Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 397

Search results for: Fourier transforms

397 Algorithms for the Fast Computation of PWL and PHL Transforms

Authors: Fituri H Belgassem, Abdulbasit Nigrat, Seddeeq Ghrari

Abstract:

In this paper, the construction of fast algorithms for the computation of Periodic Walsh Piecewise-Linear PWL transform and the Periodic Haar Piecewise-Linear PHL transform will be presented. Algorithms for the computation of the inverse transforms are also proposed. The matrix equation of the PWL and PHL transforms are introduced. Comparison of the computational requirements for the periodic piecewise-linear transforms and other orthogonal transforms shows that the periodic piecewise-linear transforms require less number of operations than some orthogonal transforms such as the Fourier, Walsh and the Discrete Cosine transforms.

Keywords: Piece wise linear transforms, Fast transforms, Fast algorithms.

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396 Three-Dimensional Generalized Thermoelasticity with Variable Thermal Conductivity

Authors: Hamdy M. Youssef, Mowffaq Oreijah, Hunaydi S. Alsharif

Abstract:

In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time and variable thermal conductivity has been constructed. The resulting non-dimensional governing equations together with the Laplace and double Fourier transforms techniques have been applied to a three-dimensional half-space subjected to thermal loading with rectangular pulse and traction free in the directions of the principle co-ordinates. The inverses of double Fourier transforms, and Laplace transforms have been obtained numerically. Numerical results for the temperature increment, the invariant stress, the invariant strain, and the displacement are represented graphically. The variability of the thermal conductivity has significant effects on the thermal and the mechanical waves.

Keywords: Thermoelasticity, three-dimensional, Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, thermal conductivity.

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395 On Fourier Type Integral Transform for a Class of Generalized Quotients

Authors: A. S. Issa, S. K. Q. AL-Omari

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate certain spaces of generalized functions for the Fourier and Fourier type integral transforms. We discuss convolution theorems and establish certain spaces of distributions for the considered integrals. The new Fourier type integral is well-defined, linear, one-to-one and continuous with respect to certain types of convergences. Many properties and an inverse problem are also discussed in some details.

Keywords: Fourier type integral, Fourier integral, generalized quotient, Boehmian, distribution.

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394 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai

Abstract:

Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: Fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization.

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393 Statistical Texture Analysis

Authors: G. N. Srinivasan, G. Shobha

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the methodologies and algorithms for statistical texture analysis of 2D images. Methods for digital-image texture analysis are reviewed based on available literature and research work either carried out or supervised by the authors.

Keywords: Image Texture, Texture Analysis, Statistical Approaches, Structural approaches, spectral approaches, Morphological approaches, Fractals, Fourier Transforms, Gabor Filters, Wavelet transforms.

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392 An Image Enhancement Method Based on Curvelet Transform for CBCT-Images

Authors: Shahriar Farzam, Maryam Rastgarpour

Abstract:

Image denoising plays extremely important role in digital image processing. Enhancement of clinical image research based on Curvelet has been developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, we present a method for image contrast enhancement for cone beam CT (CBCT) images based on fast discrete curvelet transforms (FDCT) that work through Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT). These transforms return a table of Curvelet transform coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation and a spatial location. Accordingly, the coefficients obtained from FDCT-USFFT can be modified in order to enhance contrast in an image. Our proposed method first uses a two-dimensional mathematical transform, namely the FDCT through unequal-space fast Fourier transform on input image and then applies thresholding on coefficients of Curvelet to enhance the CBCT images. Consequently, applying unequal-space fast Fourier Transform leads to an accurate reconstruction of the image with high resolution. The experimental results indicate the performance of the proposed method is superior to the existing ones in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Effective Measure of Enhancement (EME).

Keywords: Curvelet transform, image enhancement, CBCT, image denoising.

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391 Statistical Computational of Volatility in Financial Time Series Data

Authors: S. Al Wadi, Mohd Tahir Ismail, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

Abstract:

It is well known that during the developments in the economic sector and through the financial crises occur everywhere in the whole world, volatility measurement is the most important concept in financial time series. Therefore in this paper we discuss the volatility for Amman stocks market (Jordan) for certain period of time. Since wavelet transform is one of the most famous filtering methods and grows up very quickly in the last decade, we compare this method with the traditional technique, Fast Fourier transform to decide the best method for analyzing the volatility. The comparison will be done on some of the statistical properties by using Matlab program.

Keywords: Fast Fourier transforms, Haar wavelet transform, Matlab (Wavelet tools), stocks market, Volatility.

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390 Quality Factor Variation with Transform Order in Fractional Fourier Domain

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Chetana Shanta Patsa, K. Pardha Saradhi, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform is a powerful tool, which is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform. This paper provides a mathematical relation relating the span in Fractional Fourier domain with the amplitude and phase functions of the signal, which is further used to study the variation of quality factor with different values of the transform order. It is seen that with the increase in the number of transients in the signal, the deviation of average Fractional Fourier span from the frequency bandwidth increases. Also, with the increase in the transient nature of the signal, the optimum value of transform order can be estimated based on the quality factor variation, and this value is found to be very close to that for which one can obtain the most compact representation. With the entire mathematical analysis and experimentation, we consolidate the fact that Fractional Fourier Transform gives more optimal representations for a number of transform orders than Fourier transform.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Quality Factor, Fractional Fourier span, transient signals.

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389 An Efficient Hamiltonian for Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Pardha Saradhi K., Chetana Shanta Patsa, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform, which is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform, is a powerful tool for the analysis of transient signals. The discrete Fractional Fourier Transform Hamiltonians have been proposed in the past with varying degrees of correlation between their eigenvectors and Hermite Gaussian functions. In this paper, we propose a new Hamiltonian for the discrete Fractional Fourier Transform and show that the eigenvectors of the proposed matrix has a higher degree of correlation with the Hermite Gaussian functions. Also, the proposed matrix is shown to give better Fractional Fourier responses with various transform orders for different signals.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Hamiltonian, Eigen Vectors, Discrete Hermite Gaussians.

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388 Lower Bound of Time Span Product for a General Class of Signals in Fractional Fourier Domain

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Chetana Shanta Patsa, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform which is often symbolized as the rotation in time- frequency plane. Similar to the product of time and frequency span which provides the Uncertainty Principle for the classical Fourier domain, there has not been till date an Uncertainty Principle for the Fractional Fourier domain for a generalized class of finite energy signals. Though the lower bound for the product of time and Fractional Fourier span is derived for the real signals, a tighter lower bound for a general class of signals is of practical importance, especially for the analysis of signals containing chirps. We hence formulate a mathematical derivation that gives the lower bound of time and Fractional Fourier span product. The relation proves to be utmost importance in taking the Fractional Fourier Transform with adaptive time and Fractional span resolutions for a varied class of complex signals.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, uncertainty principle, Fractional Fourier Span, amplitude, phase.

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387 Perturbation in the Fractional Fourier Span due to Erroneous Transform Order and Window Function

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Chetana Shanta Patsa, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform. The Fractional Fourier span in general depends on the amplitude and phase functions of the signal and varies with the transform order. However, with the development of the Fractional Fourier filter banks, it is advantageous in some cases to have different transform orders for different filter banks to achieve better decorrelation of the windowed and overlapped time signal. We present an expression that is useful for finding the perturbation in the Fractional Fourier span due to the erroneous transform order and the possible variation in the window shape and length. The expression is based on the dependency of the time-Fractional Fourier span Uncertainty on the amplitude and phase function of the signal. We also show with the help of the developed expression that the perturbation of span has a varying degree of sensitivity for varying degree of transform order and the window coefficients.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Perturbation, Fractional Fourier span, amplitude, phase, transform order, filterbanks.

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386 Adaptive Multiple Transforms Hardware Architecture for Versatile Video Coding

Authors: T. Damak, S. Houidi, M. A. Ben Ayed, N. Masmoudi

Abstract:

The Versatile Video Coding standard (VVC) is actually under development by the Joint Video Exploration Team (or JVET). An Adaptive Multiple Transforms (AMT) approach was announced. It is based on different transform modules that provided an efficient coding. However, the AMT solution raises several issues especially regarding the complexity of the selected set of transforms. This can be an important issue, particularly for a future industrial adoption. This paper proposed an efficient hardware implementation of the most used transform in AMT approach: the DCT II. The developed circuit is adapted to different block sizes and can reach a minimum frequency of 192 MHz allowing an optimized execution time.

Keywords: AMT, DCT II, hardware, transform, VVC.

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385 Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Belal AbuHaija, Zainab N. Al-Qudsy

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure system that is based on the combination between two different transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully. The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.

Keywords: DWT, CT, Digital Image Watermarking, Copyright Protection.

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384 MRI Reconstruction Using Discrete Fourier Transform: A tutorial

Authors: Abiodun M. Aibinu, Momoh J. E. Salami, Amir A. Shafie, Athaur Rahman Najeeb

Abstract:

The use of Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) implemented in the form of Inverse Fourier Transform (IFFT) is one of the standard method of reconstructing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) from uniformly sampled K-space data. In this tutorial, three of the major problems associated with the use of IFFT in MRI reconstruction are highlighted. The tutorial also gives brief introduction to MRI physics; MRI system from instrumentation point of view; K-space signal and the process of IDFT and IFFT for One and two dimensional (1D and 2D) data.

Keywords: Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), K-space Data, Magnetic Resonance (MR), Spin, Windows.

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383 Adaptive Fourier Decomposition Based Signal Instantaneous Frequency Computation Approach

Authors: Liming Zhang

Abstract:

There have been different approaches to compute the analytic instantaneous frequency with a variety of background reasoning and applicability in practice, as well as restrictions. This paper presents an adaptive Fourier decomposition and (α-counting) based instantaneous frequency computation approach. The adaptive Fourier decomposition is a recently proposed new signal decomposition approach. The instantaneous frequency can be computed through the so called mono-components decomposed by it. Due to the fast energy convergency, the highest frequency of the signal will be discarded by the adaptive Fourier decomposition, which represents the noise of the signal in most of the situation. A new instantaneous frequency definition for a large class of so-called simple waves is also proposed in this paper. Simple wave contains a wide range of signals for which the concept instantaneous frequency has a perfect physical sense. The α-counting instantaneous frequency can be used to compute the highest frequency for a signal. Combination of these two approaches one can obtain the IFs of the whole signal. An experiment is demonstrated the computation procedure with promising results.

Keywords: Adaptive Fourier decomposition, Fourier series, signal processing, instantaneous frequency

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382 Improved Estimation of Evolutionary Spectrum based on Short Time Fourier Transforms and Modified Magnitude Group Delay by Signal Decomposition

Authors: H K Lakshminarayana, J S Bhat, H M Mahesh

Abstract:

A new estimator for evolutionary spectrum (ES) based on short time Fourier transform (STFT) and modified group delay function (MGDF) by signal decomposition (SD) is proposed. The STFT due to its built-in averaging, suppresses the cross terms and the MGDF preserves the frequency resolution of the rectangular window with the reduction in the Gibbs ripple. The present work overcomes the magnitude distortion observed in multi-component non-stationary signals with STFT and MGDF estimation of ES using SD. The SD is achieved either through discrete cosine transform based harmonic wavelet transform (DCTHWT) or perfect reconstruction filter banks (PRFB). The MGDF also improves the signal to noise ratio by removing associated noise. The performance of the present method is illustrated for cross chirp and frequency shift keying (FSK) signals, which indicates that its performance is better than STFT-MGDF (STFT-GD) alone. Further its noise immunity is better than STFT. The SD based methods, however cannot bring out the frequency transition path from band to band clearly, as there will be gap in the contour plot at the transition. The PRFB based STFT-SD shows good performance than DCTHWT decomposition method for STFT-GD.

Keywords: Evolutionary Spectrum, Modified Group Delay, Discrete Cosine Transform, Harmonic Wavelet Transform, Perfect Reconstruction Filter Banks, Short Time Fourier Transform.

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381 New Recursive Representations for the Favard Constants with Application to the Summation of Series

Authors: Snezhana G. Gocheva-Ilieva, Ivan H. Feschiev

Abstract:

In this study integral form and new recursive formulas for Favard constants and some connected with them numeric and Fourier series are obtained. The method is based on preliminary integration of Fourier series which allows for establishing finite recursive representations for the summation. It is shown that the derived recursive representations are numerically more effective than known representations of the considered objects.

Keywords: Effective summation of series, Favard constants, finite recursive representations, Fourier series

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380 Fourier Spectral Method for Analytic Continuation

Authors: Zhenyu Zhao, Lei You

Abstract:

The numerical analytic continuation of a function f(z) = f(x + iy) on a strip is discussed in this paper. The data are only given approximately on the real axis. The periodicity of given data is assumed. A truncated Fourier spectral method has been introduced to deal with the ill-posedness of the problem. The theoretic results show that the discrepancy principle can work well for this problem. Some numerical results are also given to show the efficiency of the method.

Keywords: Analytic continuation, ill-posed problem, regularization method Fourier spectral method, the discrepancy principle.

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379 Transient Currents in a Double Conductor Line above a Conducting Half-Space

Authors: Valentina Koliskina, Inta Volodko

Abstract:

Transient eddy current problem is solved in the present paper by the method of the Laplace transform for the case of a double conductor line located parallel to a conducting half-space. The Fourier sine and cosine integral transforms are used in order to find the Laplace transform of the solution. The inverse Laplace transform of the solution is found in closed form. The integrated electromotive force per unit length of the double conductor line is calculated in the form of an improper integral.

Keywords: Transient eddy currents, Laplace transform, double conductor line.

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378 Simulation of Static Frequency Converter for Synchronous Machine Operation and Investigation of Shaft Voltage

Authors: Arun Kumar Datta, M. A. Ansari, N. R. Mondal, B. V. Raghavaiah, Manisha Dubey, Shailendra Jain

Abstract:

This study is carried out to understand the effects of Static frequency converter (SFC) on large machine. SFC has a feature of four quadrant operations. By virtue of this it can be implemented to run a synchronous machine either as a motor or alternator. This dual mode operation helps a single machine to start & run as a motor and then it can be converted as an alternator whenever required. One such dual purpose machine is taken here for study. This machine is installed at a laboratory carrying out short circuit test on high power electrical equipment. SFC connected with this machine is broadly described in this paper. The same SFC has been modeled with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The data applied on this virtual model are the actual parameters from SFC and synchronous machine. After running the model, simulated machine voltage and current waveforms are validated with the real measurements. Processing of these waveforms is done through Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) which reveals that the waveforms are not sinusoidal rather they contain number of harmonics. These harmonics are the major cause of generating shaft voltage. It is known that bearings of electrical machine are vulnerable to current flow through it due to shaft voltage. A general discussion on causes of shaft voltage in perspective with this machine is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Alternators, AC-DC power conversion, capacitive coupling, electric discharge machining, frequency converter, Fourier transforms, inductive coupling, simulation, Shaft voltage, synchronous machines, static excitation, thyristor.

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377 A New Time-Frequency Speech Analysis Approach Based On Adaptive Fourier Decomposition

Authors: Liming Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, a new adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD) based time-frequency speech analysis approach is proposed. Given the fact that the fundamental frequency of speech signals often undergo fluctuation, the classical short-time Fourier transform (STFT) based spectrogram analysis suffers from the difficulty of window size selection. AFD is a newly developed signal decomposition theory. It is designed to deal with time-varying non-stationary signals. Its outstanding characteristic is to provide instantaneous frequency for each decomposed component, so the time-frequency analysis becomes easier. Experiments are conducted based on the sample sentence in TIMIT Acoustic-Phonetic Continuous Speech Corpus. The results show that the AFD based time-frequency distribution outperforms the STFT based one.

Keywords: Adaptive fourier decomposition, instantaneous frequency, speech analysis, time-frequency distribution.

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376 Transient Heat Transfer of a Spiral Fin

Authors: Sen-Yung Lee, Li-Kuo Chou, Chao-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

In this study, the problem of temperature transient response of a spiral fin, with its end insulated, is analyzed with base end subjected to a variation of fluid temperature. The hybrid method of Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method-Padé, is applied to the temperature transient response of the fin, the result of the temperature distribution and the heat flux at the base of the spiral fin are obtained, show a good agreement in the physical phenomenon.

Keywords: Laplace transforms/Adomian decomposed method- Padé, transient response, heat transfer.

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375 Frictionless Contact Problem Between Two Orthotropic Elastic Layers

Authors: V. Kahya, A. Birinci, R. Erdol

Abstract:

A frictionless contact problem for a two-layer orthotropic elastic medium loaded through a rigid flat stamp is considered. It is assumed that tensile tractions are not allowed and only compressive tractions can be transmitted across the interface. In the solution, effect of gravity is taken into consideration. If the external load on the rigid stamp is less than or equal to a critical value, continuous contact between the layers is maintained. The problem is expressed in terms of a singular integral equation by using the theory of elasticity and the Fourier transforms. Numerical results for initial separation point, critical separation load and contact stress distribution are presented.

Keywords: Frictionless contact, Initial separation, Orthotropicmaterial, Singular integral equation.

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374 Mathematical Reconstruction of an Object Image Using X-Ray Interferometric Fourier Holography Method

Authors: M. K. Balyan

Abstract:

The main principles of X-ray Fourier interferometric holography method are discussed. The object image is reconstructed by the mathematical method of Fourier transformation. The three methods are presented – method of approximation, iteration method and step by step method. As an example the complex amplitude transmission coefficient reconstruction of a beryllium wire is considered. The results reconstructed by three presented methods are compared. The best results are obtained by means of step by step method.

Keywords: Dynamical diffraction, hologram, object image, X-ray holography.

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373 A Parallel Quadtree Approach for Image Compression using Wavelets

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hossein Deldari

Abstract:

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions that can be used to analyze signals and images. Image compression is one of major applications of wavelet transforms in image processing. It is considered as one of the most powerful methods that provides a high compression ratio. However, its implementation is very time-consuming. At the other hand, parallel computing technologies are an efficient method for image compression using wavelets. In this paper, we propose a parallel wavelet compression algorithm based on quadtrees. We implement the algorithm using MatlabMPI (a parallel, message passing version of Matlab), and compute its isoefficiency function, and show that it is scalable. Our experimental results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm also.

Keywords: Image compression, MPI, Parallel computing, Wavelets.

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372 Numerical Investigation of Non Fourier Heat Conduction in a Semi-infinite Body due to a Moving Concentrated Heat Source Composed with Radiational Boundary Condition

Authors: M. Akbari, S. Sadodin

Abstract:

In this paper, the melting of a semi-infinite body as a result of a moving laser beam has been studied. Because the Fourier heat transfer equation at short times and large dimensions does not have sufficient accuracy; a non-Fourier form of heat transfer equation has been used. Due to the fact that the beam is moving in x direction, the temperature distribution and the melting pool shape are not asymmetric. As a result, the problem is a transient threedimensional problem. Therefore, thermophysical properties such as heat conductivity coefficient, density and heat capacity are functions of temperature and material states. The enthalpy technique, used for the solution of phase change problems, has been used in an explicit finite volume form for the hyperbolic heat transfer equation. This technique has been used to calculate the transient temperature distribution in the semi-infinite body and the growth rate of the melt pool. In order to validate the numerical results, comparisons were made with experimental data. Finally, the results of this paper were compared with similar problem that has used the Fourier theory. The comparison shows the influence of infinite speed of heat propagation in Fourier theory on the temperature distribution and the melt pool size.

Keywords: Non-Fourier, Enthalpy technique, Melt pool, Radiational boundary condition

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371 Efficient Copy-Move Forgery Detection for Digital Images

Authors: Somayeh Sadeghi, Hamid A. Jalab, Sajjad Dadkhah

Abstract:

Due to availability of powerful image processing software and improvement of human computer knowledge, it becomes easy to tamper images. Manipulation of digital images in different fields like court of law and medical imaging create a serious problem nowadays. Copy-move forgery is one of the most common types of forgery which copies some part of the image and pastes it to another part of the same image to cover an important scene. In this paper, a copy-move forgery detection method proposed based on Fourier transform to detect forgeries. Firstly, image is divided to same size blocks and Fourier transform is performed on each block. Similarity in the Fourier transform between different blocks provides an indication of the copy-move operation. The experimental results prove that the proposed method works on reasonable time and works well for gray scale and colour images. Computational complexity reduced by using Fourier transform in this method.

Keywords: Copy-Move forgery, Digital Forensics, Image Forgery.

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370 A Low-Area Fully-Reconfigurable Hardware Design of Fast Fourier Transform System for 3GPP-LTE Standard

Authors: Xin-Yu Shih, Yue-Qu Liu, Hong-Ru Chou

Abstract:

This paper presents a low-area and fully-reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) hardware design for 3GPP-LTE communication standard. It can fully support 32 different FFT sizes, up to 2048 FFT points. Besides, a special processing element is developed for making reconfigurable computing characteristics possible, while first-in first-out (FIFO) scheduling scheme design technique is proposed for hardware-friendly FIFO resource arranging. In a synthesis chip realization via TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, the hardware circuit only occupies core area of 0.2325 mm2 and dissipates 233.5 mW at maximal operating frequency of 250 MHz.

Keywords: Reconfigurable, fast Fourier transform, single-path delay feedback, 3GPP-LTE.

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369 Ageing Deterioration of Hi gh-Density Polyethylene Cable Spacer under Salt Water Dip Wheel Test

Authors: P. Kaewchanthuek, R. Rawonghad, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of high-density polyethylene cable spacers for 22 kV distribution systems under salt water dip wheel test based on IEC 62217. The strength of anti-tracking and anti-erosion of cable spacer surface was studied in this study. During the test, dry band arc and corona discharge were observed on cable spacer surface. After 30,000 cycles of salt water dip wheel test, obviously surface erosion and tracking were observed especially on the ground end. Chemical analysis results by fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy showed chemical changed from oxidation and carbonization reaction on tested cable spacer. Increasing of C=O and C=C bonds confirmed occurrence of these reactions.

Keywords: Cable spacer, HDPE, ageing of cable spacer, salt water dip wheel test.

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368 Impact Modified Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(Lactic) Acid Composite

Authors: Mohammad D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Abdullah A. Mamun

Abstract:

In this study, composites were fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(lactic) acid by extrusion followed by injection moulding. Surface of the fiber was pre-treated by ultrasound in an alkali medium and treatment efficiency was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Effect of fiber treatment on composite was characterized by tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM) and impact strength (IS). Furthermore, biostrong impact modifier was incorporated into the treated fiber composite to improve its impact properties. Mechanical testing showed an improvement of up to 23.5% and 33.6% respectively for TS and TM of treated fiber composite above untreated fiber composite. On the other hand incorporation of impact modifier led to enhancement of about 20% above the initial IS of the treated fiber composite.

Keywords: Fiber treatment, impact modifier, natural fibers, ultrasound.

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