Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31014
Comparison of The Fertilizer Properties of Ash Fractions from Medium-Sized (32 MW) and Small-Sized (6 MW) Municipal District Heating Plants

Authors: Hannu Nurmesniemi, Mikko Mäkelä, Risto Pöykiö, Olli Dahl


Due to the low heavy metal concentrations, the bottom ash from a 32 MW municipal district heating plant was determined to be a potential forest fertilizer as such. However, additional Ca would be needed, because its Ca concentration of 1.9- % (d.w.) was lower than the statutory Finnish minimum limit value of 6.0-% (d.w.) for Ca in forest fertilizer. Due to the elevated As concentration (53.0 mg/kg; d.w.) in the fly ash from the 32 MW municipal district heating plant, and Cr concentration (620 mg/kg; d.w.) in the ash fraction (i.e. mixture of the bottom ash and fly ash) from the 6 MW municipal district heating plant, which exceed the limit values of 30 mg/kg (d.w.) and 300 mg/kg (d.w.) for As and Cr, respectively, these residues are not suitable as forest fertilizers. Although these ash fractions cannot be used as a forest fertilizer as such, they can be used for the landscaping of landfills or in industrial and other areas that are closed to the public. However, an environmental permit is then needed.

Keywords: Waste, fertilizer, Peat, ash, forest residue

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1161


[1] W.R. Livingston, "Biomass ash characteristics and behaviour in combustion, gasification and pyrolysis systems," in Report No. 34/07/005, Issue No 1, 20th February 2007. Doosan Babcock Energy Limited 2007, pp. 69, 2007.
[2] The European Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste. Official J. Eur. Comm. L., vol. 182, pp. 0001-0019, 1999.
[3] H. Yoshida, K. Shimamura, and H. Alzawa, "3R strategies for the establishment of an international sound material-cycles society", J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage., vol. 9, pp. 101-111, 2007.
[4] Maa- ja mets├ñtalousministeriön asetus lannoitevalmisteista annetun maaja mets├ñtalousministeriön asetuksen 12/07 muuttamisesta. Asetus nro. 9/99, 31.3.2009 (in Finnish).
[5] Maa- ja mets├ñtalousministeriön asetus lannoitevalmisteista annetun maaja mets├ñtalousministeriön asetuksen 12/07 muuttamisesta. Asetus nro. 19/09, 29.7.2009 (in Finnish).
[6] Maa- ja mets├ñtalousministeriön asetus lannoitevalmisteista. Asetus nro. 12/07, 13.2.2007 (in Finnish).
[7] Lannoitevalmistelaki nro. 539/2006 (in Finnish).
[8] N. Haglund, "Guidelines for classification of ash from solid biofuels and peat utilised for recycling and fertilizing in forestry and agriculture," in NT Technical Report TR 613, Nordic Innovation Centre, Oslo, Norway, pp. 1-23, 2008.
[9] R. Pöykiö, H. Nurmesniemi, and R.L. Keiski, "Heavy metals in flue gas cleaning residue", Environ. Chem. Lett., Vol. 8, pp. 295-300, 2010.
[10] R. W. Gerlach, D.E. Dobb, G.A. Raab, and J.M. Nocerino, "Gy sampling theory in environmental studies. 1. Assessing soil splitting protocols", J. Chemom., vol. 16, pp. 321-328, 2002.
[11] R. Pöykiö, H. Rönkköm├ñki, H. Nurmesniemi, P. Per├ñm├ñki, K. Popov, I. V├ñlim├ñki, and T. Tuomi, "Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW)", J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 162, pp. 1059-1064, 2009.
[12] Finnish Standards Association. Technical Speciation CEN/TS 15105, "Solid biofuels - Method for determination of the water soluble content of chloride, sodium and potassium", Helsinki, Finland, pp. 1-10, 2005.
[13] ASTM (The American Society for Testing and Materials). Standard test method for major and trace elements in limestone and lime by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) and Atomic Absorption (AAS). Designation C 1301-95, West Conshohocken. United States.
[14] B.M. Steenari, and O. Lindqvist, "Fly ash characteristics in cocombustion of wood with coal, oil or peat", Fuel, vol. 78, pp. 479-488, 1999.
[15] G.S. Humphreys, D.M. Raven, and R.J. Field, "Wood-ash stone in Angophora costata (Gaertn.) J. Britt. following Sydney bushfires", Aust. For., vol. 67, pp. 39-43, 2004.
[16] E. Álvarez-Ayuso, X. Querol, and A. Tomás, "Environmental impact of a coal combustion-desulphurisation plant: Abetement capacity of desulphurization process and environmental characterisation of combustion by-products", Chemosphere, vol. 65, pp. 2009-2017, 2006.
[17] T. Lind, T. Valmari, E.I. Kauppinen, G. Sfiris, K. Nilsson, W. Maenhaut, "Volatization of the heavy metals during circulating fluidized bed combustion of forest residue", Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 33, pp. 496- 502, 1999.