Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 575

Search results for: Electronic nose

575 Performance Comparison of a Low Cost Air Quality Sensor with a Commercial Electronic Nose

Authors: Ünal Kızıl, Levent Genç, Sefa Aksu, Ahmet Tapınç

Abstract:

The Figaro AM-1 sensor module which employs TGS 2600 model gas sensor in air quality assessment was used. The system was coupled with a microprocessor that enables sensor module to create warning message via telephone. This low cot sensor system’s performance was compared with a DiagNose II commercial electronic nose system. Both air quality sensor and electronic nose system employ metal oxide chemical gas sensors. In the study experimental setup, data acquisition methods for electronic nose system, and performance of the low cost air quality system were evaluated and explained.

Keywords: Air quality, electronic nose, environmental quality, gas sensor.

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574 Source Direction Detection based on Stationary Electronic Nose System

Authors: Jie Cai, David C. Levy

Abstract:

Electronic nose (array of chemical sensors) are widely used in food industry and pollution control. Also it could be used to locate or detect the direction of the source of emission odors. Usually this task is performed by electronic nose (ENose) cooperated with mobile vehicles, but when a source is instantaneous or surrounding is hard for vehicles to reach, problem occurs. Thus a method for stationary ENose to detect the direction of the source and locate the source will be required. A novel method which uses the ratio between the responses of different sensors as a discriminant to determine the direction of source in natural wind surroundings is presented in this paper. The result shows that the method is accurate and easily to be implemented. This method could be also used in movably, as an optimized algorithm for robot tracking source location.

Keywords: Electronic nose, Nature wind situation, Source direction detection.

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573 Electronic Nose Based On Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors as an Alternative Technique for the Spoilage Classification of Oat Milk

Authors: A. Deswal, N. S. Deora, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid method for electronic nose for online quality control of oat milk. Analysis by electronic nose and bacteriological measurements were performed to analyze spoilage kinetics of oat milk samples stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA), Discriminant Factorial Analysis (DFA) and Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification techniques were used to differentiate the samples of oat milk at different days. The total plate count (bacteriological method) was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The e-nose was able to differentiate between the oat milk samples of varying microbial load. The results obtained by the bacteria total viable countsshowed that the shelf-life of oat milk stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions were 20hrs and 13 days, respectively. The models built classified oat milk samples based on the total microbial population into “unspoiled” and “spoiled”.

Keywords: Electronic-nose, bacteriological, shelf-life, classification.

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572 Application of Quality Index Method, Texture Measurements and Electronic Nose to Assess the Freshness of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus) Stored in Ice

Authors: Nga T.T. Mai, Emilía Martinsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Gudrun Olafsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason

Abstract:

Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is an important commercial fish and shows to be more and more demanded for human consumption. Therefore, it is very important to find good methods for monitoring the freshness of the fish in order to keep it in the best quality for human consumption. In this study, the fish was stored in ice up to 2 weeks. Quality changes during storage were assessed by the Quality Index Method (QIM), quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and Torry scheme, by texture measurements: puncture tests and Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) tests on texture analyzer TA.XT2i, and by electronic nose (e-nose) measurements using FreshSense instrument. Storage time of herring in ice could be estimated by QIM with ± 2 days using 5 herring per lot. No correlation between instrumental texture parameters and storage time or between sensory and instrumental texture variables was found. E-nose measurements could be use to detect the onset of spoilage.

Keywords: Herring, Quality Index Method (QIM), freshness, storage time.

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571 Optimum Design of Launching Nose during Incremental Launching Construction of Same-Span Continuous Bridge

Authors: Weifeng Wang, Hengbin Zheng, Xianwei Zeng

Abstract:

The launching nose plays an important role in the incremental launching construction. The parameters of the launching nose essentially affect the internal forces of the girder during the construction. The appropriate parameters can decrease the internal forces in the girder and save the material and reduce the cost. The simplified structural model, which is made with displacement method according to the characteristic of incremental launching construction and the variation rule of the internal forces, calculates and analyzes the effect of the length, the rigidity and weight of launch nose on the internal forces of girder during the incremental launching construction. The method, which can calculate the launching nose parameters for the optimum incremental launching construction, is achieved. This method is simple, reliable and easy for practical use.

Keywords: incremental launching, launching nose, optimumanalysis, displacement method

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570 The Effect of Nose Radius on Cutting Force and Temperature during Machining Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

Authors: Moaz H. Ali, M. N. M. Ansari

Abstract:

This paper presents a study the effect of nose radius (Rz-mm) on cutting force components and temperatures during the machining simulation in an orthogonal cutting process for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The cutting process was performed at various nose radiuses (Rz-mm) while the depth of cut (d-mm), feed rate (fmm/ tooth) and cutting speed (vc-m/ min) were remained constant. The main cutting force (Fc), feed cutting force (Ft) and temperatures were estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) through ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software and the simulation was developed the two-dimension via an orthogonal cutting process during machining titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The results led to the conclusion that the nose radius (Rz-mm) has affected directly on the cutting force components. However, temperature gave no indication or has no significant relation with nose radius during machining titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Hence, any increase or decrease in the nose radius (Rzmm) during machining operation led to effect on the cutting forces and thus it will be effective on surface finish, quality, and quantity of products.

Keywords: Finite element modeling (FEM), nose radius, cutting force, temperature, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V).

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569 Finite Element Modeling to Predict the Effect of Nose Radius on the Equivalent Strain (PEEQ) for Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

Authors: Moaz H. Ali, M. N. M. Ansari, Pang Jing Shen

Abstract:

In present work, prediction the effect of nose radius, rz (mm) on the equivalent strain (PEEQ) and surface finish during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) through orthogonal cutting process. The results were performed at several of the nose radiuses, rz (mm) while the cutting speed, vc (m/min), feed rate, f (mm/tooth) and depth of cut, d (mm) were remained constant. The equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was estimated by using finite element modeling (FEM) and applied through ABAQUS/EXPLICIT software. The simulation results led to conclude that the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ) was increased and surface roughness (Ra) decreased when increasing nose radius, rz (mm) during the machining of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) in dry cutting conditions.

Keywords: Finite element modeling (FEM), nose radius, plastic strain (PEEQ), titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V).

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568 A Novel Approach to Optimal Cutting Tool Replacement

Authors: Cem Karacal, Sohyung Cho, William Yu

Abstract:

In metal cutting industries, mathematical/statistical models are typically used to predict tool replacement time. These off-line methods usually result in less than optimum replacement time thereby either wasting resources or causing quality problems. The few online real-time methods proposed use indirect measurement techniques and are prone to similar errors. Our idea is based on identifying the optimal replacement time using an electronic nose to detect the airborne compounds released when the tool wear reaches to a chemical substrate doped into tool material during the fabrication. The study investigates the feasibility of the idea, possible doping materials and methods along with data stream mining techniques for detection and monitoring different phases of tool wear.

Keywords: Tool condition monitoring, cutting tool replacement, data stream mining, e-Nose.

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567 Gas Detection via Machine Learning

Authors: Walaa Khalaf, Calogero Pace, Manlio Gaudioso

Abstract:

We present an Electronic Nose (ENose), which is aimed at identifying the presence of one out of two gases, possibly detecting the presence of a mixture of the two. Estimation of the concentrations of the components is also performed for a volatile organic compound (VOC) constituted by methanol and acetone, for the ranges 40-400 and 22-220 ppm (parts-per-million), respectively. Our system contains 8 sensors, 5 of them being gas sensors (of the class TGS from FIGARO USA, INC., whose sensing element is a tin dioxide (SnO2) semiconductor), the remaining being a temperature sensor (LM35 from National Semiconductor Corporation), a humidity sensor (HIH–3610 from Honeywell), and a pressure sensor (XFAM from Fujikura Ltd.). Our integrated hardware–software system uses some machine learning principles and least square regression principle to identify at first a new gas sample, or a mixture, and then to estimate the concentrations. In particular we adopt a training model using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach with linear kernel to teach the system how discriminate among different gases. Then we apply another training model using the least square regression, to predict the concentrations. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed multiclassification and regression scheme is effective in the identification of the tested VOCs of methanol and acetone with 96.61% correctness. The concentration prediction is obtained with 0.979 and 0.964 correlation coefficient for the predicted versus real concentrations of methanol and acetone, respectively.

Keywords: Electronic nose, Least square regression, Mixture ofgases, Support Vector Machine.

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566 The Adoption and Diffusion of Electronic Wallets

Authors: Jean-Michel Sahut

Abstract:

Despite the strong and consistent increase in the use of electronic payment methods worldwide, the diffusion of electronic wallets is still far from widespread. Analysis of the failure of electronic wallet uptake has either focused on technical issues or chosen to analyse a specific scheme. This article proposes a joint approach to analysing key factors affecting the adoption of e-wallets by using the ‘Technology Acceptance Model” [1] which we have expanded to take into account the cost of using e-wallets. We use this model to analyse Monéo, the only French electronic wallet still in operation.

Keywords: Electronic wallet, adoption, ICT, TAM, Monéo, electronic payment.

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565 Quality Properties of Fermented Mugworts and Rapid Pattern Analysis of Their Volatile Flavor Components by Electric Nose Based On SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) Sensor in GC System

Authors: Hyo-Nam Song

Abstract:

The changes in quality properties and nutritional components in two fermented mugworts (Artemisia capillaries Thumberg, Artemisiaeasiaticae Nakai) were characterized followed by the rapid pattern analysis of volatile flavor compounds by Electric Nose based on SAW(Surface Acoustic Wave) sensor in GC system. There were remarkable decreases in the pH and small changes in the total soluble solids after fermentation. The L (lightness) and b (yellowness) values in Hunter's color system were shown to be decreased, whilst the a (redness) value was increased by fermentation. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that total amino acids were increased in quantity and the essential amino acids were contained higher in A. asiaticaeNakai than in A. capillaries Thumberg. While the total polyphenol contents were not affected by fermentation, the total sugar contents were dramatically decreased. Scopoletinwere highly abundant in A. capillarisThumberg, however, it was not detected in A. asiaticaeNakai. Volatile flavor compounds by Electric Nose showed that the intensity of several peaks were increased much and seven additional flavor peaks were newly produced after fermentation. The flavor differences of two mugworts were clearly distinguished from the image patterns of VaporPrintTM which indicate that the fermentation enables the two mugworts to have subtle flavor differences.

Keywords: Mugwort, Fermentation, Electric Nose, SAW sensor, Flavor.

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564 Trust and Security in Electronic Payments: What We Have and Need to Know?

Authors: Theodosios Tsiakis, George Stephanides, George Pekos

Abstract:

The growth of open networks created the interest to commercialise it. The establishment of an electronic business mechanism must be accompanied by a digital-electronic payment system to transfer the value of transactions. Financial organizations are requested to offer a secure e-payment synthesis with equivalent levels of trust and security served in conventional paper-based payment transactions. The paper addresses the challenge of the first trade problem in e-commerce, provides a brief literature review on electronic payment and attempts to explain the underlying concept and method of trust in relevance to electronic payment.

Keywords: Electronic payment, security, trust, electronic business mechanism.

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563 Agent-Based Offline Electronic Voting

Authors: Mehmet Tahir Sandıkkaya, Bülent Örencik

Abstract:

Many electronic voting systems, classified mainly as homomorphic cryptography based, mix-net based and blind signature based, appear after the eighties when zero knowledge proofs were introduced. The common ground for all these three systems is that none of them works without real time cryptologic calculations that should be held on a server. As far as known, the agent-based approach has not been used in a secure electronic voting system. In this study, an agent-based electronic voting schema, which does not contain real time calculations on the server side, is proposed. Conventional cryptologic methods are used in the proposed schema and some of the requirements of an electronic voting system are constructed within the schema. The schema seems quite secure if the used cryptologic methods and agents are secure. In this paper, proposed schema will be explained and compared with already known electronic voting systems.

Keywords: Electronic voting, E-voting, Mobile softwareagents, Offline electronic voting.

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562 Integrated Flavor Sensor Using Microbead Array

Authors: Ziba Omidi, Min-Ki Kim

Abstract:

This research presents the design, fabrication and application of a flavor sensor for an integrated electronic tongue and electronic nose that can allow rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in a solution. The odor gas and liquid are separated using hydrophobic porous membrane in micro fluidic channel. The sensor uses an array composed of microbeads in micromachined cavities localized on silicon wafer. Sensing occurs via colorimetric and fluorescence changes to receptors and indicator molecules that are attached to termination sites on the polymeric microbeads. As a result, the sensor array system enables simultaneous and near-real-time analyses using small samples and reagent volumes with the capacity to incorporate significant redundancies. One of the key parts of the system is a passive pump driven only by capillary force. The hydrophilic surface of the fluidic structure draws the sample into the sensor array without any moving mechanical parts. Since there is no moving mechanical component in the structure, the size of the fluidic structure can be compact and the fabrication becomes simple when compared to the device including active microfluidic components. These factors should make the proposed system inexpensive to mass-produce, portable and compatible with biomedical applications.

Keywords: Optical Sensor, Semiconductor manufacturing, Smell sensor, Taste sensor.

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561 Analysis of Normal Penetration of Ogive -Nose Projectiles into Thin Metallic Plates

Authors: M. H. Pol, A. Bidi, A.V. Hoseini, G.H. Liaghat

Abstract:

In this note, a theoretical model for analyzing of normal penetration of the ogive – nose projectile into metallic targets is presented .The failure is assumed to be asymmetry petalling and the analysis is performed by using the energy balance and work done .The work done consist of the work required for plastic deformation Wp, the work for transferring the matter to new position Wd and the work for bending of the petals Wb. In several studies, it has been shown that we can neglect the loss of energy by temperature. In this present study, in first, by assuming the crater formation after perforation, the value of work done is calculated during the normal penetration of conical projectiles into thin metallic targets. Then the value of residual velocity and ballistic limit of the projectile is predicated by using the energy balance. In final, theoretical and experimental results is compared.

Keywords: Ogive Projectile, normal impact, penetration, thinmetallic target.

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560 Recognition of Obstacles and Providing Different Guidelines and Promotion of Electronic Government in Iran

Authors: E. Asgharizadeh, M. Ajalli, S.R. Safavi.M.M, A. Medghalchi

Abstract:

Electronic Government is one of the special concepts which has been performed successfully within recent decades. Electronic government is a digital, wall-free government with a virtual organization for presenting of online governmental services and further cooperation in different political/social activities. In order to have a successful implementation of electronic government strategy and benefiting from its complete potential and benefits and generally for establishment and applying of electronic government, it is necessary to have different infrastructures as the basics of electronic government with lack of which it is impossible to benefit from mentioned services. For this purpose, in this paper we have managed to recognize relevant obstacles for establishment of electronic government in Iran. All required data for recognition of obstacles were collected from statistical society of involved specialists of Ministry of Communications & Information Technology of Iran and Information Technology Organization of Tehran Municipality through questionnaire. Then by considering of five-point Likert scope and μ =3 as the index of relevant factors of proposed model, we could specify current obstacles against electronic government in Iran along with some guidelines and proposal in this regard. According to the results, mentioned obstacles for applying of electronic government in Iran are as follows: Technical & technological problems, Legal, judicial & safety problems, Economic problems and Humanistic Problems.

Keywords: Government, Electronic Government, InformationTechnology, Obstacles, Iran.

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559 Effect of Baffles on the Cooling of Electronic Components

Authors: O. Bendermel, C. Seladji, M. Khaouani

Abstract:

In this work, we made anumerical study of the thermal and dynamic behavior of air in a horizontal channel with electronic components.The influenceto use baffles on the profiles of velocity and temperature is discussed.The finite volume method and the algorithm Simple are used for solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy.The results found show that baffles improve heat transfer between the cooling air and electronic components. The velocity will increase from 3 times per rapport of the initial velocity.

Keywords: Electronic components, baffles, cooling.

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558 Examining Effects of Electronic Market Functions on Decrease in Product Unit Cost and Response Time to Customer

Authors: Maziyar Nouraee

Abstract:

Electronic markets in recent decades contribute remarkably in business transactions. Many organizations consider traditional ways of trade non-economical and therefore they do trade only through electronic markets. There are different categorizations of electronic markets functions. In one classification, functions of electronic markets are categorized into classes as information, transactions, and value added. In the present paper, effects of the three classes on the two major elements of the supply chain management are measured. The two elements are decrease in the product unit cost and reduction in response time to the customer. The results of the current research show that among nine minor elements related to the three classes of electronic markets functions, six factors and three factors influence on reduction of the product unit cost and reduction of response time to the customer, respectively.

Keywords: Electronic Commerce, Electronic Market, B2B Trade, Supply Chain Management.

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557 Chilean Wines Classification based only on Aroma Information

Authors: Nicolás H. Beltrán, Manuel A. Duarte-Mermoud, Víctor A. Soto, Sebastián A. Salah, and Matías A. Bustos

Abstract:

Results of Chilean wine classification based on the information provided by an electronic nose are reported in this paper. The classification scheme consists of two parts; in the first stage, Principal Component Analysis is used as feature extraction method to reduce the dimensionality of the original information. Then, Radial Basis Functions Neural Networks is used as pattern recognition technique to perform the classification. The objective of this study is to classify different Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carménère wine samples from different years, valleys and vineyards of Chile.

Keywords: Feature extraction techniques, Pattern recognitiontechniques, Principal component analysis, Radial basis functionsneural networks, Wine classification.

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556 A Matlab / Simulink Based Tool for Power Electronic Circuits

Authors: Abdulatif A. M. Shaban

Abstract:

Transient simulation of power electronic circuits is of considerable interest to the designer. The switching nature of the devices used permits development of specialized algorithms which allow a considerable reduction in simulation time compared to general purpose simulation algorithms. This paper describes a method used to simulate a power electronic circuits using the SIMULINK toolbox within MATLAB software. Theoretical results are presented provides the basis of transient analysis of a power electronic circuits.

Keywords: Modelling, Simulation.

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555 Localizing and Experiencing Electronic Questionnaires in an Educational Web Site

Authors: Theodore H. Kaskalis

Abstract:

One of the main research methods in humanistic studies is the collection and process of data through questionnaires. This paper reports our experiences of localizing and adapting the phpESP package of electronic surveys, which led to a friendly on-line questionnaire environment offered through our department web site. After presenting the characteristics of this environment, we identify the expected benefits and present a questionnaire carried out through both the traditional and electronic way. We present the respondents' feedback and then we report the researchers' opinions.Finally, we propose ideas we intend to implement in order to further assist and enhance the research based on this web accessed,electronic questionnaire environment.

Keywords: Electronic questionnaires, Computer assisted webinterviewing, Survey data collection, Survey data visualization.

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554 Cantor Interpolating Spline to Design Electronic Mail Boxes

Authors: Adil Al-Rammahi

Abstract:

Electronic mail is very important in present time. Many researchers work for designing, improving, securing, fasting, goodness and others fields in electronic mail. This paper introduced new algorithm to use Cantor sets and cubic spline interpolating function in the electronic mail design. Cantor sets used as the area (or domain) of the mail, while spline function used for designing formula. The roots of spline function versus Cantor sets used as the controller admin. The roots calculated by the numerical Newton – Raphson's method. The result of this algorithm was promised.

Keywords: Cantor sets, spline, electronic mail design, Newton – Raphson's method.

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553 Considerations of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Functioning as a Chain of Trust in Electronic Payments Systems

Authors: Theodosios Tsiakis, George Stephanides, George Pekos

Abstract:

The growth of open networks created the interest to commercialise it. The establishment of an electronic business mechanism must be accompanied by a digital – electronic payment system to transfer the value of transactions. Financial organizations are requested to offer a secure e-payment synthesis with equivalent level of security served in conventional paper-based payment transactions. PKI, which is functioning as a chain of trust in security architecture, can enable security services of cryptography to epayments, in order to take advantage of the wider base either of customer or of trading partners and the reduction of cost transaction achieved by the use of Internet channels. The paper addresses the possibilities and the implementation suggestions of PKI in relevance to electronic payments by suggesting a framework that should be followed.

Keywords: Electronic Payment, Security, Trust

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552 Identification of the Electronic City Application Obstacles in Iran

Authors: E. Asgharizadeh, M. Ajalli Geshlajoughi, S. R. Safavi Mirmahalleh

Abstract:

Amazing development of the information technology, communications and internet expansion as well as the requirements of the city managers to new ideas to run the city and higher participation of the citizens encourage us to complete the electronic city as soon as possible. The foundations of this electronic city are in information technology. People-s participation in metropolitan management is a crucial topic. Information technology does not impede this matter. It can ameliorate populace-s participation and better interactions between the citizens and the city managers. Citizens can proffer their ideas, beliefs and votes through digital mass media based upon the internet and computerization plexuses on the topical matters to receive appropriate replies and services. They can participate in urban projects by becoming cognizant of the city views. The most significant challenges are as follows: information and communicative management, altering citizens- views, as well as legal and office documents Electronic city obstacles have been identified in this research. The required data were forgathered through questionnaires to identify the barriers from a statistical community comprising specialists and practitioners of the ministry of information technology and communication, the municipality information technology organization. The conclusions demonstrate that the prioritized electronic city application barriers in Iran are as follows: The support quandaries (non-financial ones), behavioral, cultural and educational plights, the security, legal and license predicaments, the hardware, orismological and infrastructural curbs, the software and fiscal problems.

Keywords: Electronic city, urban management, populace's participation, electronic government, electronic services, electronic organization, electronic infrastructure.

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551 Customers’ Intention to Use Electronic Payment System for Purchasing

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to study the factors of characteristic of business, website quality and trust affected intention to use electronic payment systems for online purchasing. This survey research used questionnaire as a tool to collect the data of 300 customers who purchased online products and used an electronic payment system. The descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze data. The results revealed that customers had a good opinion towards the characteristic of the business and website quality. However, they have a moderate opinion towards trust and intention to repurchase. In addition, the characteristics of the business affected the purchase intention the most, followed by website quality and the trust with statistical significance at 0.05 level. For particular, the terms of reputation, communication, information quality, perceived risk and word of mouth affected the intention to use the electronic payment system. In contrast, the terms of size, system quality and service quality did not affect intention to use an electronic payment system.

Keywords: Electronic payment, intention, online purchasing, trust.

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550 Effect of Spatially Correlated Disorder on Electronic Transport Properties of Aperiodic Superlattices (GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs)

Authors: F. Bendahma, S. Bentata, S. Cherid, A. Zitouni, S. Terkhi, T. Lantri, Y. Sefir, Z. F. Meghoufel

Abstract:

We examine the electronic transport properties in AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices. Using the transfer-matrix technique and the exact Airy function formalism, we investigate theoretically the effect of structural parameters on the electronic energy spectra of trimer thickness barrier (TTB). Our numerical calculations showed that the localization length of the states becomes more extended when the disorder is correlated (trimer case). We have also found that the resonant tunneling time (RTT) is of the order of several femtoseconds.

Keywords: Electronic transport properties, structural parameters, superlattice, transfer-matrix technique.

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549 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Electronic Response Systems in Technology-Oriented Classes

Authors: Ahmad Salman

Abstract:

Electronic Response Systems such as Kahoot, Poll Everywhere, and Google Classroom are gaining a lot of popularity when surveying audiences in events, meetings, and classroom. The reason is mainly because of the ease of use and the convenience these tools bring since they provide mobile applications with a simple user interface. In this paper, we present a case study on the effectiveness of using Electronic Response Systems on student participation and learning experience in a classroom. We use a polling application for class exercises in two different technology-oriented classes. We evaluate the effectiveness of the usage of the polling applications through statistical analysis of the students performance in these two classes and compare them to the performances of students who took the same classes without using the polling application for class participation. Our results show an increase in the performances of the students who used the Electronic Response System when compared to those who did not by an average of 11%.

Keywords: Interactive learning, classroom technology, electronic response systems, polling applications, learning evaluation.

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548 Evaluation of Electronic Payment Systems Using Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approach

Authors: Gülfem Alptekin, S. Emre Alptekin

Abstract:

Global competitiveness has recently become the biggest concern of both manufacturing and service companies. Electronic commerce, as a key technology enables the firms to reach all the potential consumers from all over the world. In this study, we have presented commonly used electronic payment systems, and then we have shown the evaluation of these systems in respect to different criteria. The payment systems which are included in this research are the credit card, the virtual credit card, the electronic money, the mobile payment, the credit transfer and the debit instruments. We have realized a systematic comparison of these systems in respect to three main criteria: Technical, economical and social. We have conducted a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making procedure to deal with the multi-attribute nature of the problem. The subjectiveness and imprecision of the evaluation process are modeled using triangular fuzzy numbers.

Keywords: Electronic payment systems, fuzzy multi-criteriadecision making, analytical hierarchy process.

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547 Software Improvements of the Accuracy in the Air-Electronic Measurement Systems for Geometrical Dimensions

Authors: Miroslav H. Hristov, Velizar A. Vassilev, Georgi K. Dukendjiev

Abstract:

Due to the constant development of measurement systems and the aim for computerization, unavoidable improvements are made for the main disadvantages of air gauges. With the appearance of the air-electronic measuring devices, some of their disadvantages are solved. The output electrical signal allows them to be included in the modern systems for measuring information processing and process management. Producer efforts are aimed at reducing the influence of supply pressure and measurement system setup errors. Increased accuracy requirements and preventive error measures are due to the main uses of air electronic systems - measurement of geometric dimensions in the automotive industry where they are applied as modules in measuring systems to measure geometric parameters, form, orientation and location of the elements.

Keywords: Air-electronic, geometrical parameters, improvement, measurement systems.

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546 The Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Electoral Procedures: Comments on Electronic Voting Security

Authors: Magdalena Musiał-Karg

Abstract:

The expansion of telecommunication and progress of electronic media constitute important elements of our times. The recent worldwide convergence of information and communication technologies (ICT) and dynamic development of the mass media is leading to noticeable changes in the functioning of contemporary states and societies. Currently, modern technologies play more and more important roles and filter down to almost every field of contemporary human life. It results in the growth of online interactions that can be observed by the inconceivable increase in the number of people with home PCs and Internet access. The proof of it is undoubtedly the emergence and use of concepts such as e-society, e-banking, e-services, e-government, e-government, e-participation and e-democracy. The newly coined word e-democracy evidences that modern technologies have also been widely used in politics. Without any doubt in most countries all actors of political market (politicians, political parties, servants in political/public sector, media) use modern forms of communication with the society. Most of these modern technologies progress the processes of getting and sending information to the citizens, communication with the electorate, and also – which seems to be the biggest advantage – electoral procedures. Thanks to implementation of ICT the interaction between politicians and electorate are improved. The main goal of this text is to analyze electronic voting (e-voting) as one of the important forms of electronic democracy in terms of security aspects. The author of this paper aimed at answering the questions of security of electronic voting as an additional form of participation in elections and referenda.

Keywords: Electronic democracy, electronic participation, electronic voting, security of e-voting, ICT.

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