Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1375

Search results for: Effort Estimation

1375 Parametric Cost Estimating Relationships for Design Effort Estimation

Authors: Adil Salam, Nadia Bhuiyan, Gerard J. Gouw

Abstract:

The Canadian aerospace industry faces many challenges. One of them is the difficulty in estimating costs. In particular, the design effort required in a project impacts resource requirements and lead-time, and consequently the final cost. This paper presents the findings of a case study conducted for recognized global leader in the design and manufacturing of aircraft engines. The study models parametric cost estimation relationships to estimate the design effort of integrated blade-rotor low-pressure compressor fans. Several effort drivers are selected to model the relationship. Comparative analyses of three types of models are conducted. The model with the best accuracy and significance in design estimation is retained.

Keywords: Effort estimation, design, aerospace.

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1374 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen

Abstract:

An effort estimation model is needed for softwareintensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: Functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis.

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1373 Comparative Analysis of the Software Effort Estimation Models

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Satwinder Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon

Abstract:

Accurate software cost estimates are critical to both developers and customers. They can be used for generating request for proposals, contract negotiations, scheduling, monitoring and control. The exact relationship between the attributes of the effort estimation is difficult to establish. A neural network is good at discovering relationships and pattern in the data. So, in this paper a comparative analysis among existing Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model and Neural Network Based Model is performed. Neural Network has outperformed the other considered models. Hence, we proposed Neural Network system as a soft computing approach to model the effort estimation of the software systems.

Keywords: Effort Estimation, Neural Network, Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model.

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1372 Effectiveness of Business Software Systems Development and Enhancement Projects versus Work Effort Estimation Methods

Authors: Beata Czarnacka-Chrobot

Abstract:

Execution of Business Software Systems (BSS) Development and Enhancement Projects (D&EP) is characterized by the exceptionally low effectiveness, leading to considerable financial losses. The general reason for low effectiveness of such projects is that they are inappropriately managed. One of the factors of proper BSS D&EP management is suitable (reliable and objective) method of project work effort estimation since this is what determines correct estimation of its major attributes: project cost and duration. BSS D&EP is usually considered to be accomplished effectively if product of a planned functionality is delivered without cost and time overrun. The goal of this paper is to prove that choosing approach to the BSS D&EP work effort estimation has a considerable influence on the effectiveness of such projects execution.

Keywords: Business software systems, development and enhancement projects, effectiveness, work effort estimation methods, software product size, software product functionality, project duration, project cost.

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1371 Software Effort Estimation Models Using Radial Basis Function Network

Authors: E. Praynlin, P. Latha

Abstract:

Software Effort Estimation is the process of estimating the effort required to develop software. By estimating the effort, the cost and schedule required to estimate the software can be determined. Accurate Estimate helps the developer to allocate the resource accordingly in order to avoid cost overrun and schedule overrun. Several methods are available in order to estimate the effort among which soft computing based method plays a prominent role. Software cost estimation deals with lot of uncertainty among all soft computing methods neural network is good in handling uncertainty. In this paper Radial Basis Function Network is compared with the back propagation network and the results are validated using six data sets and it is found that RBFN is best suitable to estimate the effort. The Results are validated using two tests the error test and the statistical test.

Keywords: Software cost estimation, Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN), Back propagation function network, Mean Magnitude of Relative Error (MMRE).

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1370 Factors of Effective Business Software Systems Development and Enhancement Projects Work Effort Estimation

Authors: Beata Czarnacka-Chrobot

Abstract:

Majority of Business Software Systems (BSS) Development and Enhancement Projects (D&EP) fail to meet criteria of their effectiveness, what leads to the considerable financial losses. One of the fundamental reasons for such projects- exceptionally low success rate are improperly derived estimates for their costs and time. In the case of BSS D&EP these attributes are determined by the work effort, meanwhile reliable and objective effort estimation still appears to be a great challenge to the software engineering. Thus this paper is aimed at presenting the most important synthetic conclusions coming from the author-s own studies concerning the main factors of effective BSS D&EP work effort estimation. Thanks to the rational investment decisions made on the basis of reliable and objective criteria it is possible to reduce losses caused not only by abandoned projects but also by large scale of overrunning the time and costs of BSS D&EP execution.

Keywords: Benchmarking data, business software systems development and enhancement projects, effort estimation, software engineering economics, software functional size measurement.

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1369 Evaluation of Model Evaluation Criterion for Software Development Effort Estimation

Authors: S. K. Pillai, M. K. Jeyakumar

Abstract:

Estimation of model parameters is necessary to predict the behavior of a system. Model parameters are estimated using optimization criteria. Most algorithms use historical data to estimate model parameters. The known target values (actual) and the output produced by the model are compared. The differences between the two form the basis to estimate the parameters. In order to compare different models developed using the same data different criteria are used. The data obtained for short scale projects are used here. We consider software effort estimation problem using radial basis function network. The accuracy comparison is made using various existing criteria for one and two predictors. Then, we propose a new criterion based on linear least squares for evaluation and compared the results of one and two predictors. We have considered another data set and evaluated prediction accuracy using the new criterion. The new criterion is easy to comprehend compared to single statistic. Although software effort estimation is considered, this method is applicable for any modeling and prediction.

Keywords: Software effort estimation, accuracy, Radial Basis Function, linear least squares.

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1368 Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling

Authors: Felix Baumann, Aleksandar Milutinovic, Dieter Roller

Abstract:

Up to this point business process management projects in general and business process modelling projects in particular could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated method to estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further phases of business process modelling starting with implementation are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature. This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely software development or software engineering. Software development is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this we lay out similarities of the software development process and the process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process Management life-cycle.

Keywords: Cost Estimation, Effort Estimation, Process Modelling, Business Process Management, COCOMO.

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1367 Software Effort Estimation Using Soft Computing Techniques

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Porush Bassi, Amanpreet Singh Brar

Abstract:

Various models have been derived by studying large number of completed software projects from various organizations and applications to explore how project sizes mapped into project effort. But, still there is a need to prediction accuracy of the models. As Neuro-fuzzy based system is able to approximate the non-linear function with more precision. So, Neuro-Fuzzy system is used as a soft computing approach to generate model by formulating the relationship based on its training. In this paper, Neuro-Fuzzy technique is used for software estimation modeling of on NASA software project data and performance of the developed models are compared with the Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili and Doty Models mentioned in the literature.

Keywords: Effort Estimation, Neural-Fuzzy Model, Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model.

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1366 An Examination of the Factors Influencing Software Development Effort

Authors: Zhizhong Jiang, Peter Naudé

Abstract:

Effective evaluation of software development effort is an important aspect of successful project management. Based on a large database with 4106 projects ever developed, this study statistically examines the factors that influence development effort. The factors found to be significant for effort are project size, average number of developers that worked on the project, type of development, development language, development platform, and the use of rapid application development. Among these factors, project size is the most critical cost driver. Unsurprisingly, this study found that the use of CASE tools does not necessarily reduce development effort, which adds support to the claim that the use of tools is subtle. As many of the current estimation models are rarely or unsuccessfully used, this study proposes a parsimonious parametric model for the prediction of effort which is both simple and more accurate than previous models.

Keywords: Development effort, function points, team size, development language, CASE tool, rapid application development.

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1365 A Model for Estimation of Efforts in Development of Software Systems

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Manisha Prashar, Pourush Bassi, Atul Bisht

Abstract:

Software effort estimation is the process of predicting the most realistic use of effort required to develop or maintain software based on incomplete, uncertain and/or noisy input. Effort estimates may be used as input to project plans, iteration plans, budgets. There are various models like Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili, Doty and GA Based models which have already used to estimate the software effort for projects. In this study Statistical Models, Fuzzy-GA and Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) Inference Systems are experimented to estimate the software effort for projects. The performances of the developed models were tested on NASA software project datasets and results are compared with the Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili, Doty and Genetic Algorithm Based models mentioned in the literature. The result shows that the NF Model has the lowest MMRE and RMSE values. The NF Model shows the best results as compared with the Fuzzy-GA based hybrid Inference System and other existing Models that are being used for the Effort Prediction with lowest MMRE and RMSE values.

Keywords: Neuro-Fuzzy Model, Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model, GA Based Model, Genetic Algorithm.

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1364 Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot

Authors: Sylvain Devie, Pierre-Philippe Robet, Yannick Aoustin, Maxime Gautier

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show that the observation of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model, two different procedures were performed in order to identify the mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort applied on it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high effort applications.

Keywords: Control, Identification, Robot, Co-manipulation, Sensor-less.

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1363 On Best Estimation for Parameter Weibull Distribution

Authors: Hadeel Salim Alkutubi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to introduce estimators to the parameters and survival function for Weibull distribution using three different methods, Maximum Likelihood estimation, Standard Bayes estimation and Modified Bayes estimation. We will then compared the three methods using simulation study to find the best one base on MPE and MSE.

Keywords: Maximum Likelihood estimation , Bayes estimation, Jeffery prior information, Simulation study

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1362 The Effects of Software Size on Development Effort and Software Quality

Authors: Zhizhong Jiang, Peter Naudé, Binghua Jiang

Abstract:

Effective evaluation of software development effort is an important issue during project plan. This study provides a model to predict development effort based on the software size estimated with function points. We generalize the average amount of effort spent on each phase of the development, and give the estimates for the effort used in software building, testing, and implementation. Finally, this paper finds a strong correlation between software defects and software size. As the size of software constantly increases, the quality remains to be a matter which requires major concern.

Keywords: Development effort, function points, software quality, software size.

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1361 Frequency Estimation Using Analytic Signal via Wavelet Transform

Authors: Sudipta Majumdar, Akansha Singh

Abstract:

Frequency estimation of a sinusoid in white noise using maximum entropy power spectral estimation has been shown to be very sensitive to initial sinusoidal phase. This paper presents use of wavelet transform to find an analytic signal for frequency estimation using maximum entropy method (MEM) and compared the results with frequency estimation using analytic signal by Hilbert transform method and frequency estimation using real data together with MEM. The presented method shows the improved estimation precision and antinoise performance.

Keywords: Frequency estimation, analytic signal, maximum entropy method, wavelet transform.

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1360 A Linear Use Case Based Software Cost Estimation Model

Authors: Hasan.O. Farahneh, Ayman A. Issa

Abstract:

Software development is moving towards agility with use cases and scenarios being used for requirements stories. Estimates of software costs are becoming even more important than before as effects of delays is much larger in successive short releases context of agile development. Thus, this paper reports on the development of new linear use case based software cost estimation model applicable in the very early stages of software development being based on simple metric. Evaluation showed that accuracy of estimates varies between 43% and 55% of actual effort of historical test projects. These results outperformed those of wellknown models when applied in the same context. Further work is being carried out to improve the performance of the proposed model when considering the effect of non-functional requirements.

Keywords: Metrics, Software Cost Estimation, Use Cases

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1359 A Metric-Set and Model Suggestion for Better Software Project Cost Estimation

Authors: Murat Ayyıldız, Oya Kalıpsız, Sırma Yavuz

Abstract:

Software project effort estimation is frequently seen as complex and expensive for individual software engineers. Software production is in a crisis. It suffers from excessive costs. Software production is often out of control. It has been suggested that software production is out of control because we do not measure. You cannot control what you cannot measure. During last decade, a number of researches on cost estimation have been conducted. The metric-set selection has a vital role in software cost estimation studies; its importance has been ignored especially in neural network based studies. In this study we have explored the reasons of those disappointing results and implemented different neural network models using augmented new metrics. The results obtained are compared with previous studies using traditional metrics. To be able to make comparisons, two types of data have been used. The first part of the data is taken from the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO'81) which is commonly used in previous studies and the second part is collected according to new metrics in a leading international company in Turkey. The accuracy of the selected metrics and the data samples are verified using statistical techniques. The model presented here is based on Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). Another difficulty associated with the cost estimation studies is the fact that the data collection requires time and care. To make a more thorough use of the samples collected, k-fold, cross validation method is also implemented. It is concluded that, as long as an accurate and quantifiable set of metrics are defined and measured correctly, neural networks can be applied in software cost estimation studies with success

Keywords: Software Metrics, Software Cost Estimation, Neural Network.

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1358 A Pipelined FSBM Hardware Architecture for HTDV-H.26x

Authors: H. Loukil, A. Ben Atitallah, F. Ghozzi, M. A. Ben Ayed, N. Masmoudi

Abstract:

In MPEG and H.26x standards, to eliminate the temporal redundancy we use motion estimation. Given that the motion estimation stage is very complex in terms of computational effort, a hardware implementation on a re-configurable circuit is crucial for the requirements of different real time multimedia applications. In this paper, we present hardware architecture for motion estimation based on "Full Search Block Matching" (FSBM) algorithm. This architecture presents minimum latency, maximum throughput, full utilization of hardware resources such as embedded memory blocks, and combining both pipelining and parallel processing techniques. Our design is described in VHDL language, verified by simulation and implemented in a Stratix II EP2S130F1020C4 FPGA circuit. The experiment result show that the optimum operating clock frequency of the proposed design is 89MHz which achieves 160M pixels/sec.

Keywords: SAD, FSBM, Hardware Implementation, FPGA.

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1357 Distance Estimation for Radar Systems Using DS-UWB Signals

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a distance estimation scheme for radar systems using direct sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) signals. The proposed distance estimation scheme averages out the noise by accumulating the correlator outputs of the radar, and thus, helps the radar to employ a short-length DS-UWB signal reducing the correlation processing time. Numerical results confirm that the proposed distance estimation scheme provides a better estimation performance and a reduced correlation processing time compared with those of the conventional DS-UWB radars.

Keywords: Radar, DS-UWB, distance estimation, correlation accumulation.

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1356 A Novel Frequency Offset Estimation Scheme for OFDM Systems

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel frequency offset estimation scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. By correlating the OFDM signals within the coherence phase bandwidth and employing a threshold in the frequency offset estimation process, the proposed scheme is not only robust to the timing offset but also has a reduced complexity compared with that of the conventional scheme. Moreover, a timing offset estimation scheme is also proposed as the next stage of the proposed frequency offset estimation. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme can estimate frequency offset with lower computational complexity and does not require additional memory while maintaining the same level of estimation performance.

Keywords: OFDM, frequency offset estimation, threshold.

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1355 An Estimation of Variance Components in Linear Mixed Model

Authors: Shuimiao Wan, Chao Yuan, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, a linear mixed model which has two random effects is broken up into two models. This thesis gets the parameter estimation of the original model and an estimation’s statistical qualities based on these two models. Then many important properties are given by comparing this estimation with other general estimations. At the same time, this paper proves the analysis of variance estimate (ANOVAE) about σ2 of the original model is equal to the least-squares estimation (LSE) about σ2 of these two models. Finally, it also proves that this estimation is better than ANOVAE under Stein function and special condition in some degree.

Keywords: Linear mixed model, Random effects, Parameter estimation, Stein function.

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1354 Performance Enhancement of Motion Estimation Using SSE2 Technology

Authors: Trung Hieu Tran, Hyo-Moon Cho, Sang-Bock Cho

Abstract:

Motion estimation is the most computationally intensive part in video processing. Many fast motion estimation algorithms have been proposed to decrease the computational complexity by reducing the number of candidate motion vectors. However, these studies are for fast search algorithms themselves while almost image and video compressions are operated with software based. Therefore, the timing constraints for running these motion estimation algorithms not only challenge for the video codec but also overwhelm for some of processors. In this paper, the performance of motion estimation is enhanced by using Intel's Streaming SIMD Extension 2 (SSE2) technology with Intel Pentium 4 processor.

Keywords: Motion Estimation, Full Search, Three StepSearch, MMX/SSE/SSE2 Technologies, SIMD.

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1353 The Relationship between Military Expenditure, Military Personnel, Economic Growth, and the Environment

Authors: El Harbi Sana, Ben Afia Neila

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the relationship between the military effort and pollution. A distinction is drawn between the direct and indirect impact of the military effort (military expenditure and military personnel) on pollution, which operates through the impact of military effort on per capita income and the resultant impact of income on pollution. Using the data of 121 countries covering the period 1980–2011, both the direct and indirect impacts of military effort on air pollution emissions are estimated. Our results show that the military effort is estimated to have a positive direct impact on per capita emissions. Indirect effects are found to be positive, the total effect of military effort on emissions is positive for all countries.

Keywords: Military expenditure, military personnel, income, emissions of CO2 and panel data.

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1352 Efficient Block Matching Algorithm for Motion Estimation

Authors: Zong Chen

Abstract:

Motion estimation is a key problem in video processing and computer vision. Optical flow motion estimation can achieve high estimation accuracy when motion vector is small. Three-step search algorithm can handle large motion vector but not very accurate. A joint algorithm was proposed in this paper to achieve high estimation accuracy disregarding whether the motion vector is small or large, and keep the computation cost much lower than full search.

Keywords: Motion estimation, Block Matching, Optical flow, Three step search.

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1351 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi

Abstract:

Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: State of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation.

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1350 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based On ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.

Keywords: Frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbol.

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1349 Parameters Estimation of Multidimensional Possibility Distributions

Authors: Sergey Sorokin, Irina Sorokina, Alexander Yazenin

Abstract:

We present a solution to the Maxmin u/E parameters estimation problem of possibility distributions in m-dimensional case. Our method is based on geometrical approach, where minimal area enclosing ellipsoid is constructed around the sample. Also we demonstrate that one can improve results of well-known algorithms in fuzzy model identification task using Maxmin u/E parameters estimation.

Keywords: Possibility distribution, parameters estimation, Maxmin u/E estimator, fuzzy model identification.

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1348 Robust Parameter and Scale Factor Estimation in Nonstationary and Impulsive Noise Environment

Authors: Zoran D. Banjac, Branko D. Kovacevic

Abstract:

The problem of FIR system parameter estimation has been considered in the paper. A new robust recursive algorithm for simultaneously estimation of parameters and scale factor of prediction residuals in non-stationary environment corrupted by impulsive noise has been proposed. The performance of derived algorithm has been tested by simulations.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering, Non-Gaussian filtering, Robustestimation, Scale factor estimation.

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1347 Probability Density Estimation Using Advanced Support Vector Machines and the Expectation Maximization Algorithm

Authors: Refaat M Mohamed, Ayman El-Baz, Aly A. Farag

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for the prob-ability density function estimation using the Support Vector Ma-chines (SVM) and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithms.In the proposed approach, an advanced algorithm for the SVM den-sity estimation which incorporates the Mean Field theory in the learning process is used. Instead of using ad-hoc values for the para-meters of the kernel function which is used by the SVM algorithm,the proposed approach uses the EM algorithm for an automatic optimization of the kernel. Experimental evaluation using simulated data set shows encouraging results.

Keywords: Density Estimation, SVM, Learning Algorithms, Parameters Estimation.

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1346 States Estimation and Fault Detection of a Doubly Fed Induction Machine by Moving Horizon Estimation

Authors: A. T. Boum, L. Bitjoka, N. N. Léandre, S. Bennet

Abstract:

This paper presents the estimation of the key parameters of a double fed induction machine (DFIM) by the use of the moving horizon estimator (MHE) for control and monitoring purpose. A study was conducted on the behavior of this observer in the presence of some faults which can occur during the operation of the machine. In the first case a stator phase has been suppressed. In the second case the rotor resistance has been multiplied by a factor. The results show a good estimation of different parameters such as rotor flux, rotor speed, stator current with a very small estimation error. The robustness of the observer was also tested in the practical case of DFIM by using another model different from the real one at a constant close. The very small estimation error makes the MHE a good software sensor candidate for monitoring purpose for the DFIM. 

Keywords: Doubly fed induction machine, moving horizon estimator parameters’ estimation.

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