Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1004

Search results for: Shaft voltage

1004 Simulation of Static Frequency Converter for Synchronous Machine Operation and Investigation of Shaft Voltage

Authors: Arun Kumar Datta, M. A. Ansari, N. R. Mondal, B. V. Raghavaiah, Manisha Dubey, Shailendra Jain

Abstract:

This study is carried out to understand the effects of Static frequency converter (SFC) on large machine. SFC has a feature of four quadrant operations. By virtue of this it can be implemented to run a synchronous machine either as a motor or alternator. This dual mode operation helps a single machine to start & run as a motor and then it can be converted as an alternator whenever required. One such dual purpose machine is taken here for study. This machine is installed at a laboratory carrying out short circuit test on high power electrical equipment. SFC connected with this machine is broadly described in this paper. The same SFC has been modeled with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The data applied on this virtual model are the actual parameters from SFC and synchronous machine. After running the model, simulated machine voltage and current waveforms are validated with the real measurements. Processing of these waveforms is done through Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) which reveals that the waveforms are not sinusoidal rather they contain number of harmonics. These harmonics are the major cause of generating shaft voltage. It is known that bearings of electrical machine are vulnerable to current flow through it due to shaft voltage. A general discussion on causes of shaft voltage in perspective with this machine is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Alternators, AC-DC power conversion, capacitive coupling, electric discharge machining, frequency converter, Fourier transforms, inductive coupling, simulation, Shaft voltage, synchronous machines, static excitation, thyristor.

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1003 Study of Shaft Voltage on Short Circuit Alternator with Static Frequency Converter

Authors: Arun Kumar Datta, Manisha Dubey, Shailendra Jain

Abstract:

Electric machines are driven nowadays by static system popularly known as soft starter. This paper describes a thyristor based static frequency converter (SFC) to run a large synchronous machine installed at a short circuit test laboratory. Normally a synchronous machine requires prime mover or some other driving mechanism to run. This machine doesn’t need a prime mover as it operates in dual mode. In the beginning SFC starts this machine as a motor to achieve the full speed. Thereafter whenever required it can be converted to generator mode. This paper begins with the various starting methodology of synchronous machine. Detailed of SFC with different operational modes have been analyzed. Shaft voltage is a very common phenomenon for the machines with static drives. Various causes of shaft voltages in perspective with this machine are the main attraction of this paper.

Keywords: Capacitive coupling, electric discharge machining, inductive coupling, Shaft voltage, static frequency converter.

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1002 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang

Abstract:

In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: Cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force.

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1001 Assembly and Alignment of Ship Power Plants in Modern Shipbuilding

Authors: A. O. Mikhailov, K. N. Morozov

Abstract:

Fine alignment of main ship power plants mechanisms and shaft lines provides long-term and failure-free performance of propulsion system while fast and high-quality installation of mechanisms and shaft lines decreases common labor intensity. For checking shaft line allowed stress and setting its alignment it is required to perform calculations considering various stages of life cycle. In 2012 JSC SSTC developed special software complex “Shaftline” for calculation of alignment of having its own I/O interface and display of shaft line 3D model. Alignment of shaft line as per bearing loads is rather labor-intensive procedure. In order to decrease its duration, JSC SSTC developed automated alignment system from ship power plants mechanisms. System operation principle is based on automatic simulation of design load on bearings. Initial data for shaft line alignment can be exported to automated alignment system from PC “Shaft line”.

Keywords: ANSYS, propulsion shaft, shaftline alignment, ship power plants.

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1000 Real Time Monitoring of Long Slender Shaft by Distributed-Lumped Modeling Techniques

Authors: Sina Babadi, K. M. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to determine the stress levels at the end of a long slender shaft such as a drilling assembly used in the oil or gas industry using a mathematical model in real-time. The torsional deflection experienced by this type of drilling shaft (about 4 KM length and 20 cm diameter hollow shaft with a thickness of 1 cm) can only be determined using a distributed modeling technique. The main objective of this project is to calculate angular velocity and torque at the end of the shaft by TLM method and also analyzing of the behavior of the system by transient response. The obtained result is compared with lumped modeling technique the importance of these results will be evident only after the mentioned comparison. Two systems have different transient responses and in this project because of the length of the shaft transient response is very important.

Keywords: Distributed Lumped modeling, Lumped modeling, Drill string, Angular Velocity, Torque.

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999 Lateral and Longitudinal Vibration of a Rotating Flexible Beam Coupled with Torsional Vibration of a Flexible Shaft

Authors: Khaled Alnefaie

Abstract:

In this study, rotating flexible shaft-disk system having flexible beams is considered as a dynamic system. After neglecting nonlinear terms, torsional vibration of the shaft-disk system and lateral and longitudinal vibration of the flexible beam are still coupled through the motor speed. The system has three natural frequencies; the flexible shaft-disk system torsional natural frequency, the flexible beam lateral and longitudinal natural frequencies. Eigenvalue calculations show that while the shaft speed changes, torsional natural frequency of the shaft-disk system and the beam longitudinal natural frequency are not changing but the beam lateral natural frequency changes. Beam lateral natural frequency stays the same as the nonrotating beam lateral natural frequency ωb until the motor speed ωm is equal to ωb. After then ωb increases and remains equal to the motor speed ωm until the motor speed is equal to the shaft-disk system natural frequency ωT. Then the beam lateral natural frequency ωb becomes equal to the natural frequency ωT and stays same while the motor speed ωm is increased. Modal amplitudes and phase angles of the vibrations are also plotted against the motor speed ωm.

Keywords: Rotor dynamics, beam-shaft coupling, beam vibration, flexible shaft.

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998 Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigation of Voltage Sags

Authors: S. Ganesh, L. Raguraman, E. Anushya, J. krishnasree

Abstract:

Voltage sags are the most common power quality disturbance in the distribution system. It occurs due to the fault in the electrical network or by the starting of a large induction motor and this can be solved by using the custom power devices such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). In this paper DVR is proposed to compensate voltage sags on critical loads dynamically. The DVR consists of VSC, injection transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid battery). By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. The simulation and experimental results of a DVR using MATLAB software shows clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags.

Keywords: Dynamic voltage restorer, Voltage sags, Power quality, Injection methods.

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997 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao

Abstract:

In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: Crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft.

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996 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based On Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi

Abstract:

In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: Cyclic Loading, Finite Element Analysis, Prager Kinematic Hardening Model, Torsion of shaft.

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995 Experimental and Finite Element Study of Bending Fatigue Failure: A Case Study on Main Shaft of a Gyrator Crusher

Authors: Rahim Sotoudeh Bahreini, Alireza Foroughi Nematollahi, Akbar Jafari

Abstract:

This study investigates the mechanism of a Gyratory crusher-located in Golgohar mining and industrial Co. specifically with a focus on stresses distribution and fatigue failure of its main shaft. At first step, the cross section of the fractured shaft is studied, and the crack growth is analyzed. Then, the rotational motion of the shaft and the oil temperature of oil circuit of equipment are monitored. Condition monitoring is used to help finding a better modification. Based on the results of this study, the main causes of shaft failure are identified, and corrective solution is offered to increase crusher performance, especially its main shaft life. To predict the efficiency of the proposed modification, finite element simulation is performed, and its results are compared with the similar modified cases. The comparison and interpretation of simulation results confirm the efficiency of proposed corrective method.

Keywords: Fatigue failure, finite element method, gyratory crusher, condition monitoring.

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994 Artificial Voltage-Controlled Capacitance and Inductance using Voltage-Controlled Transconductance

Authors: Mansour I. Abbadi, Abdel-Rahman M. Jaradat

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique is proposed to implement an artificial voltage-controlled capacitance or inductance which can replace the well-known varactor diode in many applications. The technique is based on injecting the current of a voltage-controlled current source onto a fixed capacitor or inductor. Then, by controlling the transconductance of the current source by an external bias voltage, a voltage-controlled capacitive or inductive reactance is obtained. The proposed voltage-controlled reactance devices can be designed to work anywhere in the frequency spectrum. Practical circuits for the proposed voltage-controlled reactances are suggested and simulated.

Keywords: voltage-controlled capacitance, voltage-controlled inductance, varactor diode, variable transconductance.

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993 Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement Using SVC and TCSC

Authors: Mohammed Amroune, Hadi Sebaa, Tarek Bouktir

Abstract:

Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. The only way to save the system from voltage instability is to reduce the reactive power load or add additional reactive power to reaching the point of voltage collapse. In recent times, the application of FACTS devices is a very effective solution to prevent voltage instability due to their fast and very flexible control. In this paper, voltage stability assessment with SVC and TCSC devices is investigated and compared in the modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The fast voltage stability indicator (FVSI) is used to identify weakest bus and to assess the voltage stability of power system.

Keywords: SVC, TCSC, Voltage stability, Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), Reactive power.

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992 Failure Analysis and Fatigue Life Estimation of a Shaft of a Rotary Draw Bending Machine

Authors: B. Engel, Sara Salman Hassan Al-Maeeni

Abstract:

Human consumption of the Earth's resources increases the need for a sustainable development as an important ecological, social, and economic theme. Re-engineering of machine tools, in terms of design and failure analysis, is defined as steps performed on an obsolete machine to return it to a new machine with the warranty that matches the customer requirement. To understand the future fatigue behavior of the used machine components, it is important to investigate the possible causes of machine parts failure through design, surface, and material inspections. In this study, the failure modes of the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine are inspected. Furthermore, stress and deflection analysis of the shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending loads are carried out by an analytical method and compared with a finite element analysis method. The theoretical fatigue strength, correction factors, and fatigue life sustained by the shaft before damaged are estimated by creating a stress-cycle (S-N) diagram. In conclusion, it is seen that the shaft can work in the second life, but it needs some surface treatments to increase the reliability and fatigue life.

Keywords: Failure analysis, fatigue life, FEM analysis, shaft, stress analysis.

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991 Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar

Authors: Thanawat Chuleekiat

Abstract:

Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants and contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data were also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.

Keywords: Piled foundation, weathered limestone, shaft friction, rock socket, pile load test.

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990 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling

Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao

Abstract:

Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.

Keywords: Coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts.

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989 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3 and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, Holding voltage, Latch-up.

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988 Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Authors: Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Abstract:

The vibration characteristics of a functionally graded (FG) rotor model having porosities and micro-voids is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The FG shaft is mounted with a steel disc located at the midspan. The shaft ends are supported on isotropic bearings. The FG material is composed of a metallic (stainless-steel) and ceramic phase (zirconium oxide) as its constituent phases. The layer wise material property variation is governed by power law. Material property equations are developed for the porosity modelling. Python code is developed to assign the material properties to each layer including the effect of porosities. ANSYS commercial software is used to extract the natural frequencies and whirl frequencies for the FG shaft system. The obtained results show the influence of porosity volume fraction and power-law index, on the vibration characteristics of the ceramic-based FG shaft system.

Keywords: Finite element method, functionally graded material, porosity volume fraction, power law.

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987 Factor Resistance Comparison of a Long Shaft in 955 and 1055 John Deere Grain Combine

Authors: M. Azadbakht, M. E. Shayan, H. Jafari, E. Ghajarjazi, A. Kiapei

Abstract:

Transmission shafts are affected by various forces, for example, during acceleration or sudden breaks, bending during transportation, vertical forces that lead to cuts. One of the main failures in combines is breaking shaft which repairmen refer it. Structural resistance of canal against torque is very important in the beginning of the movement. For analyzing stress, a typical sample from a type of combine was selected, called JD955 combine. Long shaft in this combine was analyzed with finite element method by Ansys13 generic package under static load. Conducted analysis showed that there is a maximum stress in contact surfaces of indentations and also in place of changing diameter. Safety factor value is low in parts of the shaft and this increases the probability of failure at these points. To improve the conditions with the least cost and an approach of product improvement, using alternative alloy is important.

Keywords: John Deere, Ansys, Shaft, Stress, Grain Combine harvester, Finite element, Failure.

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986 An Analytical Comparison between Open Loop, PID and Fuzzy Logic Based DC-DC Boost Convertor

Authors: Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan, Fahad Sherwani

Abstract:

This paper explains about the voltage output for DC to DC boost converter between open loop, PID controller and fuzzy logic controller through Matlab Simulink. Simulink input voltage was set at 12V and the voltage reference was set at 24V. The analysis on the deviation of voltage resulted that the difference between reference voltage setting and the output voltage is always lower. Comparison between open loop, PID and FLC shows that, the open loop circuit having a bit higher on the deviation of voltage. The PID circuit boosts for FLC has a lesser deviation of voltage and proved that it is such a better performance on control the deviation of voltage during the boost mode.

Keywords: Boost Convertors, Power Electronics, PID, Fuzzy logic, Open loop.

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985 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

Keywords: Torsional vibration, full-size model, scale model, scaling laws.

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984 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage.

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983 Technique for Voltage Control in Distribution System

Authors: S. Thongkeaw, M. Boonthienthong

Abstract:

This paper presents the techniques for voltage control in distribution system. It is integrated in the distribution management system. Voltage is an important parameter for the control of electrical power systems. The distribution network operators have the responsibility to regulate the voltage supplied to consumer within statutory limits. Traditionally, the On-Load Tap Changer (OLTC) transformer equipped with automatic voltage control (AVC) relays is the most popular and effective voltage control device. A static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) may be equipped with several controllers to perform multiple control functions. Static Var Compensation (SVC) is regulation slopes and available margins for var dispatch. The voltage control in distribution networks is established as a centralized analytical function in this paper. 

Keywords: Voltage Control, Reactive Power, Distribution System.

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982 A High Precision Temperature Insensitive Current and Voltage Reference Generator

Authors: Kimberly Jane S. Uy, Patricia Angela Reyes-Abu, Wen Yaw Chung

Abstract:

A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.

Keywords: Current reference, voltage reference, threshold voltage, temperature compensation, mobility.

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981 A Study on Unidirectional Analog Output Voltage Inverter for Capacitive Load

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Nam-HeeByeon, Jung-Seop Lee, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

For Common R or R-L load to apply arbitrary voltage, the bridge traditional inverters don’t have any difficulties by PWM method. However for driving some piezoelectric actuator, arbitrary voltage not a pulse but a steady voltage should be applied. Piezoelectric load is considered as R-C load and its voltage does not decrease even though the applied voltage decreases. Therefore it needs some special inverter with circuit that can discharge the capacitive energy. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, it becomes more difficult problem. In this paper, a charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator is proposed. The circuit has charging and discharging switches for increasing and decreasing output voltage. With the proposed simple circuit, the load voltage can have any unidirectional level with tens of bandwidth because the load voltage can be adjusted by switching the charging and discharging switch appropriately. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, analog output voltage, sinusoidal drive, piezoelectric load, discharging circuit.

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980 Strength Optimization of Induction Hardened Splined Shaft – Material and Geometric Aspects

Authors: I. Barsoum, F. Khan

Abstract:

the current study presents a modeling framework to determine the torsion strength of an induction hardened splined shaft by considering geometry and material aspects with the aim to optimize the static torsion strength by selection of spline geometry and hardness depth. Six different spline geometries and seven different hardness profiles including non-hardened and throughhardened shafts have been considered. The results reveal that the torque that causes initial yielding of the induction hardened splined shaft is strongly dependent on the hardness depth and the geometry of the spline teeth. Guidelines for selection of the appropriate hardness depth and spline geometry are given such that an optimum static torsion strength of the component can be achieved.

Keywords: Static strength, splined shaft, torsion, induction hardening, hardness profile, finite element, optimization, design.

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979 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for I/O and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun-Young Kim, Chung-Kwang Lee, Han-Hee Cho, Sang-Woon Cho, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp.

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978 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), holding Voltage.

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977 Optimization of Tolerance Grades of a Bearing and Shaft Assembly in a Washing Machine with Regard to Fatigue Life

Authors: M. Cangi, T. Dolar, C. Ersoy, Y. E. Aydogdu, A. I. Aydeniz, A. Mugan

Abstract:

The drum is one of the critical parts in a washing machine in which the clothes are washed and spin by the rotational movement. It is activated by the drum shaft which is attached to an electric motor and subjected to dynamic loading. Being one of the critical components, failures of the drum require costly repairs of dynamic components. In this study, tolerance bands between the drum shaft and its two bearings were examined to develop a relationship between the fatigue life of the shaft and the interaction tolerances. Optimization of tolerance bands was completed in consideration of the fatigue life of the shaft as the cost function. The following methodology is followed: multibody dynamic model of a washing machine was constructed and used to calculate dynamic loading on the components. Then, these forces were used in finite element analyses to calculate the stress field in critical components which was used for fatigue life predictions. The factors affecting the fatigue life were examined to find optimum tolerance grade for a given test condition. Numerical results were verified by experimental observations.

Keywords: Fatigue life, finite element analysis, tolerance analysis, optimization.

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976 On the Reliability of Low Voltage Network with Small Scale Distributed Generators

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola Lj.Rajakovic

Abstract:

Since the 80s huge efforts have been made to utilize renewable energy sources to generate electric power. This paper reports some aspects of integration of the distributed generators into the low voltage distribution networks. An assessment of impact of the distributed generators on the reliability indices of low voltage network is performed. Results obtained from case study using low voltage network, are presented and discussed.

Keywords: low voltage network, distributed generation, reliability indices

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975 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage.

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