Laser Keratoplasty in Human Eye Considering the Fluid Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Humor Fluid Flow
In this paper, conventional laser Keratoplasty surgeries in the human eye are studied. For this purpose, a validated 3D finite volume model of the human eye is introduced. In this model the fluid flow has also been considered. The discretized domain of the human eye incorporates a bio-heat transfer equation coupled with a Boussinesq equation. Both continuous and pulsed lasers have been modeled and the results are compared. Moreover, two different conventional surgical positions that are upright and recumbent are compared for these laser therapies. The simulation results show that in these conventional surgeries, the temperature rises above the critical values at the laser insertion areas. However, due to the short duration and the localized nature, the potential damages are restricted to very small regions and can be ignored. The conclusion is that the present day lasers are acceptably safe to the human eye.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130039Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 481
 H. Stringer, and J. Parr, “Shrinkage temperature of eye collagen”, Nature 204 (4695) (1964) pp 1307.
 E. Spoerl, K. Schmalfuss, U. Genth, T. Seiler, and H.J. Huebscher, “Thermomechanical behaviour of the cornea”, Investigative Ophthalmol and Visual Sci. 36 (4) (1995) pp 39.
 R. Brinkmann, N. Koop, G. Drِge, U. Grotehusmann, A. Huber, and R. Birngruber, “Investigations on laser thermoKeratoplasty”, S.T. Melamed (Ed.), Laser Applications in Ophthalmology, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 2079, 1994, pp. 120–130.
 C. Wirbelauer, G. Geerling, N. Koop, R. Brinkmann, A. Tüngler, R. Birngruber, and H. Laqua, “Acute endothelial cell changes after laser thermal Keratoplasty with a cw-IR laser diode”, Investigative Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38 (4) (1997) pp 541.
 R. Brinkmann, N. Koop, K. Kamm, G. Geerling, J. Kampmeier, and R. Birngruber, “Laser thermoKeratoplasty by means of a continuously emitting laser diode in the mid-IR”, Lasers in Ophthalmology IV, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 2930, 1996, pp. 66–74.
 R. Brinkmann, G. Geerling, J. Kampmeier, N. Koop, B. Radt, and R. Birngruber, “Laser thermoKeratoplasty: analysis of in vitro results and refractive changes achieved in a first clinical study”, Medical Applications of Lasers in Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Dentistry, and Endoscopy, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 3192, 1997, pp. 180–186.
 A. Taflove, and M. Brodwin, “Computation of the electromagnetic fields and induced temperatures within a model of the microwave-irradiated human eye”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques,23, 1975: pp. 888–896.
 K. A. Al-Badwaihy, and A. B. A. Youssef, “Biological thermal effect of microwave radiation on human eye”, Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves, 1, 1976: pp. 61–78.
 J. W. Lagendijk, “A mathematical model to calculate temperature distributions in human and rabbit eyes during hyperthermic treatment”, Physics in Medicine and Biology, 27, 1982: pp. 1301–1311.
 A. Hirata, S. Matsuyama, and T. Shiozawa, “Temperature rises in the human eye exposed to EM waves in the frequency range 0.6–6 GHz,” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 42, 2000: pp. 386–393.
 A. F. Emery, P. Kramar, A. W. Guy, and J. C. Lin, “Microwave 466 induced temperature rises in rabbit eyes in cataract research”, Journal of Heat Transfer, 97, 1975: pp. 123–128.
 A. Guy, and J. C. Lin, P. O. Kramar, and A. F. Emery, “Effect of 2450 MHz radiation on the rabbit eye”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 23 1975: pp. 492–498.
 J. A. Scott, “A finite element model of heat transport in the human eye,’ Physics in Medicine and Biology, 331988: pp. 227–241.
 E. H. Amara, “Numerical investigations on thermal effects of laser ocular media interaction.” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 38, 1995: pp. 2479–88.
 J. A. Scott, “The computation of temperature rises in the human eye induced by infrared radiation,” Physics in Medicine and Biology. 33, 1988: pp. 243–257.
 K. J. Chua, J. C. Hoand, S. K. Chou, M. R. Islam, “On the study of the temperature distribution within a human eye subjected to a laser source,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 32, 2005: pp. 1057–1065.
 V. M. M. Flyckt, B.W. Raaymakers, and J. J. W. Lagendijk, “Modelling the impact of blood flow on temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennesbioheat model versus discrete blood vessels,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, 51, 2006: pp. 5007–5021.
 E. Y. K. Ng, and E. H Ooi. “Ocular surface temperature: a 3D FEM prediction using bioheat equation,” Computers in Biology and Medicine. 37, 2007: pp. 829–835.
 E. Y. K. Ng, and E. H. Ooi, and U. Rajendra Archarya, “A comparative study between the two-dimensional and three-dimensional human eye models,” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 48, 2008: pp. 712–720.
 E. Y. K. Ng, and E. H. Ooi, “FEM simulation of the eye structure with bioheat analysis,” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 82, 2006: pp. 268–276.
 E. H. Ooi, W. T. Ang, and E. Y. K. Ng, “Bioheat transfer in the human eye: a boundary element approach,” Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 31, 2007: pp. 494–500.
 E. H. Ooi, W.T Ang,. and E. Y. K Ng,. “A boundary element model of the human eye undergoing laser thermoKeratoplasty,” Computers in Biology and Medicine. 38, 2008: pp. 727–737.
 A. Narasimhan, K.K. Jha, and L. Gopal, “Transient simulations of heat transfer in human eye undergoing laser surgery”. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 53, 2010: pp. 482–490.
 E. H. Ooi, and E. Y. Ng, “Simulation of aqueous humor hydrodynamics in human eye heat transfer”. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 38, 2007: pp. 252-262.
 J. J. Heys, and V. H. Barocas, “A boussinesq model of natural convection in the human eye and the formation of Krukenberg's spindle,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering.30. 2001: pp. 392-401.
 S. Kumar, S.Acharya R. Beuerman, and A. Palkama, “Numerical solution of ocular fluid dynamics in a rabbit eye: parametric effects,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 34, 2006: pp. 530-44.
 A. Karampatzakis, and T. Samaras, “Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, 55, 2010: pp. 5653–5665.
 M. Shafahi, and K. Vafai, “Human Eye Response to Thermal Disturbances,” Journal of Heat Transfer, 133, 2011: pp. 7.
 H. H. Pennes, “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm,” Journal of Applied Physiology. 85, 1998: pp: 5–34.
 U. Cicekli, ‘Computational model for heat transfer in the human eye using the finite element method,” M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, 2003.
 D. Singh, K. Firouzbakhsh, M. T. Ahmadian, “Human intraocular thermal field in action with different boundary conditions considering aqueous humor and vitreous humor fluid flow,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 2017, 19th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Boston, USA, April 24-25 (accepted).
 F. Manns, D. Borja, and J. M. Parel, “Semianalytical thermal model for subablative laser heating of homogeneous nonperfused biological tissue: application to laser thermoKeratoplasty” Journal of Biomedical Optics, 8 (2), pp. 288-297, 2003.
 D. Sliney and M. Wolbarsht, “Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources: A Comprehensive Handbook,” Plenum Press, New York, 1980.
 A. S. Podol’stev and G. I. Zheltov, “Photodestructive effect of IR laser radiation on the cornea,” Geometrical and Applied Optics, 102 (1), pp. 142-146, 2007.
 F. Manns, D. Borja, and J. M. Parel, “Calculation of corneal temperature and shrinkage during Laser ThermoKeratoplasty (LTK),” In: F. Manns, 24 P.G Söderberg and A. Ho, eds, Ophthalmic Technologies XII, Proceedings of the SPIE, 4611, pp. 101-109, 2002.
 P. S. Neelakantaswamy, and K. P. Ramakrishnan, “Microwave-induced hazardous nonlinear thermo-elastic vibrations of the ocular lens in the human eye”, Journal of Biomechanics 12, 1979: pp. 205–210.