F. Malikov, Irina N. Dumchikova

Abstract:

Classification of persecution movement laws is proposed. Modes of persecution in number of specific cases were researched. Modes of movement control using GLONASS/GPS are discussed

Keywords: Controlled Dynamic Motion, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, GPS.

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414 Spectral Analysis of Radiation-Induced Natural Convection in Littoral Waters

Authors: Yadan Mao, Chengwang Lei, John C. Patterson

Abstract:

The mixing of pollutions and sediments in near shore regions of natural water bodies depends heavily on the characteristics such as the strength and frequency of flow instability. In the present paper, the instability of natural convection induced by absorption of solar radiation in littoral regions is considered. Spectral analysis is conducted on the quasi-steady state flow to reveal the power and frequency modes of the instability at various positions. Results indicate that the power of instability, the number of frequency modes, the prominence of higher frequency modes, and the highest frequency mode increase with the offshore distance and/or Rayleigh number. Harmonic modes are present at relatively low Rayleigh numbers. For a given offshore distance, the position with the strongest power of instability is located adjacent to the sloping bottom while the frequency modes are the same over the local depth. As the Rayleigh number increases, the unstable region extends toward the shore.

Keywords: Instability, Littoral waters, natural convection, Spectral analysis

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413 The Cost Structure of Intermodal Transportation: The Chilean Case

Authors: Mabel A. Leva

Abstract:

This study defines a methodology to compute unitary costs for freight transportation modes. The main objective was to gather relevant costs data to support the formulation and evaluation of railway, road, pipelines and port projects. This article will concentrate on the following steps: Compilation and analysis of relevant modal cost studies, Methodological adjustments to make cost figures comparable between studies, Definition of typology and scope of transportation modes, Analysis and validation of cost values for relevant freight transportation modes in Chile. In order to define the comparison methodology for the costs between the different transportation modes, it was necessary to consider that the relevant cost depends on who performs the comparison. Thus, for the transportation user (e.g. exporter) the pertinent costs are the mode tariffs, whereas from the operators perspective (e.g. rail manager), the pertinent costs are the operating costs of each mode.

Keywords: Intermodal costs, Logistics, Transportation costs.

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412 Spray Combustion Dynamics under Thermoacoustic Oscillations

Authors: Wajid A. Chishty, Stephen D. Lepera, Uri Vandsburger

Abstract:

Thermoacoustic instabilities in combustors have remained a topic of investigation for over a few decades due to the challenges it posses to the operation of low emission gas turbines. For combustors burning liquid fuel, understanding the cause-andeffect relationship between spray combustion dynamics and thermoacoustic oscillations is imperative for the successful development of any control methodology for its mitigation. The paper presents some very unique operating characteristics of a kerosene-fueled diffusion type combustor undergoing limit-cycle oscillations. Combustor stability limits were mapped using three different-sized injectors. The results show that combustor instability depends on the characteristics of the fuel spray. A simple analytic analysis is also reported in support of a plausible explanation for the unique combustor behavior. The study indicates that high amplitude acoustic pressure in the combustor may cause secondary breakdown of fuel droplets resulting in premixed pre-vaporized type burning of the diffusion type combustor.

Keywords: Secondary droplet breakup, Spray dynamics, Taylor Analogy Breakup Model, Thermoacoustic instabilities.

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411 Symmetrical In-Plane Resonant Gyroscope with Decoupled Modes

Authors: Shady Sayed, Samer Wagdy, Ahmed Badawy, Moutaz M. Hegaze

Abstract:

A symmetrical single mass resonant gyroscope is discussed in this paper. The symmetrical design allows matched resonant frequencies for driving and sensing vibration modes, which leads to amplifying the sensitivity of the gyroscope by the mechanical quality factor of the sense mode. It also achieves decoupled vibration modes for getting a low zero-rate output shift and more stable operation environment. A new suspension beams design is developed to get a symmetrical gyroscope with matched and decoupled modes at the same time. Finite element simulations are performed using ANSYS software package to verify the theoretical calculations. The gyroscope is fabricated from aluminum alloy 2024 substrate, the measured drive and sense resonant frequencies of the fabricated model are matched and equal 81.4 Hz with 5.7% error from the simulation results.

Keywords: Decoupled mode shapes, resonant sensor, symmetrical gyroscope, finite element simulation.

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410 A Lagrangian Hamiltonian Computational Method for Hyper-Elastic Structural Dynamics

Authors: Hosein Falahaty, Hitoshi Gotoh, Abbas Khayyer

Abstract:

Performance of a Hamiltonian based particle method in simulation of nonlinear structural dynamics is subjected to investigation in terms of stability and accuracy. The governing equation of motion is derived based on Hamilton's principle of least action, while the deformation gradient is obtained according to Weighted Least Square method. The hyper-elasticity models of Saint Venant-Kirchhoff and a compressible version similar to Mooney- Rivlin are engaged for the calculation of second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, respectively. Stability along with accuracy of numerical model is verified by reproducing critical stress fields in static and dynamic responses. As the results, although performance of Hamiltonian based model is evaluated as being acceptable in dealing with intense extensional stress fields, however kinds of instabilities reveal in the case of violent collision which can be most likely attributed to zero energy singular modes.

Keywords: Hamilton's principle of least action, particle based method, hyper-elasticity, analysis of stability.

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409 Dripping Modes of Newtonian Liquids: The Effect of Nozzle Inclination

Authors: Amaraja Taur, Pankaj Doshi, Hak Koon Yeoh

Abstract:

The dripping modes for a Newtonian liquid of viscosity µ emanating from an inclined nozzle at flow rate Q is investigated experimentally. As the liquid flow rate Q increases, starting with period-1 with satellite drops, the system transitions to period-1 dripping without satellite, then to limit cycle before showing chaotic responses. Phase diagrams showing the changes in the transitions between the different dripping modes for different nozzle inclination angle q is constructed in the dimensionless (Q, µ) space.

Keywords: Dripping, inclined nozzle, phase diagram.

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408 Study of the Electromagnetic Resonances of a Cavity with an Aperture Using Numerical Method and Equivalent Circuit Method

Authors: Ming-Chu Yin, Ping-An Du

Abstract:

The shielding ability of a shielding cavity with an aperture will be greatly degraded at resonance frequencies, and the resonance modes and frequencies are affected by aperture resonances and aperture-cavity coupling, which are closely related with aperture sizes. The equivalent circuit method and numerical method of Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) are used to analyze the effects of aperture resonances and aperture-cavity coupling on the electromagnetic resonances of a cavity with an aperture in this paper. Both analytical and numerical results show that the resonance modes of a shielding cavity with an aperture consist of cavity resonance modes and aperture resonance modes, and the resonance frequencies will shift with the change of the aperture sizes because of the aperture resonances and aperture-cavity coupling. Variation rules of electromagnetic resonances with aperture sizes for a cavity with an aperture are given, which will be useful for design of shielding cavities.

Keywords: Aperture-cavity coupling, equivalent circuit method, resonances, shielding equipment.

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407 Analysis of Scattering Behavior in the Cavity of Phononic Crystals with Archimedean Tilings

Authors: Yi-Hua Chen, Hsiang-Wen Tang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen

Abstract:

The defect mode of two-dimensional phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings was explored in the present study. Finite element method and supercell method were used to obtain dispersion relation of phononic crystals. The simulations of the acoustic wave propagation within phononic crystals are demonstrated. Around the cavity which is created by removing several cylinders in the perfect Archimedean tilings, whispering-gallery mode (WGM) can be observed. The effects of the cavity geometry on the WGM modes are investigated. The WGM modes with high Q-factor and high cavity pressure can be obtained by phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings.

Keywords: Defect mode, Archimedean tilings, phononic crystals, whispering- gallery modes.

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406 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanism of Stratified Liquid Mixing in a Cylinder

Authors: Chai Mingming, Li Lei, Lu Xiaoxia

Abstract:

In this paper, the mechanism of stratified liquids’ mixing in a cylinder is investigated. It is focused on the effects of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) and rotation of the cylinder on liquid interface mixing. For miscible liquids, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique is applied to record the concentration field for one liquid. Intensity of Segregation (IOS) is used to describe the mixing status. For immiscible liquids, High Speed Camera is adopted to record the development of the interface. The experiment of RTI indicates that it plays a great role in the mixing process, and meanwhile the large-scale mixing is triggered, and subsequently the span of the stripes decreases, showing that the mesoscale mixing is coming into being. The rotation experiments show that the spin-down process has a great role in liquid mixing, during which the upper liquid falls down rapidly along the wall and crashes into the lower liquid. During this process, a lot of interface instabilities are excited. Liquids mix rapidly in the spin-down process. It can be concluded that no matter what ways have been adopted to speed up liquid mixing, the fundamental reason is the interface instabilities which increase the area of the interface between liquids and increase the relative velocity of the two liquids.

Keywords: Interface instability, liquid mixing, Rayleigh-Taylor Instability, spin-down process, spin-up process.

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405 Assessment of Negative Impacts Affecting Public Transportation Modes and Infrastructure in Burgersfort Town towards Building Urban Sustainability

Authors: Ntloana Hlabishi Peter

Abstract:

The availability of public transportation modes and qualitative infrastructure is a burning issue that affects urban sustainability. Public transportation is indispensable in providing adequate transportation means to people at an affordable price, and it promotes public transport reliance. Burgersfort town has a critical condition on the urban public transportation infrastructure which affects the bus and taxi public transport modes and the existing infrastructure. The municipality is regarded as one of the mining towns in Limpopo Province considering the availability of mining activities and proposal on establishment of a Special Economic Zone (SEZ). The study aim is to assess the efficacy of current public transportation infrastructure and to propose relevant recommendations that will unlock the possibility of future supportable public transportation systems. The Key Informant Interview (KII) was used to acquire data on the views from commuters and stakeholders involved. There KII incorporated three relevant questions in relation to services rendered in public transportation. Relevant literature relating to public transportation modes and infrastructure revealed the imperatives of public transportation infrastructure, and relevant legislation was reviewed concerning public transport infrastructure. The finding revealed poor conditions on the public transportation ranks and also inadequate parking space for public transportation modes. The study reveals that 100% of people interviewed were not satisfied with the condition of public transportation infrastructure and 100% are not satisfied with the services offered by public transportation sectors. The findings revealed that the municipality is the main player who can upgrade the existing conditions of public transportation. The study recommended that an intermodal transportation facility must be established to resolve the emerging challenges.

Keywords: Public transportation, modes, infrastructure, urban sustainability.

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404 A Grid Current-controlled Inverter with Particle Swarm Optimization MPPT for PV Generators

Authors: Hanny H. Tumbelaka, Masafumi Miyatake

Abstract:

This paper proposes a three-phase four-wire currentcontrolled Voltage Source Inverter (CC-VSI) for both power quality improvement and PV energy extraction. For power quality improvement, the CC-VSI works as a grid current-controlling shunt active power filter to compensate for harmonic and reactive power of loads. Then, the PV array is coupled to the DC bus of the CC-VSI and supplies active power to the grid. The MPPT controller employs the particle swarm optimization technique. The output of the MPPT controller is a DC voltage that determines the DC-bus voltage according to PV maximum power. The PSO method is simple and effective especially for a partially shaded PV array. From computer simulation results, it proves that grid currents are sinusoidal and inphase with grid voltages, while the PV maximum active power is delivered to loads.

Keywords: Active Power Filter, MPPT, PV Energy Conversion.

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403 Devising and Assessing the Efficacy of Mobile-Assisted Instructional Modes in Mobile Learning

Authors: Majlinda Fetaji, Alajdin Abazi, Zamir Dika, Bekim Fetaji

Abstract:

The assessment of the efficacy of devised Mobile- Assisted Instructional Modes in Mobile Learning was the focus of this research. The study adopted pre-test, post-test, control group quasi-experimental design. Research instruments were developed, validated and used for collecting data. Findings revealed that the students exposed to Mobile Task Based Learning Mode (MTBLM) in using Mobile-Assisted Instruction (MAI) performed significantly better. The implication of these findings is that, the Audio tutorial and Practice Mode (ATPM) (Stimulus instruments) of MAI had been found better over the other modes used in the study.

Keywords: Mobile-Assisted instructions, Mobile learning, learning instructions, task based learning.

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402 Effects of Computer–Based Instructional Designs among Pupils of Different Music Intelligence Levels

Authors: Aldalalah, M. Osamah, Soon Fook Fong

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of computer–based instructional designs, namely modality and redundancy principles on the attitude and learning of music theory among primary pupils of different Music Intelligence levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was music intelligence. The dependent variables were the post test score. ANOVA was used to determine the significant differences of the pretest scores among the three groups. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. High music intelligence pupils performed significantly better than low music intelligence pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with low music intelligence significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Keywords: Modality, Redundancy, Music theory, Cognitivetheory of multimedia learning, Cognitive load theory, Musicintelligence.

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401 Modality and Redundancy Effects on Music Theory Learning Among Pupils of Different Anxiety Levels

Authors: Soon Fook Fong, Aldalalah, M. Osamah

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of modality and redundancy principles on music theory learning among pupils of different anxiety levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was the anxiety level, while the dependent variable was the post test score. The study sample consisted of 405 third-grade pupils. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the collected data. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The findings of this study showed that medium anxiety pupils performed significantly better than low and high anxiety pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with high anxiety significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Keywords: Modality, Redundancy, Music theory, Cognitivetheory of multimedia learning, Cognitive load theory, Anxiety.

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400 Role of Viscosity Ratio in Liquid-Liquid Jets under Radial Electric Field

Authors: Siddharth Gadkari, Rochish Thaokar

Abstract:

The effect of viscosity ratio (λ, defined as viscosity of surrounding medium/viscosity of fluid jet) on stability of axisymmetric (m=0) and asymmetric (m=1) modes of perturbation on a liquid-liquid jet in presence of radial electric field (E0 ), is studied using linear stability analysis. The viscosity ratio is shown to have a damping effect on both the modes of perturbation. However the effect was found more pronounced for the m=1 mode as compared to m=1 mode. Investigating the effect of both E0 and λ simultaneously, an operating diagram is generated, which clearly shows the regions of dominance of the two modes for a range of electric field and viscosity ratio values.

Keywords: liquid-liquid jet, axisymmetric perturbation, asymmetric perturbation, radial electric field

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