Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Lasers

27 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer

Authors: Osama Terra, Hatem Hussein, Adriaan Van Brakel

Abstract:

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.

Keywords: OSA calibration, HCN gas cell, DWDM technology, wavelength measurement.

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26 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers

Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear

Abstract:

High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.

Keywords: Current density, High-speed VCSELs, Modulation bandwidth, Small-Signal Characteristics, Thermal impedance, Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

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25 Laser Keratoplasty in Human Eye Considering the Fluid Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow

Authors: Dara Singh, Keikhosrow Firouzbakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian

Abstract:

In this paper, conventional laser Keratoplasty surgeries in the human eye are studied. For this purpose, a validated 3D finite volume model of the human eye is introduced. In this model the fluid flow has also been considered. The discretized domain of the human eye incorporates a bio-heat transfer equation coupled with a Boussinesq equation. Both continuous and pulsed lasers have been modeled and the results are compared. Moreover, two different conventional surgical positions that are upright and recumbent are compared for these laser therapies. The simulation results show that in these conventional surgeries, the temperature rises above the critical values at the laser insertion areas. However, due to the short duration and the localized nature, the potential damages are restricted to very small regions and can be ignored. The conclusion is that the present day lasers are acceptably safe to the human eye.

Keywords: Eye, heat-transfer, keratoplasty laser, surgery.

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24 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-silicon raman laser, FTTH, GE-PON, quasi-phase-matched structure, resonator.

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23 Non-Destructive Testing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic by Infrared Thermography Methods

Authors: W. Swiderski

Abstract:

Composite materials are one answer to the growing demand for materials with better parameters of construction and exploitation. Composite materials also permit conscious shaping of desirable properties to increase the extent of reach in the case of metals, ceramics or polymers. In recent years, composite materials have been used widely in aerospace, energy, transportation, medicine, etc. Fiber-reinforced composites including carbon fiber, glass fiber and aramid fiber have become a major structural material. The typical defect during manufacture and operation is delamination damage of layered composites. When delamination damage of the composites spreads, it may lead to a composite fracture. One of the many methods used in non-destructive testing of composites is active infrared thermography. In active thermography, it is necessary to deliver energy to the examined sample in order to obtain significant temperature differences indicating the presence of subsurface anomalies. To detect possible defects in composite materials, different methods of thermal stimulation can be applied to the tested material, these include heating lamps, lasers, eddy currents, microwaves or ultrasounds. The use of a suitable source of thermal stimulation on the test material can have a decisive influence on the detection or failure to detect defects. Samples of multilayer structure carbon composites were prepared with deliberately introduced defects for comparative purposes. Very thin defects of different sizes and shapes made of Teflon or copper having a thickness of 0.1 mm were screened. Non-destructive testing was carried out using the following sources of thermal stimulation, heating lamp, flash lamp, ultrasound and eddy currents. The results are reported in the paper.

Keywords: Non-destructive testing, IR thermography, composite material, thermal stimulation.

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22 Modeling and Simulations of Surface Plasmon Waveguide Structures

Authors: Moussa Hamdan, Abdulati Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation of the fabrication of the optical devices in terms of their characteristics based on the use of the electromagnetic waves. Planar waveguides are used to examine the field modes (bound modes) and the parameters required for this structure. The modifications are conducted on surface plasmons based waveguides. Simple symmetric dielectric slab structure is used and analyzed in terms of transverse electric mode (TE-Mode) and transverse magnetic mode (TM-Mode. The paper presents mathematical and numerical solutions for solving simple symmetric plasmons and provides simulations of surface plasmons for field confinement. Asymmetric TM-mode calculations for dielectric surface plasmons are also provided.

Keywords: Surface plasmons, optical waveguides, semiconductor lasers, refractive index, slab dialectical.

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21 Clinical Factors of Quality Switched Ruby Laser Therapy for Lentigo Depigmentation

Authors: SunWoo Lee, TaeBum Lee, YoonHwa Park, YooJeong Kim

Abstract:

Solar lentigines appear predominantly on chronically sun-exposed areas of skin, such as the face and the back of the hands. Among the several ways to lentigines treatment, quality-switched lasers are well-known effective treatment for removing solar lentigines. The present pilot study was therefore designed to assess the efficacy of quality-switched ruby laser treatment of such lentigines compare between pretreatment and posttreatment of skin brightness. Twenty-two adults with chronic sun-damaged skin (mean age 52.8 years, range 37–74 years) were treated at the Korean site. A 694 nm Q-switched ruby laser was used, with the energy density set from 1.4 to 12.5 J/cm2, to treat solar lentigines. Average brightness of skin color before ruby laser treatment was 137.3 and its skin color was brightened after ruby laser treatment by 150.5. Also, standard deviation of skin color was decreased from 17.8 to 16.4. Regarding the multivariate model, age and energy were identified as significant factors for skin color brightness change in lentigo depigmentation by ruby laser treatment. Their respective odds ratios were 1.082 (95% CI, 1.007–1.163), and 1.431 (95% CI, 1.051–1.946). Lentigo depigmentation treatment using ruby lasers resulted in a high performance in skin color brightness. Among the relative factors involve with ruby laser treatment, age and energy were the most effective factors which skin color change to brighter than pretreatment.

Keywords: Depigmentation, lentigo, quality switched ruby laser, skin color.

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20 Characterization of InGaAsP/InP Quantum Well Lasers

Authors: K. Melouk, M. Dellakrachai

Abstract:

Analytical formula for the optical gain based on a simple parabolic-band by introducing theoretical expressions for the quantized energy is presented. The model used in this treatment take into account the effects of intraband relaxation. It is shown, as a result, that the gain for the TE mode is larger than that for TM mode and the presence of acceptor impurity increase the peak gain.

Keywords: Laser, quantum well, semiconductor, InGaAsP.

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19 Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, H. Cervantes-De Ávila, J. A. Michel-Macarty, C. Cruz-Hernández, A. Arellano-Delgado, R. Carmona-Rodríguez

Abstract:

In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. An interest case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and simulate by Matlab. These results are applicable to private communication.

Keywords: Synchronization, chaotic laser, network.

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18 Application of Strong Optical Feedback to Enhance the Modulation Bandwidth of Semiconductor Lasers to the Millimeter-Wave Band

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Fumio Koyama

Abstract:

We report on the use of strong external optical feedback to enhance the modulation response of semiconductor lasers over a frequency passband around modulation frequencies higher than 60 GHz. We show that this modulation enhancement is a type of photon-photon resonance (PPR) of oscillating modes in the external cavity formed between the laser and the external reflector. The study is based on a time-delay rate equation model that takes into account both the strong feedback and multiple reflections in the external cavity. We examine the harmonic and intermodulation distortions associated with single and two-tone modulations in the mm-wave band of the resonant modulation. We show that compared with solitary lasers modulated around the carrier-photon resonance frequency, the present mm-wave modulated signal has lower distortions.

Keywords: Distortion, intensity modulation, optical feedback, semiconductor laser.

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17 1/f Noise in Quantum-Size Heteronanostructures Based On GaAs and Alloys

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady. V. Yakimov

Abstract:

The 1/f noise investigation in nanoscale light-emitting diodes and lasers, based on GaAs and alloys, is presented here. Leakage and additional (to recombination through quantum wells and/or dots) nonlinear currents were detected and it was shown that these currents are the main source of the 1/f noise in devices studied.

Keywords: Lasers, light-emitting diodes, quantum dots, quantum wells, 1/f noise.

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16 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano

Abstract:

A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: High voltage, IGBT, Solid states switch.

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15 Short-Path Near-Infrared Laser Detection of Environmental Gases by Wavelength-Modulation Spectroscopy

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The detection of environmental gases, 12CO2, 13CO2, and CH4, using near-infrared semiconductor lasers with a short laser path length is studied by means of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy. The developed system is compact and has high sensitivity enough to detect the absorption peaks of isotopic 13CO2 of a 3-% CO2 gas at 2 μm with a path length of 2.4 m, where its peak size is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the ordinary 12CO2 peaks. In addition, the detection of 12CO2 peaks of a 385-ppm (0.0385-%) CO2 gas in the air is made at 2 μm with a path length of 1.4 m. Furthermore, in pursuing the detection of an ancient environmental CH4 gas confined to a bubble in ice at the polar regions, measurements of the absorption spectrum for a trace gas of CH4 in a small area are attempted. For a 100-% CH4 gas trapped in a ∼ 1 mm3 glass container, the absorption peaks of CH4 are obtained at 1.65 μm with a path length of 3 mm, and also the gas pressure is extrapolated from the measured data.

Keywords: Environmental Gases, Near-Infrared Laser Detection, Wavelength-Modulation Spectroscopy.

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14 Structural and Optical Properties of Ce3+ Doped YPO4: Nanophosphors Synthesis by Sol Gel Method

Authors: B. Kahouadji, L. Guerbous, L. Lamiri, A. Mendoud

Abstract:

Recently, nanomaterials are developed in the form of nano-films, nano-crystals and nano-pores. Lanthanide phosphates as a material find extensive application as laser, ceramic, sensor, phosphor, and also in optoelectronics, medical and biological labels, solar cells and light sources. Among the different kinds of rare-earth orthophosphates, yttrium orthophosphate has been shown to be an efficient host lattice for rare earth activator ions, which have become a research focus because of their important role in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. It is in this context that the 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies .Though there has been a few reports on Eu3+, Nd3+, Pr3+,Er3+, Ce3+, Tm3+ doped YPO4. The 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggesting to study on a very specific class of inorganic material that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. This study focused on the effect of Ce3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ doped YPO4 yttrium orthophosphate with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: YPO4, Ce3+, 4fn- <->4fn-1 5d transitions, scintillator.

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13 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator

Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz

Abstract:

A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air, and has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction, sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, finesse, linewidth, transmission and so on, that describe the performance of resonator.

Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diode.

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12 Detection of Max. Optical Gain by Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

Authors: Abdulamgid.T. Bouzed, Suleiman. M. Elhamali

Abstract:

The technical realization of data transmission using glass fiber began after the development of diode laser in year 1962. The erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in high speed networks allow information to be transmitted over longer distances without using of signal amplification repeaters. These kinds of fibers are doped with erbium atoms which have energy levels in its atomic structure for amplifying light at 1550nm. When a carried signal wave at 1550nm enters the erbium fiber, the light stimulates the excited erbium atoms which pumped with laser beam at 980nm as additional light. The wavelength and intensity of the semiconductor lasers depend on the temperature of active zone and the injection current. The present paper shows the effect of the diode lasers temperature and injection current on the optical amplification. From the results of in- and output power one may calculate the max. optical gain by erbium doped fiber amplifier.

Keywords: Amplifier, erbium doped fiber, gain, lasers, temperature.

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11 Main Variables Competition in DFB Lasers under Dual Optical Injection

Authors: Najm M. Al-Hosiny

Abstract:

We theoretically investigate the effects of frequency detuning and injection power on the nonlinear dynamics of DFB lasers under dual external optical injection.

Keywords: Optical injection, DFB laser, frequency detuning, injection power.

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10 Source Optimisation of Laser-Plasma Bremmstrahlung for Applications in Engineering Imaging

Authors: R.J. Clarke, D. Neely, S. Blake, D.C. Carroll, J.S. Green, R. Heathcote, M. Notley

Abstract:

High Power Lasers produce an intense burst of Bremmstrahlung radiation which has potential applications in broadband x-ray radiography. Since the radiation produced is through the interaction of accelerated electrons with the remaining laser target, these bursts are extremely short – in the region of a few ps. As a result, the laser-produced x-rays are capable of imaging complex dynamic objects with zero motion blur.

Keywords: Bremmstrahlung, Imaging, Laser, Plasma, Radiography, x-ray.

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9 Effect of Polarization and Coherence of Optical Radiation on Sturgeon Sperm Motility

Authors: Nikolai V. Barulin, Vitaly Yu. Plavskii

Abstract:

This work contains information about the influence low-level optical irradiation on sperm motility of sturgeon fish. On the basis of given and earlier received data the following conclusion has been made. Among the photophysical processes of a resonant and not resonant nature (oriented action of light; action of gradient forces; dipole-dipole interaction; termooptical processes), which are capable to cause the photobiological effects depended on such laserspecific characteristics as polarization and coherency, determining influence belongs to oriented action of light and dipole-dipole interactions among the processes studied in the present work.

Keywords: sturgeon, aquaculture, fish sperm, laser, optical irradiation, sperm motility

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8 Experimental Study on Temperature Dependence of Absorption and Emission Properties of Yb:YAG Crystal as a Disk Laser Medium

Authors: M. Esmaeilzadeh, H. Roohbakhsh, A. Ghaedzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of Yb:Y3Al5O12 (YAG)(25 at%) crystal as a disk laser medium are measured at high temperature (300-450K). The absorption and emission cross sections of Yb:YAG crystal are determined using Reciprocity method. Temperature dependence of 941nm absorption cross section and 1031nm emission cross section is extracted in the range of 300-450K. According to our experimental results, an exponential temperature dependence between 300K and 450K is acquired for the 1031nm peak emission cross section and also for 941nm peak absorption cross section of Yb:YAG crystal. These results could be used for simulation and design of high power highly doped Yb:YAG thin disk lasers.

Keywords: Yb:YAG crystal, Emission cross section, Absorption coefficient, Temperature dependence, Reciprocity method.

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7 Experimental Parametric Investigation of Temperature Effects on 60W-QCW Diode Laser

Authors: E. Farsad, S. P. Abbasi, A. Goodarzi, M. S. Zabihi

Abstract:

Nowadays, quasi-continuous wave diode lasers are used in a widespread variety of applications. Temperature effects in these lasers can strongly influence their performance. In this paper, the effects of temperature have been experimentally investigated on different features of a 60W-QCW diode laser. The obtained results indicate that the conversion efficiency and operation voltage of diode laser decrease with the augmentation of the working temperature associated with a redshift in the laser peak wavelength. Experimental results show the emission peak wavelength of laser shifts 0.26 nm and the conversion efficiency decreases 1.76 % with the increase of temperature from 40 to 50 ̊C. Present study also shows the slope efficiency decreases gradually at low temperatures and rapidly at higher temperatures. Regarding the close dependence of the mentioned parameters to the operating temperature, it is of great importance to carefully control the working temperature of diode laser, particularly for medical applications.

Keywords: diode laser, experimentally, temperature, wavelength

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6 Coherent PON for NG-PON2: 40Gbps Downstream Transmission with 40dB Power Margin using Commercial DFB Lasers and no Optical Amplification

Authors: Roberto Gaudino, Antonino Nespola, Dario Zeolla, Stefano Straullu, Vittorio Curri, Gabriella Bosco, Roberto Cigliutti, Stefano Capriata, Paolo Solina.

Abstract:

We demonstrate a 40Gbps downstream PON transmission based on PM-QPSK modulation using commercial DFB lasers without optical amplifier in the ODN, obtaining 40dB power budget. We discuss this solution within NG-PON2 architectures.

Keywords: DFB lasers, Optical Coherent Receiver, Passive Optical Networks.

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5 Surface Modification by EUV laser Beam based on Capillary Discharge

Authors: O. Frolov, K. Kolacek, J. Schmidt, J. Straus, V. Prukner, A. Shukurov

Abstract:

Many applications require surface modification and micro-structuring of polymers. For these purposes is mainly used ultraviolet (UV) radiation from excimer lamps or excimer lasers. However, these sources have a decided disadvantage - degrading the polymer deep inside due to relatively big radiation penetration depth which may exceed 100 μm. In contrast, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is absorbed in a layer approximately 100 nm thick only. In this work, the radiation from a discharge-plasma EUV source (with wavelength 46.9 nm) based on a capillary discharge driver is focused with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer mirror for surface modification of PMMA sample or thin gold layer (thickness about 40 nm). It was found that the focused EUV laser beam is capable by one shot to ablate PMMA or layer of gold, even if the focus is significantly influenced by astigmatism.

Keywords: ablation, capillary discharge, EUV laser, surface modification

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4 Compact Er3+-Doped ZBLAN Green Upconversion Fibre Laser

Authors: Syed Sohail Abbas, Sergei Popov

Abstract:

In this paper, a fibre laser at 546 nm has been studied for a signal power of -30 dB. Er3+-doped ZBLAN fibre has been used by upconversion pumping of a 980 nm laser diode. Gain saturation effect has been investigated in detail. Laser performance has also been discussed. An efficiency of 35% has been calculated with a length of 5 mm fibre laser. Results show that Er3+-doped ZBLAN is a promising candidate for optical amplification at 546 nm.

Keywords: Compact visible lasers, Erbium doped, Gainsaturation, Green laser, Optical fibre lasers

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3 Effect of CW Laser Annealing on Silicon Surface for Application of Power Device

Authors: Satoru Kaneko, Takeshi Ito, Kensuke Akiyama, Manabu Yasui, Chihiro Kato, Satomi Tanaka, Yasuo Hirabayashi, Takeshi Ozawa, Akira Matsuno, Takashi Nire, Hiroshi Funakubo, Mamoru Yoshimoto

Abstract:

As application of re-activation of backside on power device Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), laser annealing was employed to irradiate amorphous silicon substrate, and resistivities were measured using four point probe measurement. For annealing the amorphous silicon two lasers were used at wavelength of visible green (532 nm) together with Infrared (793 nm). While the green laser efficiently increased temperature at top surface the Infrared laser reached more deep inside and was effective for melting the top surface. A finite element method was employed to evaluate time dependent thermal distribution in silicon substrate.

Keywords: laser, annealing, silicon, recrystallization, thermal distribution, resistivity, finite element method, absorption, melting point, latent heat of fusion.

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2 Encrypted Audio Transmission Using Synchronized Nd: YAG Lasers

Authors: R.M. López-Gutiérrez, C. Cruz-Hernández, C. Posadas-Castillo, E.E.García-Guerrero

Abstract:

Encoded information based on synchronization of coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers in master-slave configuration is numerically studied. Encoding, transmission, and decoding of information in optical chaotic communication with a single channel is presented. We analyze the robustness of the encrypted audio transmission in a channel noise. In order to illustrate this synchronization robustness, we present two cases of study: synchronization and transmission with a single channel without and with noise in the channel.

Keywords: Encryption, Secure coomunication, Chaos, Synchronization, Complex networks, Nd:YAG laser.

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1 Performance Analysis of Quantum Cascaded Lasers

Authors: M. B. El_Mashade, I. I. Mahamoud, M. S. El_Tokhy

Abstract:

Improving the performance of the QCL through block diagram as well as mathematical models is the main scope of this paper. In order to enhance the performance of the underlined device, the mathematical model parameters are used in a reliable manner in such a way that the optimum behavior was achieved. These parameters play the central role in specifying the optical characteristics of the considered laser source. Moreover, it is important to have a large amount of radiated power, where increasing the amount of radiated power represents the main hopping process that can be predicted from the behavior of quantum laser devices. It was found that there is a good agreement between the calculated values from our mathematical model and those obtained with VisSim and experimental results. These demonstrate the strength of mplementation of both mathematical and block diagram models.

Keywords: Quantum Cascaded Lasers (QCLs), Modeling, Block Diagram Programming, Intersubband transitions

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