Search results for: Muhammad Amjad Sohail
299 CFD of Oscillating Airfoil Pitch Cycle by using PISO Algorithm
Authors: Muhammad Amjad Sohail, Rizwan Ullah
Abstract:This research paper presents the CFD analysis of oscillating airfoil during pitch cycle. Unsteady subsonic flow is simulated for pitching airfoil at Mach number 0.283 and Reynolds number 3.45 millions. Turbulent effects are also considered for this study by using K-ω SST turbulent model. Two-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes code including two-equation turbulence model and PISO pressure velocity coupling is used. Pressure based implicit solver with first order implicit unsteady formulation is used. The simulated pitch cycle results are compared with the available experimental data. The results have a good agreement with the experimental data. Aerodynamic characteristics during pitch cycles have been studied and validated.
Keywords: Angle of attack, Centre of pressure, subsonic flow, pitching moment coefficient, turbulence modeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2288
298 Applications of AUSM+ Scheme on Subsonic, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows Fields
Authors: Muhammad Yamin Younis, Muhammad Amjad Sohail, Tawfiqur Rahman, Zaka Muhammad, Saifur Rahman Bakaul
Abstract:The performance of Advection Upstream Splitting Method AUSM schemes are evaluated against experimental flow fields at different Mach numbers and results are compared with experimental data of subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic flow fields. The turbulent model used here is SST model by Menter. The numerical predictions include lift coefficient, drag coefficient and pitching moment coefficient at different mach numbers and angle of attacks. This work describes a computational study undertaken to compute the Aerodynamic characteristics of different air vehicles configurations using a structured Navier-Stokes computational technique. The CFD code bases on the idea of upwind scheme for the convective (convective-moving) fluxes. CFD results for GLC305 airfoil and cone cylinder tail fined missile calculated on above mentioned turbulence model are compared with the available data. Wide ranges of Mach number from subsonic to hypersonic speeds are simulated and results are compared. When the computation is done by using viscous turbulence model the above mentioned coefficients have a very good agreement with the experimental values. AUSM scheme is very efficient in the regions of very high pressure gradients like shock waves and discontinuities. The AUSM versions simulate the all types of flows from lower subsonic to hypersonic flow without oscillations.
Keywords: Subsonic, supersonic, Hypersonic, AUSM+, Drag Coefficient, lift Coefficient, Pitching moment coefficient, pressure Coefficient, turbulent flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3045
297 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity
Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Afzal, Sami Ullah
Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.
Keywords: Apis melifera L., dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1094
296 Comparison of Detached Eddy Simulations with Turbulence Modeling
Authors: Muhammad Amjad Sohail, Prof. Yan Chao, Mukkarum Husain
Abstract:Flow field around hypersonic vehicles is very complex and difficult to simulate. The boundary layers are squeezed between shock layer and body surface. Resolution of boundary layer, shock wave and turbulent regions where the flow field has high values is difficult of capture. Detached eddy simulation (DES) is a modification of a RANS model in which the model switches to a subgrid scale formulation in regions fine enough for LES calculations. Regions near solid body boundaries and where the turbulent length scale is less than the maximum grid dimension are assigned the RANS mode of solution. As the turbulent length scale exceeds the grid dimension, the regions are solved using the LES mode. Therefore the grid resolution is not as demanding as pure LES, thereby considerably cutting down the cost of the computation. In this research study hypersonic flow is simulated at Mach 8 and different angle of attacks to resolve the proper boundary layers and discontinuities. The flow is also simulated in the long wake regions. Mesh is little different than RANS simulations and it is made dense near the boundary layers and in the wake regions to resolve it properly. Hypersonic blunt cone cylinder body with frustrum at angle 5o and 10 o are simulated and there aerodynamics study is performed to calculate aerodynamics characteristics of different geometries. The results and then compared with experimental as well as with some turbulence model (SA Model). The results achieved with DES simulation have very good resolution as well as have excellent agreement with experimental and available data. Unsteady simulations are performed for DES calculations by using duel time stepping method or implicit time stepping. The simulations are performed at Mach number 8 and angle of attack from 0o to 10o for all these cases. The results and resolutions for DES model found much better than SA turbulence model.
Keywords: Detached eddy simulation, dual time stepping, hypersonic flow, turbulence modelingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2236
295 Causes and Implications of Obesity in Urban School Going Children
Authors: Mohammad Amjad, Muhammad Iqbal Zafar, Ashfaq Ahmed Maan, Muhammad Tayyab Kashif
Obesity is an abnormal physical condition where an increased and undesirable fat accumulates in the human body. Obesity is an international phenomenon. In the present study, 12 schools were randomly selected from each district considering the areas i.e. Elite Private Schools in the private sector, Government schools in urban areas and Government schools in rural areas. Interviews were conducted with male students studying in grade 5 to grade 9 in each school. The sample size was 600 students; 300 from Faisalabad district and 300 from Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The calibrated scales were used to attain the heights and weights of the respondents. Obesity of school-going children depends on family types, family size, family history, junk food consumption, mother’s education, weekly time spent in walking, and sports facility at school levels. Academic performance, physical health and psychological health of school going children are affected with obesity. Concrete steps and policies could minimize the incidence of obesity in children in Pakistan.
Keywords: BMI, cardiovascular disease, fast food, morbidity and overweight.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 786
294 Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die
Authors: Muhammad Sohail Khan, Rehan Ali Shah
Abstract:The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.
Keywords: Wire coating die, Corotational Maxwell model, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, optimal homotopy perturbation method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 925
293 Studies on Seasonal Variations of Physico- Chemical Parameters of Fish Farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Mehtab Ahmad, Muhammad Jamshed Khan, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Muzaffar Ali, Arshad Ali, Memoona Qayyum Abir Ishtiaq
The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters of fish farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Department of Fisheries Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan for a period of eight months from January to August 2008. Water samples were collected on fifteen days basis and have been analyzed for estimation of Air temperature, Water temperature, Light penetration, pH, Total dissolved oxygen, Clouds, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Total carbonates, Total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Calcium and Hardness. Seasonal fluctuations were observed in all the physico-chemical parameters of fish farm. The overall physicochemical parameters of fish pond water remained within the tolerable range throughout the study period.
Keywords: Freshwater, Fish farm, Water quality, Seasonal variation, Chemical factorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2045
292 SIP-Based QoS Management Architecture for IP Multimedia Subsystems over IP Access Networks
Authors: Umber Iqbal, Shaleeza Sohail, Muhammad Younas Javed
Abstract:True integration of multimedia services over wired or wireless networks increase the productivity and effectiveness in today-s networks. IP Multimedia Subsystems are Next Generation Network architecture to provide the multimedia services over fixed or mobile networks. This paper proposes an extended SIP-based QoS Management architecture for IMS services over underlying IP access networks. To guarantee the end-to-end QoS for IMS services in interconnection backbone, SIP based proxy Modules are introduced to support the QoS provisioning and to reduce the handoff disruption time over IP access networks. In our approach these SIP Modules implement the combination of Diffserv and MPLS QoS mechanisms to assure the guaranteed QoS for real-time multimedia services. To guarantee QoS over access networks, SIP Modules make QoS resource reservations in advance to provide best QoS to IMS users over heterogeneous networks. To obtain more reliable multimedia services, our approach allows the use of SCTP protocol over SIP instead of UDP due to its multi-streaming feature. This architecture enables QoS provisioning for IMS roaming users to differentiate IMS network from other common IP networks for transmission of realtime multimedia services. To validate our approach simulation models are developed on short scale basis. The results show that our approach yields comparable performance for efficient delivery of IMS services over heterogeneous IP access networks.
Keywords: SIP-Based QoS Management Architecture, IPMultimedia Subsystems, IP Access NetworksProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2500
291 Use of Pesticides and Their Role in Environmental Pollution
Authors: Muhammad Jamil Khan, Muhammad Sharif Zia, Muhammad Qasim
Abstract:Insect pests are the major source of crop damage, yield and quality reduction in Pakistan and else where in the world. Cotton crop is the most hit crop in Pakistan followed by rice and the second most important foreign exchange earning crop. A wide variety of staple, horticultural and cash crops grown, reflect serious problems of many types of insect pests. To overcome the insect pest problem, pesticide use in Pakistan has increased substantially which has now been further intensified. Pesticides worth more than billions of rupees are imported every year. This paper reviews the over all pesticide use in Pakistan in relation to pesticide prices, support price of cotton and rice, pesticide use in different provinces of Pakistan on different crops and their impact on crop productivity. The environmental pollution caused by the use of pesticides, contamination of soil and water resources and the danger associated with the disposal of their empty containers is also discussed in detail.
Keywords: Pesticide use, crop productivity, environmentalpollutionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3316
290 The Malacca Empire: Sayings of Prophet Muhammad in Sulalat Al-Salatin
Authors: Abdur-Rahman M. A., R. M. Mohd. Ali, R. A. I. R. Yaacob.
Abstract:In the fifteenth century, the Malacca Empire emerged as the centre of Islamic civilization in the Malay Archipelago. The history had been recorded in Sulalat Al-Salatin, an important literary source about the genealogy of all Kings in Malacca. The objective of this study was to analyze the understanding of sayings from Prophet Muhammad among Malays in Malacca during the fifteenth century through all of the hadith quoted in Sulalat Al-Salatin. This study used content analysis methodology to validate the sayings where all of them were critically analyzed and compared with the classical hadith sources from prominent Muslim scholars. As a result, only two out of the four quotations were considered as authentic sayings of Prophet Muhammad. This study also showed the importance of the palace as the centre of the Islamic education system and the role played by Muslim preachers from outside of Malacca to propagate Islam in Malacca.
Keywords: Hadith in Malay Annals, Malay Annals, SejarahMelayu, Sulalat Al-Salatin.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1585
289 Optimization of Growth Conditions for Acidic Protease Production from Rhizopus oligosporus through Solid State Fermentation of Sunflower Meal
Authors: Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Nadeem, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal
Abstract:Rhizopus oligosporus was used in the present study for the production of protease enzyme under SSF. Sunflower meal was used as by-product of oil industry incorporated with organic salts was employed for the production of protease enzyme. The main purpose of the present was to study different parameters of protease productivity, its yields and to optimize basal fermentation conditions. The optimal conditions found for protease production using sunflower meal as a substrate in the present study were inoculum size (1%), substrate (Sunflower meal), substrate concentration (20 g), pH (3), cultivation period (72 h), incubation temperature (35oC), substrate to diluent-s ratio (1:2) and tween 81 (1 mL). The maximum production of protease in the presence of cheaper substrate at low concentration and stability at acidic pH, these characteristics make the strain and its enzymes useful in different industry.
Keywords: Acidic protease, Rhizopus oligosporus, Mediaoptimization, Solid state FermentationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2848
288 Compact Er3+-Doped ZBLAN Green Upconversion Fibre Laser
Authors: Syed Sohail Abbas, Sergei Popov
Abstract:In this paper, a fibre laser at 546 nm has been studied for a signal power of -30 dB. Er3+-doped ZBLAN fibre has been used by upconversion pumping of a 980 nm laser diode. Gain saturation effect has been investigated in detail. Laser performance has also been discussed. An efficiency of 35% has been calculated with a length of 5 mm fibre laser. Results show that Er3+-doped ZBLAN is a promising candidate for optical amplification at 546 nm.
Keywords: Compact visible lasers, Erbium doped, Gainsaturation, Green laser, Optical fibre lasersProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1563
287 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)
Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan
In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.
Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2029
286 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems
Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman
The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.
Keywords: Fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 598
285 Effect of Body Size and Condition Factor on Whole Body Composition of Hybrid (Catla catla ♂x Labeo rohita ♀) from Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Asghar Bashir, Abir Ishtiaq, Qurat-ul-Ane Gillani and Asma Salam
Abstract:In the present study, 49 Hybrid (Catla catla ♂ x Labeo rohita ♀) were sampled from Al-Raheem Fish Hatchery, Village Ali Pure Shamali, Jhang Road, 18 Km from Muzaffar Garh using a cast net and Live fishes were transported to research laboratory. Mean percentage for water found 79.13 %, ash 6.58 %, fat 2.22 % and protein content 12.06 % in whole wet body weight. It was observed that body constituents were found increasing in the same proportion with an increase in body weight while significant proportional increase was observed with total length. However, condition factor remained insignificant (P>0.05) with body constituents.
Keywords: Hybrid fish, Body composition, Condition factor, Predictive equationsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1675
284 Fabrication and Characterization of Al/Methyl Orange/n-Si Heterojunction Diode
Authors: Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad H. Sayyad, Dil N. Khan, Fazal Wahab
Abstract:Herein, the organic semiconductor methyl orange (MO), is investigated for the first time for its electronic applications. For this purpose, Al/MO/n-Si heterojunction is fabricated through economical cheap and simple “drop casting” technique. The currentvoltage (I-V) measurements of the device are made at room temperature under dark conditions. The I-V characteristics of Al/MO/n-Si junction exhibits asymmetrical and rectifying behavior that confirms the formation of diode. The diode parameters such as rectification ratio (RR), turn on voltage (Vturn on), reverse saturation current (I0), ideality factor (n), barrier height ( b f ), series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) are determined from I-V curves using Schottky equations. These values of these parameters are also extracted and verified by applying Cheung’s functions. The conduction mechanisms are explained from the forward bias I-V characteristics using the power law.
Keywords: Electrical properties, Organic/inorganic heterojunction diode, Methyl Orange, Cheungs FunctionsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1815
283 External Morphological Study of Wild Labeo calbasu with Reference to Body Weight' Total Length and Condition Factor from the River Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Asif Hussain Bhatti, Muhammad Fahad Nouman
Abstract:115 samples of Labeo calbasu ranged 8.0-17.9cm length with mean11.90±1.96 and 4.9-68.5g weight with mean 22.25±12.54 from the River Chenab, Southern Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed to investigate length-weight relationships (LWR) of fish in relation to condition factor (K). Standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL) head width (HW), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), pectoral fin length (PcFL), pelvic fin length (PvFL) and anal fin length (AFL) are found to be highly correlated with increasing total length and wet body weight (r > 0.500). Wet body weight has positive (r=0.540) and total length has no correlation (r=0.344) with calculated Condition factor (K). The slope “b" in the relationship is 3.27 and intercepts -2.2258.
Keywords: Labeo calbasu, Length-weight relationship, Body weight, condition factorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1933
282 A Novel Approach for Tracking of a Mobile Node Based on Particle Filter and Trilateration
Authors: Muhammad Haroon Siddiqui, Muhammad Rehan Khalid
Abstract:This paper evaluates the performance of a novel algorithm for tracking of a mobile node, interms of execution time and root mean square error (RMSE). Particle Filter algorithm is used to track the mobile node, however a new technique in particle filter algorithm is also proposed to reduce the execution time. The stationary points were calculated through trilateration and finally by averaging the number of points collected for a specific time, whereas tracking is done through trilateration as well as particle filter algorithm. Wi-Fi signal is used to get initial guess of the position of mobile node in x-y coordinates system. Commercially available software “Wireless Mon" was used to read the WiFi signal strength from the WiFi card. Visual Cµ version 6 was used to interact with this software to read only the required data from the log-file generated by “Wireless Mon" software. Results are evaluated through mathematical modeling and MATLAB simulation.
Keywords: Particle Filter, Tracking, Wireless Local Area Network, WiFi, TrilaterationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1905
281 Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions
Authors: Amjad F. Alharbi, Bashayer A. Alotaibi, Fahd S. Alotaibi
Abstract:The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.
Keywords: Internet of Things, IoT, IoT security challenges, IoT security requirements, IoT security architecture.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1032
280 Factors Paving the Way towards Islamic Banking in Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Mazhar Manzoor, Muhammad Aqeel, Abdul Sattar
Abstract:Islamic banking is one the most blossoming doctrine in economic system of the world. The Fast growing awareness about Islamic financial system has brought strong feeling to Muslims to confront the western interest-based economic cycle. The Islamic economic system is emerging as a reliable alternative to the interest based system. This study is proposed to ascertain the motivational factors encouraging people to go for Islamic banking in Pakistan. These pulsing factors are determined by generation of hypothesis that there are certain factors which are urging people to opt Islamic banking system and to see the differences in their ranking by applying Friedman test. These factors include: Economically derived factors such as stability of Islamic banks in crisis, profit and loss sharing doctrine and equity sharing etc. This study also highlights the religiously derived factors such as interest free banking, Shariah tenets and supervisory of Islamic Shariah board and sociopsychological factors.
Keywords: Islamic banking, motivational factors, religiousfactors, socio-psychological factors and economic factorsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2231
279 Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy
Authors: Amir Ikram, Qin Su, Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Waqas Shabbir
Abstract:Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.
Keywords: Cultural challenges, emerging economy, female entrepreneurship, leadership.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1577
278 Impact of Brand Origin on Brand Loyalty: A Case of Personal Care Products in Pakistan
Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Syed Muhammad Dawood Ali Shah, Muhammad Usman Farooq, Mahgul Anwar
As the world is progressing, the needs and demands of the consumer market are also changing. Nowadays the trends of consumer purchase decisions are dependent upon multiple factors. This study aims to identify the influential impact of country of origin over the perception and devotion towards daily personal care products specifically in reference to the knowledge and awareness regarding that particular brand in Pakistan. To corroborate this study, a 30-item brand origin questionnaire has been used with 300 purchase decision makers belonging to different age groups. To illustrate this study, a model has been developed based on brand origin, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to find out the results which conclude the findings on the perspective of Pakistan’s consumer market as that brand origin has a direct relationship with brand loyalty provided that the consumer has a positive brand awareness. Support for the fact that brand origin impacts brand loyalty through brand awareness has been presented in this study.
Keywords: Brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand origin, personal care products, P&G, Unilever.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 945
277 Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Soluble Transferrin Receptor-Ferritin Index Tests in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia
Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Obaid, Bilal Wajid, Nauman Haider, Muhammad Zafrullah
In this research article, a comprehensive analysis is performed to compare the diagnostic performance of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/log ferritin index tests in the differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease (ACD). The analysis is performed for both sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index using a set of 11 studies. The overall odds ratios for sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index were 36.79 and 119.32 respectively, using 95% confidence interval. The relative sensitivity, specificity. positive likelihood ratio (LR) and negative LR values for sTfR in relation to sTfR/log ferritin index were 81% vs 85%, 84% vs 93%, 6.31 vs 13.95 and 0.18 vs 0.14 respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves are also plotted for both sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index. The area under SROC curves for sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index was found to be 0.9296 and 0.9825 respectively. Although both tests are useful, the sTfR/log ferritin index seems to be more effective when compared with sTfR.
Keywords: Anemia, sTfR, iron deficiency, ferritin, odds ratio, sensitivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 702
276 Antibacterial Activity of the Chennopodium album Leaves and Flowers Extract
Authors: Leila Amjad, Zohreh Alizad
Abstract:Recent years have instance that there is a invigoration of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the support of health in all parts of the world . This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the flowers and leaves methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium album Linn. flowers and leaves were collected from East Esfahan, Iran. The effects of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested against 4 bacterial strains by using disc,well-diffusion method. Results showed that flowers and leaves methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C.album don-t have any activity against the selected bacterial strains. Our study has indicated that ,there are effective different factors on antimicrobial properties of plant extracts
Keywords: Chennopodium album, antibacterial activity, extractProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3059
275 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering
Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad
These days, the field of tissue engineering is getting serious attention due to its usefulness. Bone tissue engineering helps to address and sort-out the critical sized and non-healing orthopedic problems by the creation of manmade bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature “parametric sweep”, with which we will be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately. We will fix these problems by modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes and by transient analysis.
Keywords: Bone tissue engineering, Transient Analysis, Scaffolds, fabrication techniques.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2319
274 Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast
Authors: Sher Muhammad, Mirza Muhammad Waqar
It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.790 to 24.850 in latitude and 66.910 to 66.970 in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image pre processing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end member extraction. Well distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (White Mangroves) and Avicennia germinans (Black Mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.
Keywords: Mangrove, Hyperspectral, SAM, SFF, SID.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2797
273 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features
Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan
Abstract:Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.
Keywords: Pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1113
272 Subjective Quality Assessment for Impaired Videos with Varying Spatial and Temporal Information
Authors: Muhammad Rehan Usman, Muhammad Arslan Usman, Soo Young Shin
Abstract:The new era of digital communication has brought up many challenges that network operators need to overcome. The high demand of mobile data rates require improved networks, which is a challenge for the operators in terms of maintaining the quality of experience (QoE) for their consumers. In live video transmission, there is a sheer need for live surveillance of the videos in order to maintain the quality of the network. For this purpose objective algorithms are employed to monitor the quality of the videos that are transmitted over a network. In order to test these objective algorithms, subjective quality assessment of the streamed videos is required, as the human eye is the best source of perceptual assessment. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation of videos with varying spatial and temporal impairments. These videos were impaired with frame freezing distortions so that the impact of frame freezing on the quality of experience could be studied. We present subjective Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for these videos that can be used for fine tuning the objective algorithms for video quality assessment.
Keywords: Frame freezing, mean opinion score, objective assessment, subjective evaluation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1607
271 Performance Analysis of a Series of Adaptive Filters in Non-Stationary Environment for Noise Cancelling Setup
Authors: Anam Rafique, Syed Sohail Ahmed
Abstract:One of the essential components of much of DSP application is noise cancellation. Changes in real time signals are quite rapid and swift. In noise cancellation, a reference signal which is an approximation of noise signal (that corrupts the original information signal) is obtained and then subtracted from the noise bearing signal to obtain a noise free signal. This approximation of noise signal is obtained through adaptive filters which are self adjusting. As the changes in real time signals are abrupt, this needs adaptive algorithm that converges fast and is stable. Least mean square (LMS) and normalized LMS (NLMS) are two widely used algorithms because of their plainness in calculations and implementation. But their convergence rates are small. Adaptive averaging filters (AFA) are also used because they have high convergence, but they are less stable. This paper provides the comparative study of LMS and Normalized NLMS, AFA and new enhanced average adaptive (Average NLMS-ANLMS) filters for noise cancelling application using speech signals.
Keywords: AFA, ANLMS, LMS, NLMS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1834
270 Effect of Recombinant Human Follicle Stimulating Hormone on Meiotic Competence of In Vitro Grown Nili Ravi Buffalo Oocytes
Authors: Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Samina Jalali, Beenish Shahid, S. A. Shami, Muhammad Ikramullah
Abstract:In the present study, the response of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes to recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) (Organon) on meiotic maturation in vitro was examined. Oocytes were matured in vitro in medium containing either 0 or 0.05 IU/ ml rhFSH and the stage of nuclear maturation recorded after 24 hours. The percentage of oocytes in the control group undergoing germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) observed after 24 hours of culture was 29 % whereas as in rhFSH group the percentage was 10 % were at this stage (P< 0.001).Thus in the presence of rhFSH, a significantly greater number of oocytes had progressed to the more advanced stages of nuclear maturation. Indeed, the maturation of GV (Germinal Vesicle) stage oocytes to the metaphase II (M II) stage after 24 hours was significantly (P< 0.0001) increased by the addition of rhFSH (82 % VS 47 %). The percentage of degenerated oocytes after 24 hours of culture was 24 % in control group, whereas in rhFSH group the percentage was 8 % after 24 hours. Degeneration of the oocytes after 24 hours was not significantly (P = 0. 9361) decreased.
Keywords: Buffalo, in vitro, oocytes, recombinant FSH.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1355