Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5175

Search results for: Lévy process

5175 On the Efficiency and Robustness of Commingle Wiener and Lévy Driven Processes for Vasciek Model

Authors: Rasaki O. Olanrewaju

Abstract:

The driven processes of Wiener and Lévy are known self-standing Gaussian-Markov processes for fitting non-linear dynamical Vasciek model. In this paper, a coincidental Gaussian density stationarity condition and autocorrelation function of the two driven processes were established. This led to the conflation of Wiener and Lévy processes so as to investigate the efficiency of estimates incorporated into the one-dimensional Vasciek model that was estimated via the Maximum Likelihood (ML) technique. The conditional laws of drift, diffusion and stationarity process was ascertained for the individual Wiener and Lévy processes as well as the commingle of the two processes for a fixed effect and Autoregressive like Vasciek model when subjected to financial series; exchange rate of Naira-CFA Franc. In addition, the model performance error of the sub-merged driven process was miniature compared to the self-standing driven process of Wiener and Lévy.

Keywords: Wiener process, Lévy process, Vasciek model, drift, diffusion, Gaussian density stationary.

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5174 Using Exponential Lévy Models to Study Implied Volatility patterns for Electricity Options

Authors: Pinho C., Madaleno M.

Abstract:

German electricity European options on futures using Lévy processes for the underlying asset are examined. Implied volatility evolution, under each of the considered models, is discussed after calibrating for the Merton jump diffusion (MJD), variance gamma (VG), normal inverse Gaussian (NIG), Carr, Geman, Madan and Yor (CGMY) and the Black and Scholes (B&S) model. Implied volatility is examined for the entire sample period, revealing some curious features about market evolution, where data fitting performances of the five models are compared. It is shown that variance gamma processes provide relatively better results and that implied volatility shows significant differences through time, having increasingly evolved. Volatility changes for changed uncertainty, or else, increasing futures prices and there is evidence for the need to account for seasonality when modelling both electricity spot/futures prices and volatility.

Keywords: Calibration, Electricity Markets, Implied Volatility, Lévy Models, Options on Futures, Pricing

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5173 Multi-Agent Searching Adaptation Using Levy Flight and Inferential Reasoning

Authors: Sagir M. Yusuf, Chris Baber

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe how to achieve knowledge understanding and prediction (Situation Awareness (SA)) for multiple-agents conducting searching activity using Bayesian inferential reasoning and learning. Bayesian Belief Network was used to monitor agents' knowledge about their environment, and cases are recorded for the network training using expectation-maximisation or gradient descent algorithm. The well trained network will be used for decision making and environmental situation prediction. Forest fire searching by multiple UAVs was the use case. UAVs are tasked to explore a forest and find a fire for urgent actions by the fire wardens. The paper focused on two problems: (i) effective agents’ path planning strategy and (ii) knowledge understanding and prediction (SA). The path planning problem by inspiring animal mode of foraging using Lévy distribution augmented with Bayesian reasoning was fully described in this paper. Results proof that the Lévy flight strategy performs better than the previous fixed-pattern (e.g., parallel sweeps) approaches in terms of energy and time utilisation. We also introduced a waypoint assessment strategy called k-previous waypoints assessment. It improves the performance of the ordinary levy flight by saving agent’s resources and mission time through redundant search avoidance. The agents (UAVs) are to report their mission knowledge at the central server for interpretation and prediction purposes. Bayesian reasoning and learning were used for the SA and results proof effectiveness in different environments scenario in terms of prediction and effective knowledge representation. The prediction accuracy was measured using learning error rate, logarithm loss, and Brier score and the result proves that little agents mission that can be used for prediction within the same or different environment. Finally, we described a situation-based knowledge visualization and prediction technique for heterogeneous multi-UAV mission. While this paper proves linkage of Bayesian reasoning and learning with SA and effective searching strategy, future works is focusing on simplifying the architecture.

Keywords: Lèvy flight, situation awareness, multi-agent system, multi-robot coordination, autonomous system, swarm intelligence.

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5172 Object-Centric Process Mining Using Process Cubes

Authors: Anahita Farhang Ghahfarokhi, Alessandro Berti, Wil M.P. van der Aalst

Abstract:

Process mining provides ways to analyze business processes. Common process mining techniques consider the process as a whole. However, in real-life business processes, different behaviors exist that make the overall process too complex to interpret. Process comparison is a branch of process mining that isolates different behaviors of the process from each other by using process cubes. Process cubes organize event data using different dimensions. Each cell contains a set of events that can be used as an input to apply process mining techniques. Existing work on process cubes assume single case notions. However, in real processes, several case notions (e.g., order, item, package, etc.) are intertwined. Object-centric process mining is a new branch of process mining addressing multiple case notions in a process. To make a bridge between object-centric process mining and process comparison, we propose a process cube framework, which supports process cube operations such as slice and dice on object-centric event logs. To facilitate the comparison, the framework is integrated with several object-centric process discovery approaches.

Keywords: Process mining, multidimensional process mining, multi-perspective business processes, OLAP, process cubes, process discovery.

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5171 Automating the Testing of Object Behaviour: A Statechart-Driven Approach

Authors: Dong He Nam, Eric C. Mousset, David C. Levy

Abstract:

The evolution of current modeling specifications gives rise to the problem of generating automated test cases from a variety of application tools. Past endeavours on behavioural testing of UML statecharts have not systematically leveraged the potential of existing graph theory for testing of objects. Therefore there exists a need for a simple, tool-independent, and effective method for automatic test generation. An architecture, codenamed ACUTE-J (Automated stateChart Unit Testing Engine for Java), for automating the unit test generation process is presented. A sequential approach for converting UML statechart diagrams to JUnit test classes is described, with the application of existing graph theory. Research byproducts such as a universal XML Schema and API for statechart-driven testing are also proposed. The result from a Java implementation of ACUTE-J is discussed in brief. The Chinese Postman algorithm is utilised as an illustration for a run-through of the ACUTE-J architecture.

Keywords: Automated testing, model based testing, statechart testing, UML, unit testing.

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5170 Simulation of Co2 Capture Process

Authors: K. Movagharnejad, M. Akbari

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide capture process has been simulated and studied under different process conditions. It has been shown that several process parameters such as lean amine temperature, number of adsorber stages, number of stripper stages and stripper pressure affect different process conditions and outputs such as carbon dioxide removal and reboiler duty. It may be concluded that the simulation of carbon dioxide capture process can help to estimate the best process conditions.

Keywords: Absorption, carbon dioxide capture, desorption, process simulation.

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5169 Methods for Business Process Simulation Based on Petri Nets

Authors: K. Shoylekova, K. Grigorova

Abstract:

The Petri nets are the first standard for business process modeling. Most probably, it is one of the core reasons why all new standards created afterwards have to be so reformed as to reach the stage of mapping the new standard onto Petri nets. The paper presents a business process repository based on a universal database. The repository provides the possibility the data about a given process to be stored in three different ways. Business process repository is developed with regard to the reformation of a given model to a Petri net in order to be easily simulated. Two different techniques for business process simulation based on Petri nets - Yasper and Woflan are discussed. Their advantages and drawbacks are outlined. The way of simulating business process models, stored in the Business process repository is shown.

Keywords: Business process repository, Petri nets, Simulation, Woflan, Yasper.

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5168 A Goal-Oriented Social Business Process Management Framework

Authors: Mohammad Ehson Rangiha, Bill Karakostas

Abstract:

Social Business Process Management (SBPM) promises to overcome limitations of traditional BPM by allowing flexible process design and enactment through the involvement of users from a social community. This paper proposes a meta-model and architecture for socially driven business process management systems. It discusses the main facets of the architecture such as goalbased role assignment that combines social recommendations with user profile, and process recommendation, through a real example of a charity organization.

Keywords: Business Process Management, Goal-Based Modelling, Process Recommendation Social Collaboration, Social BPM.

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5167 A Practical Approach for Testing the Process Quality

Authors: Mou-Yuan Liao, Chien-Wei Wu, Chien-Hua Lin

Abstract:

Process capability index Cpk is the most widely used index in making managerial decisions since it provides bounds on the process yield for normally distributed processes. However, existent methods for assessing process performance which constructed by statistical inference may unfortunately lead to fine results, because uncertainties exist in most real-world applications. Thus, this study adopts fuzzy inference to deal with testing of Cpk . A brief score is obtained for assessing a supplier’s process instead of a severe evaluation.

Keywords: Process capability analysis, quality control.

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5166 Process Capability Analysis by Using Statistical Process Control of Rice Polished Cylinder Turning Practice

Authors: S. Bangphan, P. Bangphan, T. Boonkang

Abstract:

Quality control helps industries in improvements of its product quality and productivity. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is one of the tools to control the quality of products that turning practice in bringing a department of industrial engineering process under control. In this research, the process control of a turning manufactured at workshops machines. The varying measurements have been recorded for a number of samples of a rice polished cylinder obtained from a number of trials with the turning practice. SPC technique has been adopted by the process is finally brought under control and process capability is improved.

Keywords: Rice polished cylinder, statistical process control, control charts, process capability.

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5165 Business Process Orientation: Case of Croatia

Authors: Ljubica Milanović Glavan

Abstract:

Because of the increasing business pressures, companies must be adaptable and flexible in order to withstand them. Inadequate business processes and low level of business process orientation, that in its core accentuates business processes as opposed to business functions and focuses on process performance and customer satisfaction, hider the ability to adapt to changing environment. It has been shown in previous studies that the companies which have reached higher business process maturity level consistently outperform those that have not reached them. The aim of this paper is to provide a basic understanding of business process orientation concept and business process maturity model. Besides that the paper presents the state of business process orientation in Croatia that has been captured with a study conducted in 2013. Based on the results some practical implications and guidelines for managers are given.

Keywords: Business process orientation, business process maturity, Croatia, maturity score.

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5164 A New Divide and Conquer Software Process Model

Authors: Hina Gull, Farooque Azam, Wasi Haider Butt, Sardar Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

The software system goes through a number of stages during its life and a software process model gives a standard format for planning, organizing and running a project. The article presents a new software development process model named as “Divide and Conquer Process Model", based on the idea first it divides the things to make them simple and then gathered them to get the whole work done. The article begins with the backgrounds of different software process models and problems in these models. This is followed by a new divide and conquer process model, explanation of its different stages and at the end edge over other models is shown.

Keywords: Process Model, Waterfall, divide and conquer, Requirements.

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5163 Design and Characterization of a CMOS Process Sensor Utilizing Vth Extractor Circuit

Authors: Rohana Musa, Yuzman Yusoff, Chia Chieu Yin, Hanif Che Lah

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of a low power Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process sensor. The design is targeted for implementation using Silterra’s 180 nm CMOS process technology. The proposed process sensor employs a voltage threshold (Vth) extractor architecture for detection of variations in the fabrication process. The process sensor generates output voltages in the range of 401 mV (fast-fast corner) to 443 mV (slow-slow corner) at nominal condition. The power dissipation for this process sensor is 6.3 µW with a supply voltage of 1.8V with a silicon area of 190 µm X 60 µm. The preliminary result of this process sensor that was fabricated indicates a close resemblance between test and simulated results.

Keywords: CMOS Process sensor, Process, Voltage and Temperature (PVT) sensor, threshold extractor circuit, Vth extractor circuit.

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5162 A Quantitative Approach to Strategic Design of Component-Based Business Process Models

Authors: Eakong Atiptamvaree, Twittie Senivongse

Abstract:

A new paradigm for software design and development models software by its business process, translates the model into a process execution language, and has it run by a supporting execution engine. This process-oriented paradigm promotes modeling of software by less technical users or business analysts as well as rapid development. Since business process models may be shared by different organizations and sometimes even by different business domains, it is interesting to apply a technique used in traditional software component technology to design reusable business processes. This paper discusses an approach to apply a technique for software component fabrication to the design of process-oriented software units, called process components. These process components result from decomposing a business process of a particular application domain into subprocesses with an aim that the process components can be reusable in different process-based software models. The approach is quantitative because the quality of process component design is measured from technical features of the process components. The approach is also strategic because the measured quality is determined against business-oriented component management goals. A software tool has been developed to measure how good a process component design is, according to the required managerial goals and comparing to other designs. We also discuss how we benefit from reusable process components.

Keywords: Business process model, process component, component management goals, measurement

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5161 Measuring Process Component Design on Achieving Managerial Goals

Authors: Eakong Atiptamvaree, Twittie Senivongse

Abstract:

Process-oriented software development is a new software development paradigm in which software design is modeled by a business process which is in turn translated into a process execution language for execution. The building blocks of this paradigm are software units that are composed together to work according to the flow of the business process. This new paradigm still exhibits the characteristic of the applications built with the traditional software component technology. This paper discusses an approach to apply a traditional technique for software component fabrication to the design of process-oriented software units, called process components. These process components result from decomposing a business process of a particular application domain into subprocesses, and these process components can be reused to design the business processes of other application domains. The decomposition considers five managerial goals, namely cost effectiveness, ease of assembly, customization, reusability, and maintainability. The paper presents how to design or decompose process components from a business process model and measure some technical features of the design that would affect the managerial goals. A comparison between the measurement values from different designs can tell which process component design is more appropriate for the managerial goals that have been set. The proposed approach can be applied in Web Services environment which accommodates process-oriented software development.

Keywords: Business Process Model, Managerial Goals, ProcessComponent.

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5160 The Multi-objective Optimization for the SLS Process Parameters Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Yang Laixia, Deng Jun, Li Dichen, Bai Yang

Abstract:

The forming process parameters of Selective Laser Sintering(SLS) directly affect the forming efficiency and forming quality. Therefore, to determine reasonable process parameters is particularly important. In this paper, the weight of each target of the forming quality and efficiency is firstly calculated with the Analytic Hierarchy Process. And then the size of each target is measured by orthogonal experiment. Finally, the sum of the product of each target with the weight is compared to the process parameters in each group and obtained the optimal molding process parameters.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Multi-objective optimization, Orthogonal test, Selective Laser Sintering

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5159 Software Engineering Interoperable Environment for University Process Workflow and Document Management

Authors: Bekim Fetaji, Majlinda Fetaji, Mirlinda Ebibi

Abstract:

The objective of the research was focused on the design, development and evaluation of a sustainable web based network system to be used as an interoperable environment for University process workflow and document management. In this manner the most of the process workflows in Universities can be entirely realized electronically and promote integrated University. Definition of the most used University process workflows enabled creating electronic workflows and their execution on standard workflow execution engines. Definition or reengineering of workflows provided increased work efficiency and helped in having standardized process through different faculties. The concept and the process definition as well as the solution applied as Case study are evaluated and findings are reported.

Keywords: design process workflows, workflow and documentmanagement, Business Process, software engineering

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5158 Control-flow Complexity Measurement of Processes and Weyuker's Properties

Authors: Jorge Cardoso

Abstract:

Process measurement is the task of empirically and objectively assigning numbers to the properties of business processes in such a way as to describe them. Desirable attributes to study and measure include complexity, cost, maintainability, and reliability. In our work we will focus on investigating process complexity. We define process complexity as the degree to which a business process is difficult to analyze, understand or explain. One way to analyze a process- complexity is to use a process control-flow complexity measure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the control-flow complexity measure in terms of Weyuker-s properties. Weyuker-s properties must be satisfied by any complexity measure to qualify as a good and comprehensive one.

Keywords: Business process measurement, workflow, complexity.

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5157 Optimal Performance of Plastic Extrusion Process Using Fuzzy Goal Programming

Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie

Abstract:

This study optimized the performance of plastic extrusion process of drip irrigation pipes using fuzzy goal programming. Two main responses were of main interest; roll thickness and hardness. Four main process factors were studied. The L18 array was then used for experimental design. The individual-moving range control charts were used to assess the stability of the process, while the process capability index was used to assess process performance. Confirmation experiments were conducted at the obtained combination of optimal factor setting by fuzzy goal programming. The results revealed that process capability was improved significantly from -1.129 to 0.8148 for roll thickness and from 0.0965 to 0.714 and hardness. Such improvement results in considerable savings in production and quality costs.

Keywords: Fuzzy goal programming, extrusion process, process capability, irrigation plastic pipes.

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5156 Knowledge Discovery from Production Databases for Hierarchical Process Control

Authors: Pavol Tanuska, Pavel Vazan, Michal Kebisek, Dominika Jurovata

Abstract:

The paper gives the results of the project that was oriented on the usage of knowledge discoveries from production systems for needs of the hierarchical process control. One of the main project goals was the proposal of knowledge discovery model for process control. Specifics data mining methods and techniques was used for defined problems of the process control. The gained knowledge was used on the real production system thus the proposed solution has been verified. The paper documents how is possible to apply the new discovery knowledge to use in the real hierarchical process control. There are specified the opportunities for application of the proposed knowledge discovery model for hierarchical process control.

Keywords: Hierarchical process control, knowledge discovery from databases, neural network.

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5155 Optimization of the Transfer Molding Process by Implementation of Online Monitoring Techniques for Electronic Packages

Authors: Burcu Kaya, Jan-Martin Kaiser, Karl-Friedrich Becker, Tanja Braun, Klaus-Dieter Lang

Abstract:

Quality of the molded packages is strongly influenced by the process parameters of the transfer molding. To achieve a better package quality and a stable transfer molding process, it is necessary to understand the influence of the process parameters on the package quality. This work aims to comprehend the relationship between the process parameters, and to identify the optimum process parameters for the transfer molding process in order to achieve less voids and wire sweep. To achieve this, a DoE is executed for process optimization and a regression analysis is carried out. A systematic approach is represented to generate models which enable an estimation of the number of voids and wire sweep. Validation experiments are conducted to verify the model and the results are presented.

Keywords: Epoxy molding compounds, optimization, regression analysis, transfer molding process, voids, wire sweep.

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5154 Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling

Authors: Felix Baumann, Aleksandar Milutinovic, Dieter Roller

Abstract:

Up to this point business process management projects in general and business process modelling projects in particular could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated method to estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further phases of business process modelling starting with implementation are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature. This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely software development or software engineering. Software development is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this we lay out similarities of the software development process and the process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process Management life-cycle.

Keywords: Cost Estimation, Effort Estimation, Process Modelling, Business Process Management, COCOMO.

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5153 Genetic-based Anomaly Detection in Logs of Process Aware Systems

Authors: Hanieh Jalali, Ahmad Baraani

Abstract:

Nowaday-s, many organizations use systems that support business process as a whole or partially. However, in some application domains, like software development and health care processes, a normative Process Aware System (PAS) is not suitable, because a flexible support is needed to respond rapidly to new process models. On the other hand, a flexible Process Aware System may be vulnerable to undesirable and fraudulent executions, which imposes a tradeoff between flexibility and security. In order to make this tradeoff available, a genetic-based anomaly detection model for logs of Process Aware Systems is presented in this paper. The detection of an anomalous trace is based on discovering an appropriate process model by using genetic process mining and detecting traces that do not fit the appropriate model as anomalous trace; therefore, when used in PAS, this model is an automated solution that can support coexistence of flexibility and security.

Keywords: Anomaly Detection, Genetic Algorithm, ProcessAware Systems, Process Mining.

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5152 Accessible Business Process Modelling

Authors: D. D. Vaziri, D. DeOliveira

Abstract:

This article concerns with the accessibility of Business process modelling tools (BPMo tools) and business process modelling languages (BPMo languages). Therefore the reader will be introduced to business process management and the authors' motivation behind this inquiry. Afterwards, the paper will reflect problems when applying inaccessible BPMo tools. To illustrate these problems the authors distinguish between two different categories of issues and provide practical examples. Finally the article will present three approaches to improve the accessibility of BPMo tools and BPMo languages.

Keywords: Accessibility, Business Process Management, BPM, Event Process Chains, Modelling Languages

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5151 Bridging the Gap between Different Interfaces for Business Process Modeling

Authors: Katalina Grigorova, Kaloyan Mironov

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the benefits of business process modeling. Although this discipline is developing for many years, there is still necessity of creating new opportunities to meet the ever increasing users’ needs. Because one of these needs is related to the conversion of business process models from one standard to another, the authors have developed a converter between BPMN and EPC standards using workflow patterns as intermediate tool. Nowadays there are too many systems for business process modeling. The variety of output formats is almost the same as the systems themselves. This diversity additionally hampers the conversion of the models. The presented study is aimed at discussing problems due to differences in the output formats of various modeling environments.

Keywords: Business process modeling, business process modeling standards, workflow patterns, converting models.

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5150 A Holistic Workflow Modeling Method for Business Process Redesign

Authors: Heejung Lee

Abstract:

In a highly competitive environment, it becomes more important to shorten the whole business process while delivering or even enhancing the business value to the customers and suppliers. Although the workflow management systems receive much attention for its capacity to practically support the business process enactment, the effective workflow modeling method remain still challenging and the high degree of process complexity makes it more difficult to gain the short lead time. This paper presents a workflow structuring method in a holistic way that can reduce the process complexity using activity-needs and formal concept analysis, which eventually enhances the key performance such as quality, delivery, and cost in business process.

Keywords: Workflow management, reengineering, formal concept analysis.

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5149 The Application of Six Sigma to Integration of Computer Based Systems

Authors: Zenon Chaczko, Essam Rahali, Rizwan Tariq

Abstract:

This paper introduces a process for the module level integration of computer based systems. It is based on the Six Sigma Process Improvement Model, where the goal of the process is to improve the overall quality of the system under development. We also present a conceptual framework that shows how this process can be implemented as an integration solution. Finally, we provide a partial implementation of key components in the conceptual framework.

Keywords: Software Quality, Six Sigma, System Integration, 3SI Process, 3SI Conceptual Framework.

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5148 The Relation of College Students- Process of Study and Creativity: The Mediating Effect of Creative Self-Efficacy

Authors: Chih-Feng Chuang, Shih-Ching Shiu, Chao-Jen Cheng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among students- process of study, creative self-efficacy and creativity while attending college. A total of 60 students enrolled in Hsiuping Institute of Technology in central Taiwan were selected as samples for the study. The instruments for this study included three questionnaires to explore the aforesaid aspects. This researchers tested creative self-efficacy and process of study, and creativity with Pearson correlation and hierarchical regression analyses. The major findings of this research are (1) the process of study had direct positive predictability on creativity, and (2) the relationship between process of study and creativity is partially mediated by creative self-efficacy.

Keywords: Process of study, Creative self-efficacy, Creativity

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5147 The Effect of Clamping Restrain on the Prediction of Drape Simulation Software Tool

Authors: T.A. Adegbola, IEA Aghachi, E.R. Sadiku

Abstract:

To investigates the effect of fiberglass clamping process improvement on drape simulation prediction. This has great effect on the mould and the fiber during manufacturing process. This also, improves the fiber strain, the quality of the fiber orientation in the area of folding and wrinkles formation during the press-forming process. Drape simulation software tool was used to digitalize the process, noting the formation problems on the contour sensitive part. This was compared with the real life clamping processes using single and double frame set-ups to observe the effects. Also, restrains are introduced by using clips, and the G-clamps with predetermine revolution to; restrain the fabric deformation during the forming process.The incorporation of clamping and fabric restrain deformation improved on the prediction of the simulation tool. Therefore, for effective forming process, incorporation of clamping process into the drape simulation process will assist in the development of fiberglass application in manufacturing process.

Keywords: clamping, fiberglass, drape simulation, pressforming.

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5146 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: Detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation.

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