Search results for: Weekend effect
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4568

Search results for: Weekend effect

4568 Exploring Value of Time, Shopping Behavior and Shopping Motivation of International Tourists in the Chatuchak Weekend Market

Authors: Chanin Yoopetch, Natcha Toemtemsab

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the demographic differences of international tourists according to three main factors, including the value of time, shopping behavior and shopping motivation. The Chatuchak Weekend Market is known as one of the biggest weekend markets in the world. Too little academic studies had been conducted in this area of weekend market, despite its growth and continuous development. In general, both domestic visitors and international tourists are attracted to the perception of cheap and bargaining prices the weekend market. However, systematic research study can provide reliable understanding of the perception of the visitors. This study focused on the group of international tourists who visited the market and aimed to provide better insights based on the differences in their demographic factors. Findings indicated that several differences in value of time, shopping behavior, and shopping motivation were identified by gender, income and age. Research implications and directions for further studies were discussed.

Keywords: Value of Time, Shopping Behavior, Shopping Motivation, Chatuchak Weekend Market.

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4567 An Investigation into Ozone Concentration at Urban and Rural Monitoring Stations in Malaysia

Authors: Negar Banan, Mohd Talib Latif

Abstract:

This study investigated the relationship between urban and rural ozone concentrations and quantified the extent to which ambient rural conditions and the concentrations of other pollutants can be used to predict urban ozone concentrations. The study describes the variations of ozone in weekday and weekends as well as the daily maximum recorded at selected monitoring stations. The results showed that Putrajaya station had the highest concentrations of O3 on weekend due the titration of NO during the weekday. Additionally, Jerantut had the lowest average concentration with a reading value high on Wednesdays. The comparisons of average and maximum concentrations of ozone for the three stations showed that the strongest significant correlation is recorded in Jerantut station with the value R2= 0.769. Ozone concentrations originating from a neighbouring urban site form a better predictor to the urban ozone concentrations than widespread rural ozone at some levels of temporal averaging. It is found that in urban and rural of Malaysian peninsular, the concentration of ozone depends on the concentration of NOx and seasonal meteorological factors. The HYSPLIT Model (the northeast monsoon) showed that the wind direction can also influence the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere in the studied areas.

Keywords: Ozone, Hysplit model, Weekend effect, Daily Average and Daily maximum, Malaysia

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4566 Assessment of Noise Pollution in the City of Biskra, Algeria

Authors: Tallal Abdel Karim Bouzir, Nourdinne Zemmouri, Djihed Berkouk

Abstract:

In this research, a quantitative assessment of the urban sound environment of the city of Biskra, Algeria, was conducted. To determine the quality of the soundscape based on in-situ measurement, using a Landtek SL5868P sound level meter in 47 points, which have been identified to represent the whole city. The result shows that the urban noise level varies from 55.3 dB to 75.8 dB during the weekdays and from 51.7 dB to 74.3 dB during the weekend. On the other hand, we can also note that 70.20% of the results of the weekday measurements and 55.30% of the results of the weekend measurements have levels of sound intensity that exceed the levels allowed by Algerian law and the recommendations of the World Health Organization. These very high urban noise levels affect the quality of life, the acoustic comfort and may even pose multiple risks to people's health.

Keywords: Noise pollution, road traffic, sound intensity, public health, noise monitoring.

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4565 Extent of Highway Capacity Loss Due to Rainfall

Authors: Hashim Mohammed Alhassan, Johnnie Ben-Edigbe

Abstract:

Traffic flow in adverse weather conditions have been investigated in this study for general traffic, week day and week end traffic. The empirical evidence is strong in support of the view that rainfall affects macroscopic traffic flow parameters. Data generated from a basic highway section along J5 in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was synchronized with 161 rain events over a period of three months. This revealed a 4.90%, 6.60% and 11.32% reduction in speed for light rain, moderate rain and heavy rain conditions respectively. The corresponding capacity reductions in the three rainfall regimes are 1.08% for light rain, 6.27% for moderate rain and 29.25% for heavy rain. In the week day traffic, speed drops of 8.1% and 16.05% were observed for light and heavy conditions. The moderate rain condition speed increased by 12.6%. The capacity drops for week day traffic are 4.40% for light rain, 9.77% for moderate rain and 45.90% for heavy rain. The weekend traffic indicated speed difference between the dry condition and the three rainy conditions as 6.70% for light rain, 8.90% for moderate rain and 13.10% for heavy rain. The capacity changes computed for the weekend traffic were 0.20% in light rain, 13.90% in moderate rain and 16.70% in heavy rain. No traffic instabilities were observed throughout the observation period and the capacities reported for each rain condition were below the norain condition capacity. Rainfall has tremendous impact on traffic flow and this may have implications for shock wave propagation.

Keywords: Highway Capacity, Dry condition, Rainfall Intensity, Rainy condition, Traffic Flow Rate.

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4564 Heat and Mass Transfer for Viscous Flow with Radiation Effect past a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao

Abstract:

In this study, an analysis has been performed for heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer flow of a viscous flow past a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, Ec, k0, Sc represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, viscous effect, radiation effect and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem.

Keywords: Nonlinearly stretching sheet, heat and mass transfer, radiation effect, viscous effect.

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4563 Environmental Management System for Tourist Accommodations in Amphawa, Samut Songkram,Thailand

Authors: T. Utarasakul

Abstract:

Amphawa is the most popular weekend destination for both domestic and international tourists in Thailand. More than 112 homestays and resorts have been developed along the water resources. This research aims to initiate appropriate environmental management system for riverside tourist accommodations in Amphawa by investigating current environmental characteristics. Eighty-eight riverside tourist accommodations were survey from specific questionnaire, GPS data were also gathered for spatial analysis. The results revealed that the accommodations are welled manage in regards to some environmental aspects. In order to reduce economic costs, energy efficiency equipment is utilized. A substantial number of tourist accommodations encouraged waste separation, followed by transfer to local administration organization. Grease traps also utilized in order to decrease chemical discharged, grease and oil from canteen and restaurants on natural environment. The most notable mitigation is to initiate environmental friendly cleansers for tourist accommodation along the riverside in tourism destinations.

Keywords: Environmental Management System, Tourist Accommodations, Amphawa, Samut Songkram

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4562 Analysis of Air Quality in the Outdoor Environment of the City of Messina by an Application of the Pollution Index Method

Authors: G. Cannistraro, L. Ponterio

Abstract:

In this paper is reported an analysis about the outdoor air pollution of the urban centre of the city of Messina. The variations of the most critical pollutants concentrations (PM10, O3, CO, C6H6) and their trends respect of climatic parameters and vehicular traffic have been studied. Linear regressions have been effectuated for representing the relations among the pollutants; the differences between pollutants concentrations on weekend/weekday were also analyzed. In order to evaluate air pollution and its effects on human health, a method for calculating a pollution index was implemented and applied in the urban centre of the city. This index is based on the weighted mean of the most detrimental air pollutants concentrations respect of their limit values for protection of human health. The analyzed data of the polluting substances were collected by the Assessorship of the Environment of the Regional Province of Messina in the year 2004. A statistical analysis of the air quality index trends is also reported.

Keywords: Environmental pollution, Pollutants levels, Linearregression, Air Quality Index, Statistical analysis.

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4561 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy

Authors: A. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, N. Gayathri, P. Mukherjee, P. Barat

Abstract:

An experimental study is presented on the effect of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours) samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical behavior of the serrations is considered.

Keywords: Dynamic strain ageing, Heat treatment, Portevin-LeChatelier effect

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4560 Payment for Pain: Differences between Hypothetical and Real Preferences

Authors: J. Trarbach, S. Schosser, B. Vogt

Abstract:

Decision-makers tend to prefer the first alternative over subsequent alternatives which is called the primacy effect. To reliably measure this effect, we conducted an experiment with real consequences for preference statements. Therefore, we elicit preferences of subjects using a rating scale, i.e. hypothetical preferences, and willingness to pay, i.e. real preferences, for two sequences of pain. Within these sequences, both overall intensity and duration of pain are identical. Hence, a rational decision-maker should be indifferent, whereas the primacy effect predicts a stronger preference for the first sequence. What we see is a primacy effect only for hypothetical preferences. This effect vanishes for real preferences.

Keywords: Decision making, primacy effect, real incentives, willingness to pay.

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4559 Application of Neural Networks for 24-Hour-Ahead Load Forecasting

Authors: Fatemeh Mosalman Yazdi

Abstract:

One of the most important requirements for the operation and planning activities of an electrical utility is the prediction of load for the next hour to several days out, known as short term load forecasting. This paper presents the development of an artificial neural network based short-term load forecasting model. The model can forecast daily load profiles with a load time of one day for next 24 hours. In this method can divide days of year with using average temperature. Groups make according linearity rate of curve. Ultimate forecast for each group obtain with considering weekday and weekend. This paper investigates effects of temperature and humidity on consuming curve. For forecasting load curve of holidays at first forecast pick and valley and then the neural network forecast is re-shaped with the new data. The ANN-based load models are trained using hourly historical. Load data and daily historical max/min temperature and humidity data. The results of testing the system on data from Yazd utility are reported.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Holiday forecasting, pickand valley load forecasting, Short-term load-forecasting.

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4558 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail

Abstract:

Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.

Keywords: Graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation.

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4557 The Relationship between the Disposition Effect and Herding Behavior: Evidence from Taiwan’s Information Technology Stocks

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the relationship between the disposition effect and herding behavior of investors trading Taiwanese information technology stocks. This study differs from previous literature in two aspects. First, in contrast with the earlier studies that focused on investigating investors’ herding behavior, this study explores the possibility that the disposition effect drives investors’ herding behavior. Additionally, it takes an in-depth look at the interdependence between the disposition effect and herding behavior of investors, including lead-lag relationship and volatility transmission effect. Empirical results show that investors trading Taiwan’s information technology stocks exhibit pronounced herding behavior and that the disposition effect has a great impact on their herding behavior.

Keywords: Herding behavior, Disposition effect, Behavioral finance.

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4556 The Causation and Solution of Ringing Effect in DCT-based Video Coding

Authors: Yu Yuan, David Feng, Yu-Zhuo Zhong

Abstract:

Ringing effect is one of the most annoying visual artifacts in digital video. It is a significant factor of subjective quality deterioration. However, there is a widely-accepted misunderstanding of its cause. In this paper, we propose a reasonable interpretation of the cause of ringing effect. Based on the interpretation, we suggest further two methods to reduce ringing effect in DCT-based video coding. The methods adaptively adjust quantizers according to video features. Our experiments proved that the methods could efficiently improve subjective quality with acceptable additional computing costs.

Keywords: ringing effect, video coding, subjective quality, DCT.

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4555 Ambipolar Effect Free Double Gate PN Diode Based Tunnel FET

Authors: Hardik Vaghela, Mamta Khosla, Balwindar Raj

Abstract:

In this paper, we present and investigate a double gate PN diode based tunnel field effect transistor (DGPNTFET). The importance of proposed structure is that the formation of different drain doping is not required and ambipolar effect in OFF state is completely removed for this structure. Validation of this structure to behave like a Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) is carried out through energy band diagrams and transfer characteristics. Simulated result shows point subthreshold slope (SS) of 19.14 mV/decade and ON to OFF current ratio (ION / IOFF) of 2.66 × 1014 (ION at VGS=1.5V, VDS=1V and IOFF at VGS=0V, VDS=1V) for gate length of 20nm and HfO2 as gate oxide at room temperature. Which indicate that the DGPNTFET is a promising candidate for nano-scale, ambipolar free switch.

Keywords: Ambipolar effect, double gate PN diode based tunnel field effect transistor, high-κ dielectric material, subthreshold slope, tunnel field effect transistor.

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4554 Effective Design Parameters on the End Effect in Single-Sided Linear Induction Motors

Authors: A. Zare Bazghaleh, M. R. Naghashan, H. Mahmoudimanesh, M. R. Meshkatoddini

Abstract:

Linear induction motors are used in various industries but they have some specific phenomena which are the causes for some problems. The most important phenomenon is called end effect. End effect decreases efficiency, power factor and output force and unbalances the phase currents. This phenomenon is more important in medium and high speeds machines. In this paper a factor, EEF , is obtained by an accurate equivalent circuit model, to determine the end effect intensity. In this way, all of effective design parameters on end effect is described. Accuracy of this equivalent circuit model is evaluated by two dimensional finite-element analysis using ANSYS. The results show the accuracy of the equivalent circuit model.

Keywords: Linear induction motor, end effect, equivalent circuitmodel, finite-element method.

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4553 Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer for MHD Mixed Convection with Viscous Dissipation and Radiation Effect for Viscoelastic Fluid past a Stretching Sheet

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao, BorMing Lee

Abstract:

In this study, an analysis has been performed for conjugate heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer mixed convection of magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) flow with radiation effect of second grade subject to suction past a stretching sheet. Parameters E Nr, Gr, Gc, Ec and Sc represent the dominance of the viscoelastic fluid heat and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similar transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem. The conjugate heat and mass transfer results show that the non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid has a better heat transfer effect than the Newtonian fluid. The free convection with a larger r G or c G has a good heat transfer effect better than a smaller r G or c G , and the radiative convection has a good heat transfer effect better than non-radiative convection.

Keywords: Conjugate heat and mass transfer, Radiation effect, Magnetic effect, Viscoelastic fluid, Viscous dissipation, Stretchingsheet.

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4552 Influence of Heterogeneous Traffic on the Roadside Fine (PM2.5 and PM1) and Coarse(PM10) Particulate Matter Concentrations in Chennai City, India

Authors: Srimuruganandam. B, S.M. Shiva Nagendra

Abstract:

In this paper the influence of heterogeneous traffic on the temporal variation of ambient PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations at a busy arterial route (Sardar Patel Road) in the Chennai city has been analyzed. The hourly PM concentration, traffic counts and average speed of the vehicles have been monitored at the study site for one week (19th-25th January 2009). Results indicated that the concentrations of coarse (PM10) and fine PM (PM2.5 and PM1) concentrations at SP road are having similar trend during peak and non-peak hours, irrespective of the days. The PM concentrations showed daily two peaks corresponding to morning (8 to 10 am) and evening (7 to 9 pm) peak hour traffic flow. The PM10 concentration is dominated by fine particles (53% of PM2.5 and 45% of PM1). The high PM2.5/PM10 ratio indicates that the majority of PM10 particles originate from re-suspension of road dust. The analysis of traffic flow at the study site showed that 2W, 3W and 4W are having similar diurnal trend as PM concentrations. This confirms that the 2W, 3W and 4W are the main emission source contributing to ambient PM concentration at SP road. The speed measurement at SP road showed that the average speed of 2W, 3W, 4W, LCV and HCV are 38, 40, 38, 40 and 38 km/hr and 43, 41, 42, 40 and 41 km/hr respectively for the weekdays and weekdays.

Keywords: particulate matter, heterogeneous traffic, fineparticles, coarse particles, vehicle speed, weekend and weekday.

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4551 Battery Operation Time Enhancement Based On Alternating Battery Cell Discharge

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes an alternating discharge method of multiple battery cells to extend battery operation time. In the proposed method, two battery cells are periodically connected in turn to a mobile device and only one cell supply power while the other rests. Battery operation time of the connecting cell decreases due to rate-capacity effect, while that of the resting cell increases due to recovery effect. These two effects conflict each other, but recovery effect is generally larger than rate-capacity effect and battery lifetime is extended. It was found from the result that battery operation time increase about 7% by using alternating battery cell discharge.

Keywords: Battery, Recovery Effect, Rate-Capacity Effect, Low-Power, Alternating Battery Cell Discharge.

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4550 COVID-19 Pandemic Influence on Toddlers and Preschoolers’ Screen Time

Authors: Juliana da Silva Cardoso, Cláudia Correia, Rita Gomes, Carolina Fraga, Inês Cascais, Sara Monteiro, Beatriz Teixeira, Sandra Ribeiro, Carolina Andrade, Cláudia Oliveira, Diana Gonzaga, Catarina Prior, Inês Vaz Matos

Abstract:

The average daily screen time (ST) has been increasing in children, even at young ages. This seems to be associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, and as the time of exposure increases, the greater is the functional impact. This study aims to compare the daily ST of toddlers and preschoolers previously and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was applied by telephone to parents/caregivers of children between 1 and 5 years old, followed up at four primary care units belonging to the Group of Primary Health Care Centers of Western Porto, Portugal. A total of 520 children were included: 52.9% male, mean age 39.4 ± 13.9 months. The mean age of first exposure to screens was 13.9 ± 8.0 months, and most of the children were exposed to more than one screen daily. Considering the WHO recommendations, before the COVID-19 pandemic, 385 (74.0%) and 408 (78.5%) children had excessive ST during the week and the weekend, respectively; during the lockdown, these values increased to 495 (95.2%) and 482 (92.7%). Maternal education and both the child's median age and the median age of first exposure to screens had a statistically significant association with excessive ST, with OR 0.2 (p = 0.03, CI 95% 0.07-0.86), OR 1.1 (p = 0.01, 95% CI 1.05-1.14) and OR 0.9 (p = 0.05, 95% CI 0. 87-0.98), respectively. Most children in this sample had a higher than recommended ST, which increased with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results are worrisome and point to the need for urgent intervention.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, preschoolers, screen time, toddlers

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4549 Skin Effect: A Natural Phenomenon for Minimization of Ground Bounce in VLSI RC Interconnect

Authors: Shilpi Lavania

Abstract:

As the frequency of operation has attained a range of GHz and signal rise time continues to increase interconnect technology is suffering due to various high frequency effects as well as ground bounce problem. In some recent studies a high frequency effect i.e. skin effect has been modeled and its drawbacks have been discussed. This paper strives to make an impression on the advantage side of modeling skin effect for interconnect line. The proposed method has considered a CMOS with RC interconnect. Delay and noise considering ground bounce problem and with skin effect are discussed. The simulation results reveal an advantage of considering skin effect for minimization of ground bounce problem during the working of the model. Noise and delay variations with temperature are also presented.

Keywords: Interconnect, Skin effect, Ground Bounce, Delay, Noise.

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4548 The Study of Chain Initiation Effect on the Direct Initiation of Detonation

Authors: Masoud Afrand, Saeid Farahat, Mehdi Alamkar

Abstract:

In this research, effect of combustion reaction mechanism on direct initiation of detonation has been studied numerically. For this purpose, reaction mechanism has been simulated by using a three-step chemical kinetics model. The reaction scheme consists sequentially of a chain-initiation and chainbranching step, followed by a temperature -independent chaintermination. In a previous research, the effect of chain-branching on the direct initiation of detonation is studied. In this research effect of chain-initiation on direct initiation of detonation is investigated. For the investigation, first a characteristic time (τ) for each step of mechanism, which includes effect of different kinetics parameters, is defined. Then the effect of characteristic time of chain-initiation (τI) on critical initiation energy is studied. It is seen that increasing τI, causes critical initiation energy to be increased. Drawing detonation's shock pressure diagrams for different cases, shows that in small value of τI , kinetics has more important effect on the behavior of the wave.

Keywords: Detonation initiation, Initiation energy, Reaction rate, Characteristic time.

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4547 Mixed Convection with Radiation Effect over a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao

Abstract:

In this study, an analysis has been performed for free convection with radiation effect over a thermal forming nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, k0, Pr, G represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, radiation effect, heat transfer and free convection effects which have been presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference methods have been used to analyze the present problem. From the results, we find that the effects of parameters n, k0, Pr, Ec and G to the nonlinearly stretching sheet. The increase of Prandtl number Pr, free convection parameter G or radiation parameter k0 resulting in the increase of heat transfer effects, but increase of the viscous dissipation number Ec will decrease of heat transfer effect.

Keywords: Nonlinearly stretching sheet, Free convection, Finite-difference, Radiation effect.

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4546 Investigation of Monochromatization Light Effect at Molecular/Atomic Level in Electronegative-Electropositive Gas Mixtures Plasma

Authors: L.C. Ciobotaru

Abstract:

In electronegative-electropositive gas mixtures plasma, at a total pressure varying in the range of ten to hundred Torr, the appearance of a quasi-mochromatization effect of the emitted radiation was reported. This radiation could be the result of the generating mechanisms at molecular level, which is the case of the excimer radiation but also at atomic level. Thus, in the last case, in (Ne+1%Ar/Xe+H2) gas mixtures plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge, this effect, called M-effect, consists in the reduction of the discharge emission spectrum practice at one single, strong spectral line with λ = 585.3 nm. The present paper is concerned with the characteristics comparative investigation of the principal reaction mechanisms involved in the quasi-monochromatization effect existence in the case of the excimer radiation, respectively of the Meffect. Also, the paper points out the role of the metastable electronegative atoms in the appearance of the monochromatization – effect at atomic level.

Keywords: Colombian forces, Direct Harpoon reaction, Monochromatization – effect, Resonant polar three-body reaction.

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4545 Analysis of the Long-term Effect of Office Lighting Environment on Human Reponses

Authors: D.Y. Su, C.C. Liu, C.M. Chiang, W. Wang

Abstract:

This study aims to discuss the effect of illumination and the color temperature of the lighting source under the office lighting environment on human psychological and physiological responses. In this study, 21 healthy participants were selected, and the Ryodoraku measurement system was utilized to measure their skin resistance change.The findings indicated that the effect of the color temperature of the lighting source on human physiological responses is significant within 90 min after turning the lights on; while after 90 min the effect of illumination on human physiological responses is higher than that of the color temperature. Moreover, the cardiovascular, digestive and endocrine systems are prone to be affected by the indoor lighting environment. During the long-term exposure to high intensity of illumination and high color temperature (2000Lux -6500K), the effect on the psychological responses turned moderate after the human visual system adopted to the lighting environment. However, the effect of the Ryodoraku value on human physiological responses was more significant with the increase of perceptive time. The effect of long time exposure to a lighting environment on the physiological responses is greater than its effect on the psychological responses. This conclusion is different from the traditional public viewpoint that the effect on the psychological responses is greater.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, Human responses, Office Lighting Environment, Ryodoraku, Meridian

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4544 Effect of Different Types of Highly Consumed Beverages on the Surface Structure of Orthodontic Restorative Material

Authors: A. Alhazza, B. Alnaser

Abstract:

Orthodontic restorative materials are widely used for the direct restoration of teeth or for cosmetic dentistry purposes. These materials have helped to solve many dental problems, providing healthy and beautiful smiles for many patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the pH value has an effect on the surface structure of a nanohybrid composite material. Five different types of highly consumed beverages were selected to examine their effect on the surface structure of the nanohybrid composite material. The beverages had different pH values in the range of 3–6, i.e., they were all acidic. The material was investigated under the hardest conditions of surface exposure to the drinks by immersing the material for a long period. The specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different magnifications to investigate the effect of these beverages on the morphology of the nanohybrid composite material discs. All specimens showed an effect including pores, cracks, protrusions, and surface roughness as a result of the beverages. The degree of effect differed from one experimental group to another, but there was no relationship between the pH (acidity) value and the degree of effect on the surface structure of the specimens.

Keywords: Acidity, beverage, SEM, dentistry.

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4543 A Novel 14 nm Extended Body FinFET for Reduced Corner Effect, Self-Heating Effect, and Increased Drain Current

Authors: Cheng-Hsien Chang, Jyi-Tsong Lin, Po-Hsieh Lin, Hung-Pei Hsu, Chan-Hsiang Chang, Ming-Tsung Shih, Shih-Chuan Tseng, Min-Yan Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed a novel FinFET with extended body under the poly gate, which is called EB-FinFET, and its characteristic is demonstrated by using three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulation. We have analyzed and compared it with conventional FinFET. The extended body height dependence on the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (S.S) have been also investigated. According to the 3-D numerical simulation, the proposed structure has a firm structure, an acceptable short channel effect (SCE), a reduced series resistance, an increased on state drain current (I on) and a large normalized I DS. Furthermore, the structure can also improve corner effect and reduce self-heating effect due to the extended body. Our results show that the EBFinFET is excellent for nanoscale device.

Keywords: SOI, FinFET, tri-gate, self-heating effect.

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4542 The Effect of Ion Nitriding and Carbonitriding on Fretting Fatigue of Steels

Authors: V. Linhart, M.

Abstract:

The paper deals with the effect of ion nitriding and carbonitriding on fatigue strength of steel parts under the fretting conditions. Instrumented fatigue tests were carried out on surface treated flat bars from EA1N and EA4T steels with different strength. The chosen surfacing decrease importantly an unfavorable fretting effect. Nitridation suppressed the unfavorable effect of fretting almost entirely, while the influence of carbonitridation was less striking. The results were compared with those ones obtained on bars without surfacing. The causes of favorable influence of surfacing are discussed.

Keywords: Carbonitriding, fatigue, fretting, nitriding, steel.

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4541 Study of the Sloshing Phenomenon in a Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using CFD Simulation

Authors: Amit Kumar, Jaikumar V., Pradeep A. G., Shivakumar Bhavi

Abstract:

Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid is involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels of 50% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for two different baffle configurations has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles; maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

Keywords: 3D effect of sloshing, multiphase volume of fluid, CFD, baffles

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4540 Scanning Electronic Microscopy for Analysis of the Effects of Surfactants on De-Wrinkling and Dispersion of Graphene

Authors: Kostandinos Katsamangas, B. Ramachandra Bhat, Fawad Inam

Abstract:

Graphene was dispersed using a tip sonicator and the effect of surfactants were analysed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) were compared to observe whether or not they had any effect on any de-wrinkling, and secondly whether they aided to achieve better dispersions. There is a huge demand for wrinkle free graphene as this will greatly increase its usefulness in various engineering applications. A comprehensive literature on dewrinkling graphene has been discussed. Low magnification Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) was conducted to assess the quality of graphene de-wrinkling. The utilization of the PVA has significant effect on de-wrinkling whereas SDS had minimal effect on the dewrinkling of graphene.

Keywords: De-wrinkling, dispersion, graphene, scanning electron microscopy.

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4539 ANP-based Intra and Inter-industry Analysis for Measuring Spillover Effect of ICT Industries

Authors: Yongyoon Suh, Yongtae Park

Abstract:

The interaction among information and communication technology (ICT) industries is a recently ubiquitous phenomenon through fixed-mobile integration. To monitor the impact of interaction, previous research has mainly focused on measuring spillover effect among ICT industries using various methods. Among others, inter-industry analysis is one of the useful methods for examining spillover effect between industries. However, more complex ICT industries become, more important the impact within an industry is. Inter-industry analysis is limited in mirroring intra-relationships within an industry. Thus, this study applies the analytic network process (ANP) to measure the spillover effect, capturing all of the intra and inter-relationships. Using ANP-based intra and inter-industry analysis, the spillover effect is effectively measured, mirroring the complex structure of ICT industries. A main ICT industry and its linkages are also explored to show the current structure of ICT industries. The proposed approach is expected to allow policy makers to understand interactions of ICT industries and their impact.

Keywords: ANP, intra and inter-industry analysis, spillover effect

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