**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**2574

# Search results for: Chemical factor

##### 2574 Examining Herzberg-s Two Factor Theory in a Large Chinese Chemical Fiber Company

**Authors:**
Ju-Chun Chien

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Employee job satisfaction,
Job retention,
Traditional business,
Two-factor theory of motivation.

##### 2573 A Sufficient Condition for Graphs to Have Hamiltonian [a, b]-Factors

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou

**Abstract:**

Let a and b be nonnegative integers with 2 ≤ a < b, and let G be a Hamiltonian graph of order n with n ≥ (a+b−4)(a+b−2) b−2 . An [a, b]-factor F of G is called a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if F contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, it is proved that G has a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if |NG(X)| > (a−1)n+|X|−1 a+b−3 for every nonempty independent subset X of V (G) and δ(G) > (a−1)n+a+b−4 a+b−3 .

**Keywords:**
graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood,
[a,
b]-factor,
Hamiltonian [a,
b]-factor.

##### 2572 Hamiltonian Factors in Hamiltonian Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Bingyuan Pu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
graph,
neighborhood,
factor,
Hamiltonian factor.

##### 2571 Conversion in Chemical Reactors using Hollow Cylindrical Catalyst Pellet

**Authors:**
Mohammad Asif

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Finite hollow cylinder,
Catalyst pellet,
Effectiveness
factor,
Thiele Modulus,
Conversion

##### 2570 Study on Leakage Current Waveforms of Porcelain Insulator due to Various Artificial Pollutants

**Authors:**
Waluyo,
Parouli M. Pakpahan,
Suwarno,
Maman A. Djauhari

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Chemical compound,
harmonic,
porcelain insulator,
leakage current.

##### 2569 Chemical Analysis of Available Portland Cement in Libyan Market Using X-Ray Fluorescence

**Authors:**
M. A. Elbagermia,
A. I. Alajtala,
M. Alkerzab

**Abstract:**

This study compares the quality of different brands of Portland Cement (PC) available in Libyan market. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3 and Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) were determined in accordance with Libyan (L.S.S) and Amrican (A.S.S) Standard Specifications. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant.

**Keywords:**
Portland cement,
Chemical Composition,
Libyan market,
X-ray fluorescence.

##### 2568 The Relationship between Fugacity and Stress Intensity Factor for Corrosive Environment in Presence of Hydrogen Embrittlement

**Authors:**
A. R. Shahani,
E. Mahdavi,
M. Amidpour

**Abstract:**

Hydrogen diffusion is the main problem for corrosion fatigue in corrosive environment. In order to analyze the phenomenon, it is needed to understand their behaviors specially the hydrogen behavior during the diffusion. So, Hydrogen embrittlement and prediction its behavior as a main corrosive part of the fractions, needed to solve combinations of different equations mathematically. The main point to obtain the equation, having knowledge about the source of causing diffusion and running the atoms into materials, called driving force. This is produced by either gradient of electrical or chemical potential. In this work, we consider the gradient of chemical potential to obtain the property equation. In diffusion of atoms, some of them may be trapped but, it could be ignorable in some conditions. According to the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement, the thermodynamic and chemical properties of hydrogen are considered to justify and relate them to fracture mechanics. It is very important to get a stress intensity factor by using fugacity as a property of hydrogen or other gases. Although, the diffusive behavior and embrittlement event are common and the same for other gases but, for making it more clear, we describe it for hydrogen. This considering on the definite gas and describing it helps us to understand better the importance of this relation.

**Keywords:**
Hydrogen embrittlement,
Fracture mechanics,
Thermodynamic,
Stress intensity factor.

##### 2567 Constructing an Attitude Scale: Attitudes toward Violence on Televisions

**Authors:**
Göksu Gözen Citak

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Attitudes toward violence,
confirmatory factor analysis,
constructing attitude scale,
exploratory factor analysis,
violence on televisions.

##### 2566 Fatigue Analysis of Crack Growing Rate and Stress Intensity Factor for Stress Corrosion Cracking in a Pipeline System

**Authors:**
A. R. Shahani,
E. Mahdavi,
M. Amidpour

**Abstract:**

Environment-assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the most serious causes of structural failure over a broad range of industrial applications including offshore structures. In EAC condition there is not a definite relation such as Paris equation in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). According to studying and searching a lot what the researchers said either a material has contact with hydrogen or any other corrosive environment, phenomenon of electrical and chemical reactions of material with its environment will be happened. In the literature, there are many different works to consider fatigue crack growing and solve it but they are experimental works. Thus, in this paper, authors have an aim to evaluate mathematically the pervious works in LEFM. Obviously, if an environment is more sour and corrosive, the changes of stress intensity factor is more and the calculation of stress intensity factor is difficult. A mathematical relation to deal with the stress intensity factor during the diffusion of sour environment especially hydrogen in a marine pipeline is presented. By using this relation having and some experimental relation an analytical formulation will be presented which enables the fatigue crack growth and critical crack length under cyclic loading to be predicted. In addition, we can calculate KSCC and stress intensity factor in the pipeline caused by EAC.

**Keywords:**
Embrittlement,
Fracture mechanics,
Hydrogen diffusion,
Stress intensity factor.

##### 2565 Analysis and Measuring Surface Roughness of Nonwovens Using Machine Vision Method

**Authors:**
Dariush Semnani,
Javad Yekrang,
Hossein Ghayoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Surface roughness,
Nonwoven,
Machine vision,
Image processing.

##### 2564 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Shallow Foundations with Different Shapes

**Authors:**
S. Taghvamanesh,
R. Ziaie Moayed

**Abstract:**

There are several methods for calculating the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Nγ (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Nγ depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. It is apparent that the value of Nγ increases irregularly with the friction angle of the subsoil, which leads to an excessive increment in Nγ of foundations with larger width. Also, the bearing capacity factor Nγ will significantly decrease with an increase in foundation`s width. It also should be highlighted that the effect of shape and dimension will be less noticeable with a decrease in the relative density of the soil. Hence, the bearing capacity factor Nγ relatively depends on foundation`s width, surcharge and roughness ratio. This paper presents the results of various studies conducted on the bearing capacity factor Nγ of: different types of shallow foundation and foundations with irregular geometry (ring footing, triangular footing, shell foundations and etc.) Further studies on the effect of bearing capacity factor Nγ on mat foundations and the characteristics of this factor with or without consideration for the presence of friction between soil and foundation are recommended.

**Keywords:**
Bearing capacity,
Bearing capacity factor,
irregular foundation,
shallow foundation.

##### 2563 Energy Efficiency Testing of Fluorescent and WOLED (White Organic LED)

**Authors:**
Hari Maghfiroh,
Harry Prabowo

**Abstract:**

WOLED is widely used as lighting for high efficacy and little power consumption. In this research, power factor testing between WOLED and fluorescent lamp to see which one is more efficient in consuming energy. Since both lamps use semiconductor components, so calculation of the power factor need to consider the effects of harmonics. Harmonic make bigger losses. The study is conducted by comparing the value of the power factor regardless of harmonics (DPF) and also by included the harmonics (TPF). The average value of DPF of fluorescent is 0.953 while WOLED is 0.972. The average value of TPF of fluorescent is 0.717 whereas WOLED is 0.933. So from the review of power factor WOLED is more energy efficient than fluorescent lamp.

**Keywords:**
Fluorescent,
harmonic,
power factor,
WOLED.

##### 2562 The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) with Turkish Sample: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

**Authors:**
Oznur Korukcu,
Kamile Kukulu,
Mehmet Z. Firat

**Abstract:**

The propose of this study is to investigate the factor structures of the W-DEQ, originally developed on UK and Swedish women, were confirmed in Turkish samples, and to obtain a new modified factor structure appropriate to Turkish culture. Statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed using SPSS© for Windows version 13.0 and the SAS statistical software Version 9.1. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of W-DEQ were performed in the study. Factor analysis yielded four factors related to hope, fear, lack of positive anticipation and riskiness. The alpha estimates of the total W-DEQ score were somewhat higher, being 0.92 for the parous and 0.90 for the nulliparous sample. These are well above the accepted limit of 0.70 and indicate excellent levels of internal reliability, thus showing that the questions were appropriate to the Turkish culture and useful scale for the evaluation of fear of childbirth in Turkish pregnants.

**Keywords:**
Confirmatory factor analysis,
cross-cultural research,
exploratory factor analysis,
fear of childbirth.

##### 2561 Evaluation of Behavior Factor for Steel Moment-Resisting Frames

**Authors:**
Taïeb Branci,
Djamal Yahmi,
Abdelhamid Bouchair,
Eric Fourneley

**Abstract:**

According to current seismic codes the structures are calculated using the capacity design procedure based on the concept of shear at the base depending on several parameters including behavior factor which is considered to be the most important parameter. The behavior factor allows designing the structure when it is at its ultimate limit state taking into account its energy dissipation through its plastic deformation. The aim of the present study is to assess the basic parameters on which is composed the behavior factor among them the reduction factor due to ductility, and those due to redundancy and the overstrength for steel moment-resisting frames of different heights and regular configuration. Analyses are conducted on these frames using the nonlinear static method where the effect of some parameters on the behavior factor, such as the number of stories and the number of spans, are taken into account. The results show that the behavior factor is rather sensitive to the variation of the number of stories and bays.

**Keywords:**
Behavior,
code,
frame,
ductility,
overstrength,
redundancy,
plastic.

##### 2560 A Neighborhood Condition for Fractional k-deleted Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Hongxia Liu

**Abstract:**

Abstract–Let k ≥ 3 be an integer, and let G be a graph of order n with n ≥ 9k +3- 42(k - 1)2 + 2. Then a spanning subgraph F of G is called a k-factor if dF (x) = k for each x ∈ V (G). A fractional k-factor is a way of assigning weights to the edges of a graph G (with all weights between 0 and 1) such that for each vertex the sum of the weights of the edges incident with that vertex is k. A graph G is a fractional k-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor after deleting any edge of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional k-deleted graph if G satisfies δ(G) ≥ k + 1 and |NG(x) ∪ NG(y)| ≥ 1 2 (n + k - 2) for each pair of nonadjacent vertices x, y of G.

**Keywords:**
Graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood union,
fractional k-factor,
fractional k-deleted graph.

##### 2559 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A Comprehension Augmented Complexity Metric

**Authors:**
T. Francis Thamburaj,
A. Aloysius

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cognitive complexity metric,
cognitive weighted
polymorphism factor,
object-oriented metrics,
polymorphism factor,
software metrics.

##### 2558 A High Quality Factor Filter Based on Quasi-Periodic Photonic Structure

**Authors:**
Hamed Alipour-Banaei,
Farhad Mehdizadeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Thue-Morse,
filter,
quality factor.

##### 2557 Affine Projection Algorithm with Variable Data-Reuse Factor

**Authors:**
ChangWoo Lee,
Young Kow Lee,
Sung Jun Ban,
SungHoo Choi,
Sang Woo Kim

**Abstract:**

This paper suggests a new Affine Projection (AP) algorithm with variable data-reuse factor using the condition number as a decision factor. To reduce computational burden, we adopt a recently reported technique which estimates the condition number of an input data matrix. Several simulations show that the new algorithm has better performance than that of the conventional AP algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Affine projection algorithm,
variable data-reuse factor,
condition number,
convergence rate,
misalignment.

##### 2556 Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns

**Authors:**
Ehab Hasan Ahmed Hasan Ali

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Buckling length,
New formula,
Curve fitting,
Simplification,
Steel column design.

##### 2555 Electron Filling Factor and Sunlight Concentration Effects on the Efficiency of Intermediate Band Solar Cell

**Authors:**
Nima Es'haghi Gorji,
Hossein Movla,
Foozieh Sohrabi,
Alireza Mottaghizadeh,
Mohammad Houshmand,
Hassan Babaei,
Arash Nikniazi

**Abstract:**

For a determined intermediate band position, the effects of electron filling factor and sunlight concentration on the active region thickness and efficiency of the quantum-dot intermediate band solar cell are calculated. For each value of electron filling factor, the maximum point of efficiency obtained and resulted in the optimum thickness of the cell under three different sunlight concentrations. We show the importance of filling factor as a parameter to be more considered. The photon recycling effect eliminated in all calculations.

**Keywords:**
Intermediate band,
Sunlight concentration,
Efficiency limits,
Electron filling factor

##### 2554 Forecasting Electricity Spot Price with Generalized Long Memory Modeling: Wavelet and Neural Network

**Authors:**
Souhir Ben Amor,
Heni Boubaker,
Lotfi Belkacem

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
k-factor,
GARMA,
LLWNN,
G-GARCH,
electricity price,
forecasting.

##### 2553 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context

**Authors:**
Susmita Ghosh,
Bhaskar Bhowmick

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Uncertainty,
market,
orientation,
competitor,
demand.

##### 2552 [a, b]-Factors Excluding Some Specified Edges In Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Bingyuan Pu

**Abstract:**

Let G be a graph of order n, and let a, b and m be positive integers with 1 ≤ a<b. An [a, b]-factor of G is deﬁned as a spanning subgraph F of G such that a ≤ dF (x) ≤ b for each x ∈ V (G). In this paper, it is proved that if n ≥ (a+b−1+√(a+b+1)m−2)2−1 b and δ(G) > n + a + b − 2 √bn+ 1, then for any subgraph H of G with m edges, G has an [a, b]-factor F such that E(H)∩ E(F) = ∅. This result is an extension of thatof Egawa [2].

**Keywords:**
graph,
minimum degree,
[a,
b]-factor.

##### 2551 A Novel Forgetting Factor Recursive Least Square Algorithm Applied to the Human Motion Analysis

**Authors:**
Hadi Sadoghi Yazdi,
Mehri Sadoghi Yazdi,
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

**Abstract:**

This paper is concerned with studying the forgetting factor of the recursive least square (RLS). A new dynamic forgetting factor (DFF) for RLS algorithm is presented. The proposed DFF-RLS is compared to other methods. Better performance at convergence and tracking of noisy chirp sinusoid is achieved. The control of the forgetting factor at DFF-RLS is based on the gradient of inverse correlation matrix. Compared with the gradient of mean square error algorithm, the proposed approach provides faster tracking and smaller mean square error. In low signal-to-noise ratios, the performance of the proposed method is superior to other approaches.

**Keywords:**
Forgetting factor,
RLS,
Inverse correlation matrix,
human motion analysis.

##### 2550 An Investigation on Overstrength Factor (Ω) of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Turkish Earthquake Draft Code (TEC-2016)

**Authors:**
M. Hakan Arslan,
I. Hakkı Erkan

**Abstract:**

Overstrength factor is an important parameter of load reduction factor. In this research, the overstrength factor (Ω) of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings and the parameters of Ω in TEC-2016 draft version have been explored. For this aim, 48 RC buildings have been modeled according to the current seismic code TEC-2007 and Turkish Building Code-500-2000 criteria. After modelling step, nonlinear static pushover analyses have been applied to these buildings by using TEC-2007 Section 7. After the nonlinear pushover analyses, capacity curves (lateral load-lateral top displacement curves) have been plotted for 48 RC buildings. Using capacity curves, overstrength factors (Ω) have been derived for each building. The obtained overstrength factor (Ω) values have been compared with TEC-2016 values for related building types, and the results have been interpreted. According to the obtained values from the study, overstrength factor (Ω) given in TEC-2016 draft code is found quite suitable.

**Keywords:**
Reinforced concrete buildings,
overstrength factor,
earthquake,
static pushover analysis.

##### 2549 Analysis of Socio-Cultural Obstacles for Dissemination of Nanotechnology from Iran's Agricultural Experts Perspective

**Authors:**
S. M. Mirdamadi,
S. Esmaeili,
S. A. Tohidloo

**Abstract:**

The main purpose of this research was to analyze Socio-Cultural obstacles of disseminating of nanotechnology in Iran's agricultural section. One hundred twenty eight out of a total of 190 researchers with different levels of expertise in and familiarity with nanotechnology were randomly selected and questionnaires completed by them. Face validity have been done by expert's suggestion and correction, reliability by using Cronbakh-Alpha formula. The results of a factor analysis showed variation for different factors. For cultural factors 19/475 percent, for management 13/139 percent, information factor 11/277 percent, production factor 9/703 percent, social factor 9/267 percent, and for attitude factor it became 8/947 percent. Also results indicated that socio-cultural factors were the most important obstacle for nanotechnology dissemination in agricultural section in Iran.

**Keywords:**
Agriculture,
Iran,
nanotechnology,
public perception,
social-cultural obstacles.

##### 2548 Determining the Maximum Lateral Displacement Due to Sever Earthquakes without Using Nonlinear Analysis

**Authors:**
Mussa Mahmoudi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Displacement amplification factor,
Ductility factor,
Force reduction factor,
Maximum lateral displacement.

##### 2547 Loading Factor Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor Impeller: Specific Features and Way of Modeling

**Authors:**
K. Soldatova,
Y. Galerkin

**Abstract:**

A loading factor performance is necessary for the modeling of centrifugal compressor gas dynamic performance curve. Measured loading factors are linear function of a flow coefficient at an impeller exit. The performance does not depend on the compressibility criterion. To simulate loading factor performances, the authors present two parameters: a loading factor at zero flow rate and an angle between an ordinate and performance line. The calculated loading factor performances of non-viscous are linear too and close to experimental performances. Loading factor performances of several dozens of impellers with different blade exit angles, blade thickness and number, ratio of blade exit/inlet height, and two different type of blade mean line configuration. There are some trends of influence, which are evident – comparatively small blade thickness influence, and influence of geometry parameters is more for impellers with bigger blade exit angles, etc. Approximating equations for both parameters are suggested. The next phase of work will be simulating of experimental performances with the suggested approximation equations as a base.

**Keywords:**
Centrifugal compressor stage,
centrifugal compressor,
loading factor,
gas dynamic performance curve.

##### 2546 Connectivity Characteristic of Transcription Factor

**Authors:**
T. Mahalakshmi,
Aswathi B. L.,
Achuthsankar S. Nair

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Transcription Factor Proteins,
Hub Proteins,
Shannon Index,
Transfer Free Energy to Surface (TFES).

##### 2545 Robust Parameter and Scale Factor Estimation in Nonstationary and Impulsive Noise Environment

**Authors:**
Zoran D. Banjac,
Branko D. Kovacevic

**Abstract:**

The problem of FIR system parameter estimation has been considered in the paper. A new robust recursive algorithm for simultaneously estimation of parameters and scale factor of prediction residuals in non-stationary environment corrupted by impulsive noise has been proposed. The performance of derived algorithm has been tested by simulations.

**Keywords:**
Adaptive filtering,
Non-Gaussian filtering,
Robustestimation,
Scale factor estimation.