Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1225

Search results for: traditional cipher.

1225 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)

Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan

Abstract:

In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.

Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.

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1224 A Distinguish Attack on COSvd Cipher

Authors: Mohammad Ali Orumiehchi ha, R. Mirghadri

Abstract:

The COSvd Ciphers has been proposed by Filiol and others (2004). It is a strengthened version of COS stream cipher family denoted COSvd that has been adopted for at least one commercial standard. We propose a distinguish attack on this version, and prove that, it is distinguishable from a random stream. In the COSvd Cipher used one S-Box (10×8) on the final part of cipher. We focus on S-Box and use weakness this S-Box for distinguish attack. In addition, found a leak on HNLL that the sub s-boxes don-t select uniformly. We use this property for an Improve distinguish attack.

Keywords: Stream cipher, COSvd cipher, distinguish attack, nonlinear feedback shift registers, chaotic layer.

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1223 A New Variant of RC4 Stream Cipher

Authors: Lae Lae Khine

Abstract:

RC4 was used as an encryption algorithm in WEP(Wired Equivalent Privacy) protocol that is a standardized for 802.11 wireless network. A few attacks followed, indicating certain weakness in the design. In this paper, we proposed a new variant of RC4 stream cipher. The new version of the cipher does not only appear to be more secure, but its keystream also has large period, large complexity and good statistical properties.

Keywords: Cryptography, New variant, RC4, Stream Cipher.

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1222 Applications of Cascade Correlation Neural Networks for Cipher System Identification

Authors: B. Chandra, P. Paul Varghese

Abstract:

Crypto System Identification is one of the challenging tasks in Crypt analysis. The paper discusses the possibility of employing Neural Networks for identification of Cipher Systems from cipher texts. Cascade Correlation Neural Network and Back Propagation Network have been employed for identification of Cipher Systems. Very large collection of cipher texts were generated using a Block Cipher (Enhanced RC6) and a Stream Cipher (SEAL). Promising results were obtained in terms of accuracy using both the Neural Network models but it was observed that the Cascade Correlation Neural Network Model performed better compared to Back Propagation Network.

Keywords: Back Propagation Neural Networks, CascadeCorrelation Neural Network, Crypto systems, Block Cipher, StreamCipher.

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1221 Block Cipher Based on Randomly Generated Quasigroups

Authors: Deepthi Haridas, S Venkataraman, Geeta Varadan

Abstract:

Quasigroups are algebraic structures closely related to Latin squares which have many different applications. The construction of block cipher is based on quasigroup string transformation. This article describes a block cipher based Quasigroup of order 256, suitable for fast software encryption of messages written down in universal ASCII code. The novelty of this cipher lies on the fact that every time the cipher is invoked a new set of two randomly generated quasigroups are used which in turn is used to create a pair of quasigroup of dual operations. The cryptographic strength of the block cipher is examined by calculation of the xor-distribution tables. In this approach some algebraic operations allows quasigroups of huge order to be used without any requisite to be stored.

Keywords: quasigroups, latin squares, block cipher and quasigroup string transformations.

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1220 Linear Cryptanalysis for a Chaos-Based Stream Cipher

Authors: Ruming Yin, Jian Yuan, Qiuhua Yang, Xiuming Shan, Xiqin Wang

Abstract:

Linear cryptanalysis methods are rarely used to improve the security of chaotic stream ciphers. In this paper, we apply linear cryptanalysis to a chaotic stream cipher which was designed by strictly using the basic design criterion of cryptosystem – confusion and diffusion. We show that this well-designed chaos-based stream cipher is still insecure against distinguishing attack. This distinguishing attack promotes the further improvement of the cipher.

Keywords: Stream cipher, chaos, linear cryptanalysis, distinguishing attack.

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1219 Implementation of RC5 Block Cipher Algorithm for Image Cryptosystems

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper examines the implementation of RC5 block cipher for digital images along with its detailed security analysis. A complete specification for the method of application of the RC5 block cipher to digital images is given. The security analysis of RC5 block cipher for digital images against entropy attack, bruteforce, statistical, and differential attacks is explored from strict cryptographic viewpoint. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC5 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC5 block cipher algorithm.

Keywords: Image encryption, security analysis.

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1218 Encryption Efficiency Analysis and Security Evaluation of RC6 Block Cipher for Digital Images

Authors: Hossam El-din H. Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kalash, Osama S. Farag Allah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the encryption efficiency of RC6 block cipher application to digital images, providing a new mathematical measure for encryption efficiency, which we will call the encryption quality instead of visual inspection, The encryption quality of RC6 block cipher is investigated among its several design parameters such as word size, number of rounds, and secret key length and the optimal choices for the best values of such design parameters are given. Also, the security analysis of RC6 block cipher for digital images is investigated from strict cryptographic viewpoint. The security estimations of RC6 block cipher for digital images against brute-force, statistical, and differential attacks are explored. Experiments are made to test the security of RC6 block cipher for digital images against all aforementioned types of attacks. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC6 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC6 block cipher algorithm. So, RC6 block cipher can be considered to be a real-time secure symmetric encryption for digital images.

Keywords: Block cipher, Image encryption, Encryption quality, and Security analysis.

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1217 Study on the Chaotic Cipher Combined with Mersenne Twister

Authors: Daiki Yoshida, Ariyoshi Nakayama, Hirotaka Watanabe, Taichi Sato, Syuhei Kuriyama, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

In this study, we propose the chaotic cipher combined with Mersenne Twister that is an extremely good pseudo-random number generator for the secure communications. We investigate the Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system, and evaluate the randomness performance by comparing RC4 and the chaotic cipher. In these results, our proposed system gets high chaotic property and more randomness than the conventional ciphers.

Keywords: Chaos, chaotic property, cipher, Mersenne Twister, Randomness.

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1216 An Enhanced Cryptanalytic Attack on Knapsack Cipher using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Poonam Garg, Aditya Shastri, D.C. Agarwal

Abstract:

With the exponential growth of networked system and application such as eCommerce, the demand for effective internet security is increasing. Cryptology is the science and study of systems for secret communication. It consists of two complementary fields of study: cryptography and cryptanalysis. The application of genetic algorithms in the cryptanalysis of knapsack ciphers is suggested by Spillman [7]. In order to improve the efficiency of genetic algorithm attack on knapsack cipher, the previously published attack was enhanced and re-implemented with variation of initial assumptions and results are compared with Spillman results. The experimental result of research indicates that the efficiency of genetic algorithm attack on knapsack cipher can be improved with variation of initial assumption.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Knapsack cipher, Key search.

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1215 Hardware Stream Cipher Based On LFSR and Modular Division Circuit

Authors: Deepthi P.P., P.S. Sathidevi

Abstract:

Proposal for a secure stream cipher based on Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR) is presented here. In this method, shift register structure used for polynomial modular division is combined with LFSR keystream generator to yield a new keystream generator with much higher periodicity. Security is brought into this structure by using the Boolean function to combine state bits of the LFSR keystream generator and taking the output through the Boolean function. This introduces non-linearity and security into the structure in a way similar to the Non-linear filter generator. The security and throughput of the suggested stream cipher is found to be much greater than the known LFSR based structures for the same key length.

Keywords: Linear Feedback Shift Register, Stream Cipher, Filter generator, Keystream generator, Modular division circuit

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1214 Speech Encryption and Decryption Using Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR)

Authors: Tin Lai Win, Nant Christina Kyaw

Abstract:

This paper is taken into consideration the problem of cryptanalysis of stream ciphers. There is some attempts need to improve the existing attacks on stream cipher and to make an attempt to distinguish the portions of cipher text obtained by the encryption of plain text in which some parts of the text are random and the rest are non-random. This paper presents a tutorial introduction to symmetric cryptography. The basic information theoretic and computational properties of classic and modern cryptographic systems are presented, followed by an examination of the application of cryptography to the security of VoIP system in computer networks using LFSR algorithm. The implementation program will be developed Java 2. LFSR algorithm is appropriate for the encryption and decryption of online streaming data, e.g. VoIP (voice chatting over IP). This paper is implemented the encryption module of speech signals to cipher text and decryption module of cipher text to speech signals.

Keywords: Linear Feedback Shift Register.

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1213 Improved MARS Ciphering Using a Metamorphic-Enhanced Function

Authors: Moataz M. Naguib, Hatem Khater, A. Baith Mohamed

Abstract:

MARS is a shared-key (symmetric) block cipher algorithm supporting 128-bit block size and a variable key size of between 128 and 448 bits. MARS has a several rounds of cryptographic core that is designed to take advantage of the powerful results for improving security/performance tradeoff over existing ciphers. In this work, a new function added to improve the ciphering process it is called, Meta-Morphic function. This function use XOR, Rotating, Inverting and No-Operation logical operations before and after encryption process. The aim of these operations is to improve MARS cipher process and makes a high confusion criterion for the Ciphertext.

Keywords: AES, MARS, Metamorphic, Cryptography, Block Cipher.

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1212 FPGA Implementation of the “PYRAMIDS“ Block Cipher

Authors: A. AlKalbany, H. Al hassan, M. Saeb

Abstract:

The “PYRAMIDS" Block Cipher is a symmetric encryption algorithm of a 64, 128, 256-bit length, that accepts a variable key length of 128, 192, 256 bits. The algorithm is an iterated cipher consisting of repeated applications of a simple round transformation with different operations and different sequence in each round. The algorithm was previously software implemented in Cµ code. In this paper, a hardware implementation of the algorithm, using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), is presented. In this work, we discuss the algorithm, the implemented micro-architecture, and the simulation and implementation results. Moreover, we present a detailed comparison with other implemented standard algorithms. In addition, we include the floor plan as well as the circuit diagrams of the various micro-architecture modules.

Keywords: FPGA, VHDL, micro-architecture, encryption, cryptography, algorithm, data communication security.

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1211 Study on the Evaluation of the Chaotic Cipher System Using the Improved Volterra Filters and the RBFN Mapping

Authors: Hirotaka Watanabe, Takaaki Kondo, Daiki Yoshida, Ariyoshi Nakayama, Taichi Sato, Shuhei Kuriyama, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a chaotic cipher system consisting of Improved Volterra Filters and the mapping that is created from the actual voice by using Radial Basis Function Network. In order to achieve a practical system, the system supposes to use the digital communication line, such as the Internet, to maintain the parameter matching between the transmitter and receiver sides. Therefore, in order to withstand the attack from outside, it is necessary that complicate the internal state and improve the sensitivity coefficient. In this paper, we validate the robustness of proposed method from three perspectives of "Chaotic properties", "Randomness", "Coefficient sensitivity".

Keywords: Chaos cipher, 16-bit-length fixed point arithmetic, Volterra filter, Seacret communications, RBF Network

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1210 ASC – A Stream Cipher with Built – In MAC Functionality

Authors: Kai-Thorsten Wirt

Abstract:

In this paper we present the design of a new encryption scheme. The scheme we propose is a very exible encryption and authentication primitive. We build this scheme on two relatively new design principles: t-functions and fast pseudo hadamard transforms. We recapitulate the theory behind these principles and analyze their security properties and efficiency. In more detail we propose a streamcipher which outputs a message authentication tag along with theencrypted data stream with only little overhead. Moreover we proposesecurity-speed tradeoffs. Our scheme is faster than other comparablet-function based designs while offering the same security level.

Keywords: Cryptography, Combined Primitives, Stream Cipher, MAC, T-Function, FPHT.

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1209 Key Exchange Protocol over Insecure Channel

Authors: Alaa Fahmy

Abstract:

Key management represents a major and the most sensitive part of cryptographic systems. It includes key generation, key distribution, key storage, and key deletion. It is also considered the hardest part of cryptography. Designing secure cryptographic algorithms is hard, and keeping the keys secret is much harder. Cryptanalysts usually attack both symmetric and public key cryptosystems through their key management. We introduce a protocol to exchange cipher keys over insecure communication channel. This protocol is based on public key cryptosystem, especially elliptic curve cryptosystem. Meanwhile, it tests the cipher keys and selects only the good keys and rejects the weak one.

Keywords: Key management and key distribution.

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1208 Maintaining User-Level Security in Short Message Service

Authors: T. Arudchelvam, W. W. E. N. Fernando

Abstract:

Mobile phone has become as an essential thing in our life. Therefore, security is the most important thing to be considered in mobile communication. Short message service is the cheapest way of communication via the mobile phones. Therefore, security is very important in the short message service as well. This paper presents a method to maintain the security at user level. Different types of encryption methods are used to implement the user level security in mobile phones. Caesar cipher, Rail Fence, Vigenere cipher and RSA are used as encryption methods in this work. Caesar cipher and the Rail Fence methods are enhanced and implemented. The beauty in this work is that the user can select the encryption method and the key. Therefore, by changing the encryption method and the key time to time, the user can ensure the security of messages. By this work, while users can safely send/receive messages, they can save their information from unauthorised and unwanted people in their own mobile phone as well.

Keywords: SMS, user level security, encryption, mobile communication.

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1207 Round Addition Differential Fault Analysis on Lightweight Block Ciphers with On-the-Fly Key Scheduling

Authors: Hideki Yoshikawa, Masahiro Kaminaga, Arimitsu Shikoda, Toshinori Suzuki

Abstract:

Round addition differential fault analysis using operation skipping for lightweight block ciphers with on-the-fly key scheduling is presented. For 64-bit KLEIN, it is shown that only a pair of correct and faulty ciphertexts can be used to derive the secret master key. For PRESENT, one correct ciphertext and two faulty ciphertexts are required to reconstruct the secret key. Furthermore, secret key extraction is demonstrated for the LBlock Feistel-type lightweight block cipher.

Keywords: Differential Fault Analysis (DFA), round addition, block cipher, on-the-fly key schedule.

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1206 Zero-knowledge-like Proof of Cryptanalysis of Bluetooth Encryption

Authors: Eric Filiol

Abstract:

This paper presents a protocol aiming at proving that an encryption system contains structural weaknesses without disclosing any information on those weaknesses. A verifier can check in a polynomial time that a given property of the cipher system output has been effectively realized. This property has been chosen by the prover in such a way that it cannot been achieved by known attacks or exhaustive search but only if the prover indeed knows some undisclosed weaknesses that may effectively endanger the cryptosystem security. This protocol has been denoted zero-knowledge-like proof of cryptanalysis. In this paper, we apply this protocol to the Bluetooth core encryption algorithm E0, used in many mobile environments and thus we suggest that its security can seriously be put into question.

Keywords: Bluetooth encryption, Bluetooth security, Bluetoothprotocol, Stream cipher, Zero-knowledge, Cryptanalysis

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1205 Effectual Reversible Watermarking Method for Hide the Patient Details in Brain Tumor Image

Authors: K. Amudha, C. Nelson Kennedy Babu, S. Balu

Abstract:

The security of the medical images and its related data is the major research area which is to be concentrated in today’s era. Security in the medical image indicates that the physician may hide patients’ related data in the medical image and transfer it safely to a defined location using reversible watermarking. Many reversible watermarking methods had proposed over the decade. This paper enhances the security level in brain tumor images to hide the patient’s detail, which has to be conferred with other physician’s suggestions. The details or the information will be hidden in Non-ROI area of the image by using the block cipher algorithm. The block cipher uses different keys to extract the details that are difficult for the intruder to detect all the keys and to spot the details, which are the key advantage of this method. The ROI is the tumor area and Non-ROI is the area rest of ROI. The Non-ROI should not be spoiled in any cause and the details in the Non-ROI should be extracted correctly. The reversible watermarking method proposed in this paper performs well when compared to existing methods in the process of extraction of an original image and providing information security.

Keywords: Brain tumor images, Block Cipher, Reversible watermarking, ROI.

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1204 A Combined Cipher Text Policy Attribute-Based Encryption and Timed-Release Encryption Method for Securing Medical Data in Cloud

Authors: G. Shruthi, Purohit Shrinivasacharya

Abstract:

The biggest problem in cloud is securing an outsourcing data. A cloud environment cannot be considered to be trusted. It becomes more challenging when outsourced data sources are managed by multiple outsourcers with different access rights. Several methods have been proposed to protect data confidentiality against the cloud service provider to support fine-grained data access control. We propose a method with combined Cipher Text Policy Attribute-based Encryption (CP-ABE) and Timed-release encryption (TRE) secure method to control medical data storage in public cloud.

Keywords: Attribute, encryption, security, trapdoor.

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1203 A New Application of Stochastic Transformation

Authors: Nilar Win Kyaw

Abstract:

In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are very important to get confidentiality and privacy of message in block ciphers and stream ciphers. There are two types of network to provide confusion and diffusion properties of message in block ciphers. They are Substitution- Permutation network (S-P network), and Feistel network. NLFS (Non-Linear feedback stream cipher) is a fast and secure stream cipher for software application. NLFS have two modes basic mode that is synchronous mode and self synchronous mode. Real random numbers are non-deterministic. R-box (random box) based on the dynamic properties and it performs the stochastic transformation of data that can be used effectively meet the challenges of information is protected from international destructive impacts. In this paper, a new implementation of stochastic transformation will be proposed.

Keywords: S-P network, Feistel network, R-block, stochastic transformation

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1202 Diffusion Analysis of a Scalable Feistel Network

Authors: Subariah Ibrahim, Mohd Aizaini Maarof

Abstract:

A generalization of the concepts of Feistel Networks (FN), known as Extended Feistel Network (EFN) is examined. EFN splits the input blocks into n > 2 sub-blocks. Like conventional FN, EFN consists of a series of rounds whereby at least one sub-block is subjected to an F function. The function plays a key role in the diffusion process due to its completeness property. It is also important to note that in EFN the F-function is the most computationally expensive operation in a round. The aim of this paper is to determine a suitable type of EFN for a scalable cipher. This is done by analyzing the threshold number of rounds for different types of EFN to achieve the completeness property as well as the number of F-function required in the network. The work focuses on EFN-Type I, Type II and Type III only. In the analysis it is found that EFN-Type II and Type III diffuses at the same rate and both are faster than Type-I EFN. Since EFN-Type-II uses less F functions as compared to EFN-Type III, therefore Type II is the most suitable EFN for use in a scalable cipher.

Keywords: Cryptography, Extended Feistel Network, Diffusion Analysis.

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1201 Design of an Authentication Protocol for Secure Electronic Seals

Authors: Seongsoo Park, Mun-Kyu Lee, Dong Kyue Kim, Kunsoo Park, Yousung Kang, Sokjoon Lee, Howon Kim, Kyoil Chung

Abstract:

Electronic seal is an electronic device to check the authenticity and integrity of freight containers at the point of arrival. While RFID-based eSeals are gaining more acceptances and there are also some standardization processes for these devices, a recent research revealed that the current RFID-based eSeals are vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we provide a feasible solution to enhance the security of active RFID-based eSeals. Our approach is to use an authentication and key agreement protocol between eSeal and reader device, enabling data encryption and integrity check. Our protocol is based on the use of block cipher AES, which is reasonable since a block cipher can also be used for many other security purposes including data encryption and pseudo-random number generation. Our protocol is very simple, and it is applicable to low-end active RFID eSeals.

Keywords: Authentication, Container Security, Electronic seal, RFID

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1200 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Humid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

This paper concentrates on the sustainable traditional architecture and urban planning in hot-humid regions of Iran. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate traditional architecture in hothumid climate of Iran as a sample of sustainable architecture. Iranian traditional architecture has been able to response to environmental problems for a long period of time. Its features are based on climatic factors, local construction materials of hot-humid regions and culture. This paper concludes that Iranian traditional architecture can be addressed as a sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Hot-humid climate, Iran, Sustainable Traditional architecture, Urban planning.

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1199 Identity of Cultural Food: A Case Study of Traditional Mon Cuisine in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: S. Nitiworakarn

Abstract:

This research aims to identify traditional Mon cuisines as well as gather and classify traditional cuisines of Mon communities in Bangkok. The studying of this research is used by methodology of the quantitative research. Using the questionnaire as the method in collecting information from sampling totally amount of 450 persons analyzed via frequency, percentage and mean value. The results showed that a variety of traditional Mon cuisines of Bangkok could split into 6 categories of meat diet with 54 items and 6 categories of desserts with 19 items.

Keywords: Cultural identity, traditional food, Mon cuisine, Thailand.

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1198 The Integration of Iranian Traditional Architecture in the Contemporary Housing Design: A Case Study

Authors: H. Nejadriahi

Abstract:

Traditional architecture is a valuable source of inspiration, which needs to be studied and integrated in the contemporary designs for achieving an identifiable contemporary architecture. Traditional architecture of Iran is among the distinguished examples of being contextually responsive, not only by considering the environmental conditions of a region, but also in terms of respecting the socio-cultural values of its context. In order to apply these valuable features to the current designs, they need to be adapted to today's condition, needs and desires. In this paper, the main features of the traditional architecture of Iran are explained to interrogate them in the formation of a contemporary house in Tehran, Iran. Also a table is provided to compare the utilization of the traditional design concepts in the traditional houses and the contemporary example of it. It is believed that such study would increase the awareness of contemporary designers by providing them some clues on maintaining the traditional values in the current design layouts particularly in the residential sector that would ultimately improve the quality of space in the contemporary architecture.

Keywords: Contemporary housing design, Iran, Tehran, traditional architecture.

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1197 Design and Implementation of Secure Electronic Payment System (Client)

Authors: Pyae Pyae Hun

Abstract:

Secure electronic payment system is presented in this paper. This electronic payment system is to be secure for clients such as customers and shop owners. The security architecture of the system is designed by RC5 encryption / decryption algorithm. This eliminates the fraud that occurs today with stolen credit card numbers. The symmetric key cryptosystem RC5 can protect conventional transaction data such as account numbers, amount and other information. This process can be done electronically using RC5 encryption / decryption program written by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. There is no danger of any data sent within the system being intercepted, and replaced. The alternative is to use the existing network, and to encrypt all data transmissions. The system with encryption is acceptably secure, but that the level of encryption has to be stepped up, as computing power increases. Results In order to be secure the system the communication between modules is encrypted using symmetric key cryptosystem RC5. The system will use simple user name, password, user ID, user type and cipher authentication mechanism for identification, when the user first enters the system. It is the most common method of authentication in most computer system.

Keywords: A 128-bit block cipher, Microsoft visual basic 6.0, RC5 encryption /decryption algorithm and TCP/IP protocol.

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1196 Transformation of the Traditional Landscape of Kabul Old City: A Study for Its Conservation

Authors: Mohammad Umar Azizi, Tetsuya Ando

Abstract:

This study investigates the transformation of the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City through an examination of five case study areas. Based on physical observation, three types of houses are found: traditional, mixed and modern. Firstly, characteristics of the houses are described according to construction materials and the number of stories. Secondly, internal and external factors are considered in order to implement a conservation plan. Finally, an adaptive conservation plan is suggested to protect the traditional landscape of Kabul Old City.

Keywords: Conservation, District 1, Kabul Old City, landscape, transformation, traditional houses.

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