Search results for: Muhammad Imran
308 Studies on Seasonal Variations of Physico- Chemical Parameters of Fish Farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Mehtab Ahmad, Muhammad Jamshed Khan, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Muzaffar Ali, Arshad Ali, Memoona Qayyum Abir Ishtiaq
The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters of fish farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Department of Fisheries Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan for a period of eight months from January to August 2008. Water samples were collected on fifteen days basis and have been analyzed for estimation of Air temperature, Water temperature, Light penetration, pH, Total dissolved oxygen, Clouds, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Total carbonates, Total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Calcium and Hardness. Seasonal fluctuations were observed in all the physico-chemical parameters of fish farm. The overall physicochemical parameters of fish pond water remained within the tolerable range throughout the study period.
Keywords: Freshwater, Fish farm, Water quality, Seasonal variation, Chemical factorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2045
307 Mobile Ad-Hoc Service Grid – MASGRID
Authors: Imran Ihsan, Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Nadeem Iftikhar
Abstract:Mobile devices, which are progressively surrounded in our everyday life, have created a new paradigm where they interconnect, interact and collaborate with each other. This network can be used for flexible and secure coordinated sharing. On the other hand Grid computing provides dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end computational capabilities. In this paper, efforts are made to map the concepts of Grid on Ad-Hoc networks because both exhibit similar kind of characteristics like Scalability, Dynamism and Heterogeneity. In this context we propose “Mobile Ad-Hoc Services Grid – MASGRID".
Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Grid Computing, Resource Discovery, RoutingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1682
306 Generic Multimedia Database Architecture
Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Imran Ihsan, Mobin Uddin Ahmed, Nadeem Iftikhar, Muhammad Abdul Qadir
Abstract:Multimedia, as it stands now is perhaps the most diverse and rich culture around the globe. One of the major needs of Multimedia is to have a single system that enables people to efficiently search through their multimedia catalogues. Many Domain Specific Systems and architectures have been proposed but up till now no generic and complete architecture is proposed. In this paper, we have suggested a generic architecture for Multimedia Database. The main strengths of our architecture besides being generic are Semantic Libraries to reduce semantic gap, levels of feature extraction for more specific and detailed feature extraction according to classes defined by prior level, and merging of two types of queries i.e. text and QBE (Query by Example) for more accurate yet detailed results.
Keywords: Multimedia Database Architecture, Semantics, Feature Extraction, Ontology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1622
305 Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition
Authors: Muhammad Imran Ahmad, Ruzelita Ngadiran, Mohd Nazrin Md Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Mohd Zaizu Ilyas, Raja Abdullah Raja Ahmad, Said Amirul Anwar Ab Hamid, Muzammil Jusoh
This paper presents two techniques, local feature extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical information to improve the performance of face recognition system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non- Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best feature representation can be modelled using probability density function. The recognition process is performed using maximum likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components. The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved 92% recognition rates.
Keywords: Local features modelling, face recognition system, Gaussian mixture models.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1896
304 A Real-Time Specific Weed Recognition System Using Statistical Methods
Authors: Imran Ahmed, Muhammad Islam, Syed Inayat Ali Shah, Awais Adnan
Abstract:The identification and classification of weeds are of major technical and economical importance in the agricultural industry. To automate these activities, like in shape, color and texture, weed control system is feasible. The goal of this paper is to build a real-time, machine vision weed control system that can detect weed locations. In order to accomplish this objective, a real-time robotic system is developed to identify and locate outdoor plants using machine vision technology and pattern recognition. The algorithm is developed to classify images into broad and narrow class for real-time selective herbicide application. The developed algorithm has been tested on weeds at various locations, which have shown that the algorithm to be very effectiveness in weed identification. Further the results show a very reliable performance on weeds under varying field conditions. The analysis of the results shows over 90 percent classification accuracy over 140 sample images (broad and narrow) with 70 samples from each category of weeds.
Keywords: Weed detection, Image Processing, real-timerecognition, Standard Deviation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2156
303 Use of Pesticides and Their Role in Environmental Pollution
Authors: Muhammad Jamil Khan, Muhammad Sharif Zia, Muhammad Qasim
Abstract:Insect pests are the major source of crop damage, yield and quality reduction in Pakistan and else where in the world. Cotton crop is the most hit crop in Pakistan followed by rice and the second most important foreign exchange earning crop. A wide variety of staple, horticultural and cash crops grown, reflect serious problems of many types of insect pests. To overcome the insect pest problem, pesticide use in Pakistan has increased substantially which has now been further intensified. Pesticides worth more than billions of rupees are imported every year. This paper reviews the over all pesticide use in Pakistan in relation to pesticide prices, support price of cotton and rice, pesticide use in different provinces of Pakistan on different crops and their impact on crop productivity. The environmental pollution caused by the use of pesticides, contamination of soil and water resources and the danger associated with the disposal of their empty containers is also discussed in detail.
Keywords: Pesticide use, crop productivity, environmentalpollutionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3314
302 The Malacca Empire: Sayings of Prophet Muhammad in Sulalat Al-Salatin
Authors: Abdur-Rahman M. A., R. M. Mohd. Ali, R. A. I. R. Yaacob.
Abstract:In the fifteenth century, the Malacca Empire emerged as the centre of Islamic civilization in the Malay Archipelago. The history had been recorded in Sulalat Al-Salatin, an important literary source about the genealogy of all Kings in Malacca. The objective of this study was to analyze the understanding of sayings from Prophet Muhammad among Malays in Malacca during the fifteenth century through all of the hadith quoted in Sulalat Al-Salatin. This study used content analysis methodology to validate the sayings where all of them were critically analyzed and compared with the classical hadith sources from prominent Muslim scholars. As a result, only two out of the four quotations were considered as authentic sayings of Prophet Muhammad. This study also showed the importance of the palace as the centre of the Islamic education system and the role played by Muslim preachers from outside of Malacca to propagate Islam in Malacca.
Keywords: Hadith in Malay Annals, Malay Annals, SejarahMelayu, Sulalat Al-Salatin.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1585
301 Optimization of Growth Conditions for Acidic Protease Production from Rhizopus oligosporus through Solid State Fermentation of Sunflower Meal
Authors: Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Nadeem, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal
Abstract:Rhizopus oligosporus was used in the present study for the production of protease enzyme under SSF. Sunflower meal was used as by-product of oil industry incorporated with organic salts was employed for the production of protease enzyme. The main purpose of the present was to study different parameters of protease productivity, its yields and to optimize basal fermentation conditions. The optimal conditions found for protease production using sunflower meal as a substrate in the present study were inoculum size (1%), substrate (Sunflower meal), substrate concentration (20 g), pH (3), cultivation period (72 h), incubation temperature (35oC), substrate to diluent-s ratio (1:2) and tween 81 (1 mL). The maximum production of protease in the presence of cheaper substrate at low concentration and stability at acidic pH, these characteristics make the strain and its enzymes useful in different industry.
Keywords: Acidic protease, Rhizopus oligosporus, Mediaoptimization, Solid state FermentationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2847
300 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity
Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Afzal, Sami Ullah
Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.
Keywords: Apis melifera L., dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1093
299 Analyzing the Impact of Spatio-Temporal Climate Variations on the Rice Crop Calendar in Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Imran, Iqra Basit, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Sajid Rasheed Ahmad
The present study investigates the space-time impact of climate change on the rice crop calendar in tropical Gujranwala, Pakistan. The climate change impact was quantified through the climatic variables, whereas the existing calendar of the rice crop was compared with the phonological stages of the crop, depicted through the time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat data for the decade 2005-2015. Local maxima were applied on the time series of NDVI to compute the rice phonological stages. Panel models with fixed and cross-section fixed effects were used to establish the relation between the climatic parameters and the time-series of NDVI across villages and across rice growing periods. Results show that the climatic parameters have significant impact on the rice crop calendar. Moreover, the fixed effect model is a significant improvement over cross-sectional fixed effect models (R-squared equal to 0.673 vs. 0.0338). We conclude that high inter-annual variability of climatic variables cause high variability of NDVI, and thus, a shift in the rice crop calendar. Moreover, inter-annual (temporal) variability of the rice crop calendar is high compared to the inter-village (spatial) variability. We suggest the local rice farmers to adapt this change in the rice crop calendar.
Keywords: Landsat NDVI, panel models, temperature, rainfall.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 785
298 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)
Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan
In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.
Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2028
297 Analysis of Rural Roads in Developing Countries Using Principal Component Analysis and Simple Average Technique in the Development of a Road Safety Performance Index
Authors: Muhammad Tufail, Jawad Hussain, Hammad Hussain, Imran Hafeez, Naveed Ahmad
Road safety performance index is a composite index which combines various indicators of road safety into single number. Development of a road safety performance index using appropriate safety performance indicators is essential to enhance road safety. However, a road safety performance index in developing countries has not been given as much priority as needed. The primary objective of this research is to develop a general Road Safety Performance Index (RSPI) for developing countries based on the facility as well as behavior of road user. The secondary objectives include finding the critical inputs in the RSPI and finding the better method of making the index. In this study, the RSPI is developed by selecting four main safety performance indicators i.e., protective system (seat belt, helmet etc.), road (road width, signalized intersections, number of lanes, speed limit), number of pedestrians, and number of vehicles. Data on these four safety performance indicators were collected using observation survey on a 20 km road section of the National Highway N-125 road Taxila, Pakistan. For the development of this composite index, two methods are used: a) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and b) Equal Weighting (EW) method. PCA is used for extraction, weighting, and linear aggregation of indicators to obtain a single value. An individual index score was calculated for each road section by multiplication of weights and standardized values of each safety performance indicator. However, Simple Average technique was used for weighting and linear aggregation of indicators to develop a RSPI. The road sections are ranked according to RSPI scores using both methods. The two weighting methods are compared, and the PCA method is found to be much more reliable than the Simple Average Technique.
Keywords: Aggregation, index score, indicators, principal component analysis, weighting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 382
296 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems
Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman
The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.
Keywords: Fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 594
295 Effect of Body Size and Condition Factor on Whole Body Composition of Hybrid (Catla catla ♂x Labeo rohita ♀) from Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Asghar Bashir, Abir Ishtiaq, Qurat-ul-Ane Gillani and Asma Salam
Abstract:In the present study, 49 Hybrid (Catla catla ♂ x Labeo rohita ♀) were sampled from Al-Raheem Fish Hatchery, Village Ali Pure Shamali, Jhang Road, 18 Km from Muzaffar Garh using a cast net and Live fishes were transported to research laboratory. Mean percentage for water found 79.13 %, ash 6.58 %, fat 2.22 % and protein content 12.06 % in whole wet body weight. It was observed that body constituents were found increasing in the same proportion with an increase in body weight while significant proportional increase was observed with total length. However, condition factor remained insignificant (P>0.05) with body constituents.
Keywords: Hybrid fish, Body composition, Condition factor, Predictive equationsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1674
294 Fabrication and Characterization of Al/Methyl Orange/n-Si Heterojunction Diode
Authors: Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad H. Sayyad, Dil N. Khan, Fazal Wahab
Abstract:Herein, the organic semiconductor methyl orange (MO), is investigated for the first time for its electronic applications. For this purpose, Al/MO/n-Si heterojunction is fabricated through economical cheap and simple “drop casting” technique. The currentvoltage (I-V) measurements of the device are made at room temperature under dark conditions. The I-V characteristics of Al/MO/n-Si junction exhibits asymmetrical and rectifying behavior that confirms the formation of diode. The diode parameters such as rectification ratio (RR), turn on voltage (Vturn on), reverse saturation current (I0), ideality factor (n), barrier height ( b f ), series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) are determined from I-V curves using Schottky equations. These values of these parameters are also extracted and verified by applying Cheung’s functions. The conduction mechanisms are explained from the forward bias I-V characteristics using the power law.
Keywords: Electrical properties, Organic/inorganic heterojunction diode, Methyl Orange, Cheungs FunctionsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1815
293 Exact Solution of Some Helical Flows of Newtonian Fluids
Authors: Imran Siddique
Abstract:This paper deals with the helical flow of a Newtonian fluid in an infinite circular cylinder, due to both longitudinal and rotational shear stress. The velocity field and the resulting shear stress are determined by means of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms and satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions. For large times, these solutions reduce to the well-known steady-state solutions.
Keywords: Newtonian fluids, Velocity field, Exact solutions, Shear stress, Cylindrical domains.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1353
292 External Morphological Study of Wild Labeo calbasu with Reference to Body Weight' Total Length and Condition Factor from the River Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Asif Hussain Bhatti, Muhammad Fahad Nouman
Abstract:115 samples of Labeo calbasu ranged 8.0-17.9cm length with mean11.90±1.96 and 4.9-68.5g weight with mean 22.25±12.54 from the River Chenab, Southern Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed to investigate length-weight relationships (LWR) of fish in relation to condition factor (K). Standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL) head width (HW), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), pectoral fin length (PcFL), pelvic fin length (PvFL) and anal fin length (AFL) are found to be highly correlated with increasing total length and wet body weight (r > 0.500). Wet body weight has positive (r=0.540) and total length has no correlation (r=0.344) with calculated Condition factor (K). The slope “b" in the relationship is 3.27 and intercepts -2.2258.
Keywords: Labeo calbasu, Length-weight relationship, Body weight, condition factorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1932
291 Optimal Path Planner for Autonomous Vehicles
Authors: M. Imran Akram, Ahmed Pasha, Nabeel Iqbal
Abstract:In this paper a real-time trajectory generation algorithm for computing 2-D optimal paths for autonomous aerial vehicles has been discussed. A dynamic programming approach is adopted to compute k-best paths by minimizing a cost function. Collision detection is implemented to detect intersection of the paths with obstacles. Our contribution is a novel approach to the problem of trajectory generation that is computationally efficient and offers considerable gain over existing techniques.
Keywords: dynamic programming, graph search, path planning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1834
290 Applications of AUSM+ Scheme on Subsonic, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows Fields
Authors: Muhammad Yamin Younis, Muhammad Amjad Sohail, Tawfiqur Rahman, Zaka Muhammad, Saifur Rahman Bakaul
Abstract:The performance of Advection Upstream Splitting Method AUSM schemes are evaluated against experimental flow fields at different Mach numbers and results are compared with experimental data of subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic flow fields. The turbulent model used here is SST model by Menter. The numerical predictions include lift coefficient, drag coefficient and pitching moment coefficient at different mach numbers and angle of attacks. This work describes a computational study undertaken to compute the Aerodynamic characteristics of different air vehicles configurations using a structured Navier-Stokes computational technique. The CFD code bases on the idea of upwind scheme for the convective (convective-moving) fluxes. CFD results for GLC305 airfoil and cone cylinder tail fined missile calculated on above mentioned turbulence model are compared with the available data. Wide ranges of Mach number from subsonic to hypersonic speeds are simulated and results are compared. When the computation is done by using viscous turbulence model the above mentioned coefficients have a very good agreement with the experimental values. AUSM scheme is very efficient in the regions of very high pressure gradients like shock waves and discontinuities. The AUSM versions simulate the all types of flows from lower subsonic to hypersonic flow without oscillations.
Keywords: Subsonic, supersonic, Hypersonic, AUSM+, Drag Coefficient, lift Coefficient, Pitching moment coefficient, pressure Coefficient, turbulent flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3043
289 A Novel Approach for Tracking of a Mobile Node Based on Particle Filter and Trilateration
Authors: Muhammad Haroon Siddiqui, Muhammad Rehan Khalid
Abstract:This paper evaluates the performance of a novel algorithm for tracking of a mobile node, interms of execution time and root mean square error (RMSE). Particle Filter algorithm is used to track the mobile node, however a new technique in particle filter algorithm is also proposed to reduce the execution time. The stationary points were calculated through trilateration and finally by averaging the number of points collected for a specific time, whereas tracking is done through trilateration as well as particle filter algorithm. Wi-Fi signal is used to get initial guess of the position of mobile node in x-y coordinates system. Commercially available software “Wireless Mon" was used to read the WiFi signal strength from the WiFi card. Visual Cµ version 6 was used to interact with this software to read only the required data from the log-file generated by “Wireless Mon" software. Results are evaluated through mathematical modeling and MATLAB simulation.
Keywords: Particle Filter, Tracking, Wireless Local Area Network, WiFi, TrilaterationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1905
288 Standardization of Ayurvedic Formulation (Marichyadi Vati) Using HPLC and HPTLC Methods
Authors: Pathan Imran Khan, Bhandari Anil, Kumar Amit
The present investigation was aimed to develop methodology for the standardization of Marichyadi Vati and its raw materials. Standardization was carried using systematic Pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters as per WHO guidelines. The detailed standardization of Marichyadi Vati, it is concluded that there are no major differences prevailed in the quality of marketed products and laboratory samples of Marichyadi Vati. However, market samples showed slightly better amount of Piperine than the laboratory sample by both methods. This is the first attempt to generate complete set of standards required for the Marichyadi Vati.
Keywords: Marichyadi Vati, Standardization, Piperine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2279
287 Factors Paving the Way towards Islamic Banking in Pakistan
Authors: Muhammad Mazhar Manzoor, Muhammad Aqeel, Abdul Sattar
Abstract:Islamic banking is one the most blossoming doctrine in economic system of the world. The Fast growing awareness about Islamic financial system has brought strong feeling to Muslims to confront the western interest-based economic cycle. The Islamic economic system is emerging as a reliable alternative to the interest based system. This study is proposed to ascertain the motivational factors encouraging people to go for Islamic banking in Pakistan. These pulsing factors are determined by generation of hypothesis that there are certain factors which are urging people to opt Islamic banking system and to see the differences in their ranking by applying Friedman test. These factors include: Economically derived factors such as stability of Islamic banks in crisis, profit and loss sharing doctrine and equity sharing etc. This study also highlights the religiously derived factors such as interest free banking, Shariah tenets and supervisory of Islamic Shariah board and sociopsychological factors.
Keywords: Islamic banking, motivational factors, religiousfactors, socio-psychological factors and economic factorsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2230
286 Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy
Authors: Amir Ikram, Qin Su, Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Waqas Shabbir
Abstract:Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.
Keywords: Cultural challenges, emerging economy, female entrepreneurship, leadership.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1563
285 Impact of Brand Origin on Brand Loyalty: A Case of Personal Care Products in Pakistan
Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Syed Muhammad Dawood Ali Shah, Muhammad Usman Farooq, Mahgul Anwar
As the world is progressing, the needs and demands of the consumer market are also changing. Nowadays the trends of consumer purchase decisions are dependent upon multiple factors. This study aims to identify the influential impact of country of origin over the perception and devotion towards daily personal care products specifically in reference to the knowledge and awareness regarding that particular brand in Pakistan. To corroborate this study, a 30-item brand origin questionnaire has been used with 300 purchase decision makers belonging to different age groups. To illustrate this study, a model has been developed based on brand origin, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to find out the results which conclude the findings on the perspective of Pakistan’s consumer market as that brand origin has a direct relationship with brand loyalty provided that the consumer has a positive brand awareness. Support for the fact that brand origin impacts brand loyalty through brand awareness has been presented in this study.
Keywords: Brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand origin, personal care products, P&G, Unilever.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 945
284 Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Soluble Transferrin Receptor and Soluble Transferrin Receptor-Ferritin Index Tests in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia
Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Obaid, Bilal Wajid, Nauman Haider, Muhammad Zafrullah
In this research article, a comprehensive analysis is performed to compare the diagnostic performance of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/log ferritin index tests in the differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease (ACD). The analysis is performed for both sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index using a set of 11 studies. The overall odds ratios for sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index were 36.79 and 119.32 respectively, using 95% confidence interval. The relative sensitivity, specificity. positive likelihood ratio (LR) and negative LR values for sTfR in relation to sTfR/log ferritin index were 81% vs 85%, 84% vs 93%, 6.31 vs 13.95 and 0.18 vs 0.14 respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves are also plotted for both sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index. The area under SROC curves for sTfR and sTfR/log ferritin index was found to be 0.9296 and 0.9825 respectively. Although both tests are useful, the sTfR/log ferritin index seems to be more effective when compared with sTfR.
Keywords: Anemia, sTfR, iron deficiency, ferritin, odds ratio, sensitivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 702
283 Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast
Authors: Sher Muhammad, Mirza Muhammad Waqar
It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.790 to 24.850 in latitude and 66.910 to 66.970 in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image pre processing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end member extraction. Well distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (White Mangroves) and Avicennia germinans (Black Mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.
Keywords: Mangrove, Hyperspectral, SAM, SFF, SID.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2796
282 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features
Authors: Nadia Masood Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan
Abstract:Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.
Keywords: Pattern recognition, machine learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1113
281 Subjective Quality Assessment for Impaired Videos with Varying Spatial and Temporal Information
Authors: Muhammad Rehan Usman, Muhammad Arslan Usman, Soo Young Shin
Abstract:The new era of digital communication has brought up many challenges that network operators need to overcome. The high demand of mobile data rates require improved networks, which is a challenge for the operators in terms of maintaining the quality of experience (QoE) for their consumers. In live video transmission, there is a sheer need for live surveillance of the videos in order to maintain the quality of the network. For this purpose objective algorithms are employed to monitor the quality of the videos that are transmitted over a network. In order to test these objective algorithms, subjective quality assessment of the streamed videos is required, as the human eye is the best source of perceptual assessment. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation of videos with varying spatial and temporal impairments. These videos were impaired with frame freezing distortions so that the impact of frame freezing on the quality of experience could be studied. We present subjective Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for these videos that can be used for fine tuning the objective algorithms for video quality assessment.
Keywords: Frame freezing, mean opinion score, objective assessment, subjective evaluation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1606
280 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion
Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam
Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
Keywords: Shannon, Maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2286
279 Effect of Recombinant Human Follicle Stimulating Hormone on Meiotic Competence of In Vitro Grown Nili Ravi Buffalo Oocytes
Authors: Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Samina Jalali, Beenish Shahid, S. A. Shami, Muhammad Ikramullah
Abstract:In the present study, the response of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes to recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) (Organon) on meiotic maturation in vitro was examined. Oocytes were matured in vitro in medium containing either 0 or 0.05 IU/ ml rhFSH and the stage of nuclear maturation recorded after 24 hours. The percentage of oocytes in the control group undergoing germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) observed after 24 hours of culture was 29 % whereas as in rhFSH group the percentage was 10 % were at this stage (P< 0.001).Thus in the presence of rhFSH, a significantly greater number of oocytes had progressed to the more advanced stages of nuclear maturation. Indeed, the maturation of GV (Germinal Vesicle) stage oocytes to the metaphase II (M II) stage after 24 hours was significantly (P< 0.0001) increased by the addition of rhFSH (82 % VS 47 %). The percentage of degenerated oocytes after 24 hours of culture was 24 % in control group, whereas in rhFSH group the percentage was 8 % after 24 hours. Degeneration of the oocytes after 24 hours was not significantly (P = 0. 9361) decreased.
Keywords: Buffalo, in vitro, oocytes, recombinant FSH.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1355