Search results for: honey bee queen.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: honey bee queen.

32 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity

Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Afzal, Sami Ullah

Abstract:

Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.

Keywords: Apis melifera L., dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen.

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31 Effect of Synthetic Queen Mandibular Pheromone on Pollination of Cotton by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

Authors: M. Keshlaf, R. Mensah, O. Nicetic, R. Spooner-Hart

Abstract:

The effectiveness of a commercial bee attractant, synthetic honey bee queen mandibular pheromone (Fruit Boost®) for enhancing pollination of Gossypium hirsutum was evaluated in a transgenic (Bt) cotton crop. The study assessed the number of bee visitations to blossoms of plants treated with Fruit Boost® as well, as effects on fruit set, yield, and lint quality. Bee activity on plots sprayed with pheromone concentrations of 50 and 500 queen equivalents (QEQ) /ha did not differ significantly from water-only control, on the day of application or the subsequent day. Application of the pheromone did not increase fruit set, yield, or lint quality. Two consecutive pheromone applications, applied two days apart, were not significantly different from a single application for any parameter.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, cotton, pollination, QMP pheromone

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30 Entomological Origin of Honey Discriminated by NMR Chloroform Extracts in Ecuadorian Honey

Authors: P. Vit, J. Uddin, V. Zuccato, F. Maza, E. Schievano

Abstract:

Honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Meliponini) in Ecuador. We studied honey produced in beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at 298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence. Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera, Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey, 1H NMR, entomological origin, Meliponini.

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29 An Internet of Things-Based Weight Monitoring System for Honey

Authors: Zheng-Yan Ruan, Chien-Hao Wang, Hong-Jen Lin, Chien-Peng Huang, Ying-Hao Chen, En-Cheng Yang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Bees play a vital role in pollination. This paper focuses on the weighing process of honey. Honey is usually stored at the comb in a hive. Bee farmers brush bees away from the comb and then collect honey, and the collected honey is weighed afterward. However, such a process brings strong negative influences on bees and even leads to the death of bees. This paper therefore presents an Internet of Things-based weight monitoring system which uses weight sensors to measure the weight of honey and simplifies the whole weighing procedure. To verify the system, the weight measured by the system is compared to the weight of standard weights used for calibration by employing a linear regression model. The R2 of the regression model is 0.9788, which suggests that the weighing system is highly reliable and is able to be applied to obtain actual weight of honey. In the future, the weight data of honey can be used to find the relationship between honey production and different ecological parameters, such as bees’ foraging behavior and weather conditions. It is expected that the findings can serve as critical information for honey production improvement.

Keywords: Internet of Things, weight, honey, bee.

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28 Untargeted Small Metabolite Identification from Thermally Treated Tualang Honey

Authors: Lee Suan Chua

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of thermal treatment on Tualang honey sample in terms of honey colour and heat-induced small metabolites. The heating process was carried out in a temperature controlled water batch at 90oC for 4 hours. The honey samples were put in cylinder tubes with the dimension of 1 cm diameter and 10 cm length for homogenous heat transfer. The results found that the thermal treatment produced not only hydroxylmethylfurfural, but also other harmful substances such as phthalic anhydride and radiolytic byproducts. The degradation of honey protein was due to the detection of free amino acids such as cysteine and phenylalanine in heat-treated honey samples. Sugar dehydration was also occurred because fragmented di-galactose was identified based on the presence of characteristic ions in the mass fragmentation pattern. The honey colour was found getting darker as the heating duration was increased up to 4 hours. Approximately, 60 mm PFund of increment was noticed for the honey colour with the colour change rate of 14.8 mm PFund per hour. Based on the principal component analysis, the score plot clearly shows that the chemical profile of Tualang honey was significantly altered after 2 hours of heating at 90oC.

Keywords: Honey colour, hydroxylmethylfurfural, thermal treatment, Tualang honey.

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27 Beekeeping in Libya

Authors: M. Keshlaf

Abstract:

Honey bees are the most important insects because of their ecologic and economic impacts. They pollinate more than 200 flowering crop plants resulting in an increased yield. Also, honey bees provide multiple products such as honey, royal jelly, wax, venom, pollen and propolis. Beekeeping has been practiced by Africans in all parts of the continent for many thousands of years. However, there is a little scientific information published worldwide about beekeeping in Libya. This review article aims to shed light on the history and current status of honey bee keeping in Libya.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, Libya, beekeeping.

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26 A Hybrid Approach Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Annealing for N-queen Problem

Authors: Vahid Mohammadi Saffarzadeh, Pourya Jafarzadeh, Masoud Mazloom

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid approach for solving nqueen problem by combination of PSO and SA. PSO is a population based heuristic method that sometimes traps in local maximum. To solve this problem we can use SA. Although SA suffer from many iterations and long time convergence for solving some problems, By good adjusting initial parameters such as temperature and the length of temperature stages SA guarantees convergence. In this article we use discrete PSO (due to nature of n-queen problem) to achieve a good local maximum. Then we use SA to escape from local maximum. The experimental results show that our hybrid method in comparison of SA method converges to result faster, especially for high dimensions n-queen problems.

Keywords: PSO, SA, N-queen, CSP

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25 Queen-bee Algorithm for Energy Efficient Clusters in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Z. Pooranian, A. Barati, A. Movaghar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks include small nodes which have sensing ability; calculation and connection extend themselves everywhere soon. Such networks have source limitation on connection, calculation and energy consumption. So, since the nodes have limited energy in sensor networks, the optimized energy consumption in these networks is of more importance and has created many challenges. The previous works have shown that by organizing the network nodes in a number of clusters, the energy consumption could be reduced considerably. So the lifetime of the network would be increased. In this paper, we used the Queen-bee algorithm to create energy efficient clusters in wireless sensor networks. The Queen-bee (QB) is similar to nature in that the queen-bee plays a major role in reproduction process. The QB is simulated with J-sim simulator. The results of the simulation showed that the clustering by the QB algorithm decreases the energy consumption with regard to the other existing algorithms and increases the lifetime of the network.

Keywords: Queen-bee, sensor network, energy efficient, clustering.

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24 Authenticity of Ecuadorian Commercial Honeys

Authors: Elisabetta Schievano, Valentina Zuccato, Claudia Finotello, Patricia Vit

Abstract:

Control of honey frauds is needed in Ecuador to protect bee keepers and consumers because simple syrups and new syrups with eucalyptus are sold as genuine honeys. Authenticity of Ecuadorian commercial honeys was tested with a vortex emulsion consisting on one volume of honey:water (1:1) dilution, and two volumes of diethyl ether. This method allows a separation of phases in one minute to discriminate genuine honeys that form three phase and fake honeys that form two phases; 34 of the 42 honeys analyzed from five provinces of Ecuador were genuine. This was confirmed with 1H NMR spectra of honey dilutions in deuterated water with an enhanced amino acid region with signals for proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Classic quality indicators were also tested with this method (sugars, HMF), indicators of fermentation (ethanol, acetic acid), and residues of citric acid used in the syrup manufacture. One of the honeys gave a false positive for genuine, being an admixture of genuine honey with added syrup, evident for the high sucrose. Sensory analysis was the final confirmation to recognize the honey groups studied here, namely honey produced in combs by Apis mellifera, fake honey, and honey produced in cerumen pots by Geotrigona, Melipona, and Scaptotrigona. Chloroform extractions of honey were also done to search lipophilic additives in NMR spectra. This is a valuable contribution to protect honey consumers, and to develop the beekeeping industry in Ecuador.

Keywords: Fake, genuine, honey, 1H NMR, Ecuador.

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23 Investigation of Anti-Inflammatory, Antipyretic and Analgesic Effect of Yemeni Sidr Honey

Authors: Aman Ahmed Alzubier, Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu

Abstract:

Traditionally, Yemini Sidr honey has been reported to cure liver problems, stomach ulcers, and respiratory disorders. In this experiment, we evaluated Yemeni Sidr honey for its ability to protect inflammations caused by acetic acid and formalin -induced writhing, carrageenan and histamine-induced paw oedema in experimental rat model. Hyperpyrexia, membrane stabilizing activity, and phytochemical screening of the honey was also examined. Yemini Sidr Honey at (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) exhibited a concentration dependant inhibition of acetic acid induced and formalin induced writhing, paw oedema induced by carrageenan & histamine, and hyperpyrexia induced by brewer's yeast, it also inhibited membrane stabilizing activity. Phytochemical screenings of the honey reveal the presence of flavonoids, steroid, alkaloids, saponins and tannins. This study suggested that Yemeni Sidr honey possess very strong antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects and these effects would be a result of the phytochemicals present.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Carrageenan, Aceticacid, Histamine, Yemini Sidr Honey

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22 Sterility Examination and Comparative Analyses of Inhibitory Effect of Honey on Some Gram Negative and Gram Positive Food Borne Pathogens in South West Nigeria

Authors: F. O. Omoya

Abstract:

Food borne illnesses have been reported to be a global health challenge. Annual incidences of food–related diseases involve 76 million cases, of which only 14 million can be traced to known pathogens. Poor hygienic practices have contributed greatly to this. It has been reported that in the year 2000 about 2.1 million people died from diarrheal diseases, hence, there is a need to ensure food safety at all level. This study focused on the sterility examination and inhibitory effect of honey samples on selected gram negative and gram positive food borne pathogen from South West Nigeria. The laboratory examinations revealed the presence of some bacterial and fungal contaminations of honey samples and that inhibitory activity of the honey sample was more pronounced on the gram negative bacteria than the gram positive bacterial isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity test conducted on the different bacterial isolates also showed that honey was able to inhibit the proliferation of the tested bacteria than the employed antibiotics.

Keywords: Food borne illness, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, honey, and inhibitory activity.

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21 Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Sadepovich Maikanov, Z. Shabanbayevich Adilbekov, R. Husainovna Mustafina, L. Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva

Abstract:

This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.

Keywords: Antibiotics, contamination of honey, honey, radionuclides.

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20 Ripper and Sugar Effects on Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation in Gingerbread Biscuits

Authors: A. Komarovska, V. Kreicbergs, F. Diminš

Abstract:

Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed by thermally treating products rich in carbohydrates. HMF and other furan derivatives are toxic. The aim of the research was to establish the content of HMF in gingerbread biscuits with honey and sugar syrup additives by using three leavening agents— ammonium carbonate (NH4HCO3 and (NH4)2CO3), baking powder, and baking soda (NaHCO3). The content of HMF is significantly affected by the leavening agent used. The content of HMF with honey where ammonium carbonate was used as additive range from 5.7 to 27.3mg 100g-1, but when sugar syrup is used the content varies from 2.3 to 7.4mg 100g-1. When baking powder and baking soda are used as leavening agents, the content of HMF exceeds 4mg 100g-1 in the event honey had been added and the baking time had been longer (10 minutes at 180°C or 9 minutes at 200°C).

Keywords: gingerbread biscuits, honey, hydroxymethylfurfural, rippers.

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19 Effects of Modified Bottom Boards on the Performance of Honeybee Colonies

Authors: M. Keshlaf, R. Spooner-Hart

Abstract:

Australia does not have varroa mite. However, we investigated whether modified hive bottom boards used for varroa mite management in honey bee colonies had other benefits, for honey production. We compared a number of colony parameters between hives fitted with tube, mesh and conventional (solid) bottom boards in two locations in eastern Australian, Richmond NSW and Castlemaine Victoria. Colonies housed in hives with mesh and tube bottom boards were not significantly superior to those in hives with conventional bottom boards with regard to bee flight activity, nor did they produce more honey, brood or stored pollen, in either experimental site. Although the trial was conducted over only one season, it is suggested that there may be no benefit in Australian bee keepers changing from using conventional bottom boards in the absence of varroamite.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey production, mesh bottom boards, tube bottom boards.

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18 Formal Thai National Costume in the Reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Authors: Chanoknart Mayusoh

Abstract:

The research about Formal Thai National Costume in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej is an applied research that aimed to study the accurate knowledge concerning to Thai national costume in the reign of King Rama IX, also to study origin of all costumes in the reign of King Rama IX and to study the style, material used, and using accasion. This research methodology which are collect quanlitative data through observation, document, and photograph from key informant of costume in the reign of King Rama IX and from another who related to this field.

The formal Thai national costume of the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej originated from the visit of His Majesty the King to Europe and America in 1960. Since Thailand had no traditional national costume; Her Majesty the Queen initiated the idea to create formal Thai national costumes. In 1964, Her Majesty the Queen selected 8 styles of formal Thai national costume. Later, Her Majesty the Queen confered another 3 formal Thai national costume for men. There are 8 styles of formal Thai national costume for women: Thai Ruean Ton, Thai Chit Lada, Thai Amarin, Thai Borom Phiman, Thai Siwalia, Thai Chakkri, Thai Dusit, and Thai Chakkraphat. There are 3 styles of formal Thai national costume for men: short-sleeve shirt, long-sleeve shirt, and long-sleeve shirt with breechcloth. The costume is widely used in formal ceremony such as greeting ceremony for official foreign visitors, wedding ceremony, or other auspicious ceremonies. Now a day, they are always used as a bridal gown as well. The formal Thai national costume is valuable art that shows Thai identity and, should be preserved for the next generation.

Keywords: The formal Thai national costume for women, The formal Thai national costume for men, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great King Rama IX, Her Majesty Queen Sirikit Queen.

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17 Volatile Profile of Monofloral Honeys Produced by Stingless Bees from the Brazilian Semiarid Region

Authors: Ana Caroliny Vieira da Costa, Marta Suely Madruga

Abstract:

In Brazil, there is a diverse fauna of social bees, known by Meliponinae or native stingless bees. These bees are important for providing a differentiated product, especially regarding unique sweetness, flavor, and aroma. However, information about the volatile fraction in honey produced by stingless native bees is still lacking. The aim of this work was to characterize the volatile compound profile of monofloral honey produced by jandaíra bees (Melipona subnitida Ducke) which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) as their floral sources; and by uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris Latrelle), which used chanana (Turnera ulmifolia L.), malícia (Mimosa quadrivalvis) and angico (Anadenanthera colubrina) as their floral sources. The volatiles were extracted using HS-SPME-GC-MS technique. The condition for the extraction was: equilibration time of 15 minutes, extraction time of 45 min and extraction temperature of 45°C. Through the results obtained, it was observed that the floral source had a strong influence on the aroma profile of the honey under evaluation, since the chemical profiles were marked primarily by the classes of terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Furthermore, the results obtained suggest the existence of differentiator compounds and potential markers for the botanical sources evaluated, such as linalool, D-sylvestrene, rose oxide and benzenethanol. These reports represent a valuable contribution to certifying the authenticity of those honey and provides for the first time, information intended for the construction of chemical knowledge of the aroma and flavor that characterize these honey produced in Brazil.

Keywords: Aroma, honey, semiarid, stingless, volatiles.

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16 A Maximum Parsimony Model to Reconstruct Phylogenetic Network in Honey Bee Evolution

Authors: Usha Chouhan, K. R. Pardasani

Abstract:

Phylogenies ; The evolutionary histories of groups of species are one of the most widely used tools throughout the life sciences, as well as objects of research with in systematic, evolutionary biology. In every phylogenetic analysis reconstruction produces trees. These trees represent the evolutionary histories of many groups of organisms, bacteria due to horizontal gene transfer and plants due to process of hybridization. The process of gene transfer in bacteria and hybridization in plants lead to reticulate networks, therefore, the methods of constructing trees fail in constructing reticulate networks. In this paper a model has been employed to reconstruct phylogenetic network in honey bee. This network represents reticulate evolution in honey bee. The maximum parsimony approach has been used to obtain this reticulate network.

Keywords: Hybridization, HGT, Reticulate networks, Recombination, Species, Parsimony.

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15 Synthesis of Highly Sensitive Molecular Imprinted Sensor for Selective Determination of Doxycycline in Honey Samples

Authors: Nadia El Alami El Hassani, Soukaina Motia, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari

Abstract:

Doxycycline (DXy) is a cycline antibiotic, most frequently prescribed to treat bacterial infections in veterinary medicine. However, its broad antimicrobial activity and low cost, lead to an intensive use, which can seriously affect human health. Therefore, its spread in the food products has to be monitored. The scope of this work was to synthetize a sensitive and very selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for DXy detection in honey samples. Firstly, the synthesis of this biosensor was performed by casting a layer of carboxylate polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) on the working surface of a gold screen-printed electrode (Au-SPE) in order to bind covalently the analyte under mild conditions. Secondly, DXy as a template molecule was bounded to the activated carboxylic groups, and the formation of MIP was performed by a biocompatible polymer by the mean of polyacrylamide matrix. Then, DXy was detected by measurements of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A non-imprinted polymer (NIP) prepared in the same conditions and without the use of template molecule was also performed. We have noticed that the elaborated biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity and a linear behavior between the regenerated current and the logarithmic concentrations of DXy from 0.1 pg.mL−1 to 1000 pg.mL−1. This technic was successfully applied to determine DXy residues in honey samples with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 pg.mL−1 and an excellent selectivity when compared to the results of oxytetracycline (OXy) as analogous interfering compound. The proposed method is cheap, sensitive, selective, simple, and is applied successfully to detect DXy in honey with the recoveries of 87% and 95%. Considering these advantages, this system provides a further perspective for food quality control in industrial fields.

Keywords: Electrochemical sensor, molecular imprinted polymer, doxycycline, food control.

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14 Exporting Physiochemical Changes during the Fermentation of Aloe Vera

Authors: Kyaw Hla Myint, Phyoe Wai Htun

Abstract:

Aloe Vera is a short-stemmed succulent plant which is commonly used in Myanmar traditional medicine. A. vera gel was also used as food addictive. This study aims to improve the Myanmar folk medicine to a functional beverage. In this research, Aloe vera was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 6 months. Three different processes were carried out. Process I contains A. vera 10%, sugar 30%, water 50%, and starter culture 10%, process II contains A. vera 10%, sugar 15%, honey 15%, and water 50%, starter culture 10%; process III contains A. vera 10%, honey 30%, water 50%, starter culture 10%. During wine fermentation, the wine parameters such as alcohol content, total soluble solid (ºBrix), pH, color and cell population were analyzed. After 30 days of fermentation, total cell population remained 2.8x106 in P-I, P-II and 3.2x106 in P-III. Total soluble solid content dropped to 15.8 in P-I, P-II and 15.7 in P-III. After 30 days, clear wine was transferred to other vassals for racking. After 6 months of racking, microbial population reached under detectable level and alcohol content was round about 11% but not significantly different among these processes. P-II was found to have the highest color intensity at 450 nm and it got the most taster satisfaction when sensory evaluation was carried out using five hedonic scales after 6 month of racking.

Keywords: Aloe vera, fermentation, S. cerevisiae, functional beverage, folk medicine.

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13 Comparison of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Algorithms for Automatic Classification of 80 Different Pollen Species

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jimmy Nagau, Jack Molinié

Abstract:

Palynology is a field of interest in many disciplines due to its multiple applications: chronological dating, climatology, allergy treatment, and honey characterization. Unfortunately, the analysis of a pollen slide is a complicated and time consuming task that requires the intervention of experts in the field, which are becoming increasingly rare due to economic and social conditions. In this context, the automation of this task is urgent. In this work, we compare classical feature extraction methods (Shape, GLCM, LBP, and others) and Deep Learning (CNN and Transfer Learning) to perform a recognition task over 80 regional pollen species. It has been found that the use of Transfer Learning seems to be more precise than the other approaches.

Keywords: Image segmentation, stuck particles separation, Sobel operator, thresholding.

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12 Quantity and Quality Aware Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Clustering

Authors: U. Idachaba, F. Z. Wang, A. Qi, N. Helian

Abstract:

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is a relatively new swarm intelligence technique for clustering. It produces higher quality clusters compared to other population-based algorithms but with poor energy efficiency, cluster quality consistency and typically slower in convergence speed. Inspired by energy saving foraging behavior of natural honey bees this paper presents a Quality and Quantity Aware Artificial Bee Colony (Q2ABC) algorithm to improve quality of cluster identification, energy efficiency and convergence speed of the original ABC. To evaluate the performance of Q2ABC algorithm, experiments were conducted on a suite of ten benchmark UCI datasets. The results demonstrate Q2ABC outperformed ABC and K-means algorithm in the quality of clusters delivered.

Keywords: Artificial bee colony algorithm, clustering.

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11 Complexity Analysis of Some Known Graph Coloring Instances

Authors: Jeffrey L. Duffany

Abstract:

Graph coloring is an important problem in computer science and many algorithms are known for obtaining reasonably good solutions in polynomial time. One method of comparing different algorithms is to test them on a set of standard graphs where the optimal solution is already known. This investigation analyzes a set of 50 well known graph coloring instances according to a set of complexity measures. These instances come from a variety of sources some representing actual applications of graph coloring (register allocation) and others (mycieleski and leighton graphs) that are theoretically designed to be difficult to solve. The size of the graphs ranged from ranged from a low of 11 variables to a high of 864 variables. The method used to solve the coloring problem was the square of the adjacency (i.e., correlation) matrix. The results show that the most difficult graphs to solve were the leighton and the queen graphs. Complexity measures such as density, mobility, deviation from uniform color class size and number of block diagonal zeros are calculated for each graph. The results showed that the most difficult problems have low mobility (in the range of .2-.5) and relatively little deviation from uniform color class size.

Keywords: graph coloring, complexity, algorithm.

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10 Evolutionary Program Based Approach for Manipulator Grasping Color Objects

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, Honey Raju

Abstract:

Image segmentation and color identification is an important process used in various emerging fields like intelligent robotics. A method is proposed for the manipulator to grasp and place the color object into correct location. The existing methods such as PSO, has problems like accelerating the convergence speed and converging to a local minimum leading to sub optimal performance. To improve the performance, we are using watershed algorithm and for color identification, we are using EPSO. EPSO method is used to reduce the probability of being stuck in the local minimum. The proposed method offers the particles a more powerful global exploration capability. EPSO methods can determine the particles stuck in the local minimum and can also enhance learning speed as the particle movement will be faster.

Keywords: Color information, EPSO, hue, saturation, value (HSV), image segmentation, particle swarm optimization (PSO). Active Contour, GMM.

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9 The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees

Authors: M. Sadoughi, R. Ehsani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.

Keywords: Adhocracy, bureaucracy, organizational culture, tolerance.

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8 Investigation on Yield and Fruit Quality of Some Cultivated Strawberry in Iran

Authors: Hossein Ali Asadi Gharneh, Kazem Arzani, Abdolali Shojaeian

Abstract:

fifteen cultivars of Strawberries (Queen Eliza, Sequia, Paros, Mcdonance, Selva, Chandler, Mrak, Ten beauty, Aliso, Pajero, Kordestan, Camarosa, Blackmore, Gaviota and Fresno) were investigated in 2011, under hydroponic system condition. Yield and fruit Firmness was determinate. Chemical analyses of soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (AA) and pH were done. 4 cultivars (Aliso, Selva, Paros and Gaviota) yielded more than 250 g/plant, while cultivar Black more, Fresno and Kordestan produced less than 100g/plant. The amounts of fruit firmness indicated that 'Camarosa' fruit was firmer than others cultivars. Cultivar 'Fresno' had the highest pH (3.27). Ttitratable acidity varied from 1.03g/l00g for cultivar 'Sequia' and 'Gaviota' to 1.48g/l00g for cultivar 'Chandler'. Fresno, Kordestan, Aliso and Chandler showed the highest soluble solid concentration. Ascorbic acid averaged for most cultivars between 30.26 and 79.73 mg/100gf.w. Present results showed that different cultivars of strawberry contain highly variable in fruit quality.

Keywords: Yield, Fruit quality, Ascorbic acid, Hydroponic system

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7 A Risk Assessment for the Small Hive Beetle Based on Meteorological Standard Measurements

Authors: J. Junk, M. Eickermann

Abstract:

The Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) is a parasite for honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, and was recently introduced to the European continent, accidentally. Based on the literature, a model was developed by using regional meteorological variables (daily values of minimum, maximum and mean air temperature as well as mean soil temperature at 50 mm depth) to calculate the time-point of hive invasion by A. tumida in springtime, the development duration of pupae as well as the number of generations of A. tumida per year. Luxembourg was used as a test region for our model for 2005 to 2013. The model output indicates a successful surviving of the Small Hive Beetle in Luxembourg with two up to three generations per year. Additionally, based on our meteorological data sets a first migration of SHB to apiaries can be expected from mid of March up to April. Our approach can be transferred easily to other countries to estimate the risk potential for a successful introduction and spreading of A. tumida in Western Europe.

Keywords: Aethina tumida, air temperature, larval development, soil temperature.

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6 Natural Preservatives: An Alternative for Chemical Preservative Used in Foods

Authors: Zerrin Erginkaya, Gözde Konuray

Abstract:

Microbial degradation of foods is defined as a decrease of food safety due to microorganism activity. Organic acids, sulfur dioxide, sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, dimethyl dicarbonate and several preservative gases have been used as chemical preservatives in foods as well as natural preservatives which are indigenous in foods. It is determined that usage of herbal preservatives such as blueberry, dried grape, prune, garlic, mustard, spices inhibited several microorganisms. Moreover, it is determined that animal origin preservatives such as whey, honey, lysosomes of duck egg and chicken egg, chitosan have antimicrobial effect. Other than indigenous antimicrobials in foods, antimicrobial agents produced by microorganisms could be used as natural preservatives. The antimicrobial feature of preservatives depends on the antimicrobial spectrum, chemical and physical features of material, concentration, mode of action, components of food, process conditions, and pH and storage temperature. In this review, studies about antimicrobial components which are indigenous in food (such as herbal and animal origin antimicrobial agents), antimicrobial materials synthesized by microorganisms, and their usage as an antimicrobial agent to preserve foods are discussed.

Keywords: Animal origin preservatives, antimicrobial, chemical preservatives, herbal preservatives.

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5 Learning Styles of University Students in Bangkok: The Characteristics and the Relevant Instructional Context

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to identify learning styles of university students in Bangkok, and 2) to study the frequency of the relevant instructional context of the identified learning styles. Learning Styles employed in this study are those of Honey and Mumford, which include 1) Reflectors, 2) Theorists, 3) Pragmatists, and 4) Activists. The population comprises 1383 students and 5 lecturers. Research tools are 2 questionnaires – one used for identifying students- learning styles, and the other used for identifying the frequency of the relevant instructional context of the identified learning styles. The research findings reveal that 32.30 percent - are Activists, while 28.10 percent are Theorists, 20.10 are Reflectors, and 19.50 are Pragmatists. In terms of the relevant instructional context of the identified 4 learning styles, it is found that the frequency level of the instructional context is totally in high level. Moreover, 2 lists of the context being conducted most frequently are 'Lead'in activity to review background knowledge,- and 'Information retrieval report.' And these two activities serve the learning styles of theorists and activists. It is, therefore, suggested that more instructional context supporting the activists, the majority of the population, learning best by doing, as well as emotional learning situation should be added.

Keywords: Instructional Context, Learning Styles, Learning Style Preference, and Learning Style Questionnaire.

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4 Logistic Model Tree and Expectation-Maximization for Pollen Recognition and Grouping

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jack Molinié, Jimmy Nagau, Hélène Delatte, Gérard Lebreton

Abstract:

Palynology is a field of interest for many disciplines. It has multiple applications such as chronological dating, climatology, allergy treatment, and even honey characterization. Unfortunately, the analysis of a pollen slide is a complicated and time-consuming task that requires the intervention of experts in the field, which is becoming increasingly rare due to economic and social conditions. So, the automation of this task is a necessity. Pollen slides analysis is mainly a visual process as it is carried out with the naked eye. That is the reason why a primary method to automate palynology is the use of digital image processing. This method presents the lowest cost and has relatively good accuracy in pollen retrieval. In this work, we propose a system combining recognition and grouping of pollen. It consists of using a Logistic Model Tree to classify pollen already known by the proposed system while detecting any unknown species. Then, the unknown pollen species are divided using a cluster-based approach. Success rates for the recognition of known species have been achieved, and automated clustering seems to be a promising approach.

Keywords: Pollen recognition, logistic model tree, expectation-maximization, local binary pattern.

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3 Survey Based Data Security Evaluation in Pakistan Financial Institutions against Malicious Attacks

Authors: Naveed Ghani, Samreen Javed

Abstract:

In today’s heterogeneous network environment, there is a growing demand for distrust clients to jointly execute secure network to prevent from malicious attacks as the defining task of propagating malicious code is to locate new targets to attack. Residual risk is always there no matter what solutions are implemented or whet so ever security methodology or standards being adapted. Security is the first and crucial phase in the field of Computer Science. The main aim of the Computer Security is gathering of information with secure network. No one need wonder what all that malware is trying to do: It's trying to steal money through data theft, bank transfers, stolen passwords, or swiped identities. From there, with the help of our survey we learn about the importance of white listing, antimalware programs, security patches, log files, honey pots, and more used in banks for financial data protection but there’s also a need of implementing the IPV6 tunneling with Crypto data transformation according to the requirements of new technology to prevent the organization from new Malware attacks and crafting of its own messages and sending them to the target. In this paper the writer has given the idea of implementing IPV6 Tunneling Secessions on private data transmission from financial organizations whose secrecy needed to be safeguarded.

Keywords: Network worms, malware infection propagating malicious code, virus, security, VPN.

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