Search results for: Emulsified Fuel
628 Impact of Combustion of Water in Fuel on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (Pah-s)Precursors- Formation
Authors: Abdulaziz H. El-Sinawi
Abstract:Some of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the strongest known carcinogens compounds; the majority of them are mostly produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels; Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) where diesel emission is one of the main sources of such compounds available in the ambient air. There is a big concern about the increasing concentration of PAHs in the environment. Researchers are trying to explore optimal methods to reduce those pollutants and improve the quality of air. Water blended fuel is one of the possible approaches to reduce emission of PAHs from the combustion of diesel in urban and domestic vehicles. In this work a modeling study was conducted using CHEMKIN-PRO software to simulate spray combustion at similar diesel engine conditions. Surrogate fuel of (80 % n-heptane and 20 % toluene) was used due to detailed kinetic and thermodynamic data needed for modeling is available for this kind of fuel but not available for diesel. An emulsified fuel with 3, 5, 8, 10 and 20 % water by volume is used as an engine feed for this study. The modeling results show that water has a significant effect on reducing engine soot and PAHs precursors formation up to certain extent.
Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), DieselEngine, Emission, Surrogate Fuel, Emulsified Fuel, Soot precursors, CombustionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1878
627 Optimization of Fuel Consumption of a Bus used in City Line with Regulation of Driving Characteristics
Authors: Muammer Ozkan, Orkun Ozener, Irfan Yavasliol
Abstract:The fuel cost of the motor vehicle operating on its common route is an important part of the operating cost. Therefore, the importance of the fuel saving is increasing day by day. One of the parameters which improve fuel saving is the regulation of driving characteristics. The number and duration of stop is increased by the heavy traffic load. It is possible to improve the fuel saving with regulation of traffic flow and driving characteristics. The researches show that the regulation of the traffic flow decreases fuel consumption, but it is not enough to improve fuel saving without the regulation of driving characteristics. This study analyses the fuel consumption of two trips of city bus operating on its common route and determines the effect of traffic density and driving characteristics on fuel consumption. Finally it offers some suggestions about regulation of driving characteristics to improve the fuel saving. Fuel saving is determined according to the results obtained from simulation program. When experimental and simulation results are compared, it has been found that the fuel saving was reached up the to 40 percent ratios.
Keywords: Fuel Consumption, Fuel Economy, Driving Characteristics, OptimizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1716
626 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx
Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee, Minjun Kwon
A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology showed very low NOx emission level, about 12 ppm, when light oil is used as a fuel.
Keywords: Burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation, fuel rich.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2802
625 Online Measurement of Fuel Stack Elongation
Authors: Sung Ho Ahn, Jintae Hong, Chang Young Joung, Tae Ho Yang, Sung Ho Heo, Seo Yun Jang
The performances of nuclear fuels and materials are qualified at an irradiation system in research reactors operating under the commercial nuclear power plant conditions. Fuel centerline temperature, coolant temperature, neutron flux, deformations of fuel stack and swelling are important parameters needed to analyze the nuclear fuel performances. The dimensional stability of nuclear fuels is a key parameter measuring the fuel densification and swelling. In this study, the fuel stack elongation is measured using a LVDT. A mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is developed. The performances of mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is evaluated by experiments.
Keywords: Axial deformation, elongation measurement, in-pile instrumentation, LVDT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1097
624 Effect of Fuel Lean Reburning Process on NOx Reduction and CO Emission
Authors: Changyeop Lee, Sewon Kim
Reburning is a useful technology in reducing nitric oxide through injection of a secondary hydrocarbon fuel. In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of fuel lean reburning on NOx/CO reduction in LNG flame. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a co-flow swirl burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. Tests were conducted using LNG gas as the reburn fuel as well as the main fuel. The effects of reburn fuel fraction and injection manner of the reburn fuel were studied when the fuel lean reburning system was applied. The paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. At steady state, temperature distribution and emission formation in the furnace have been measured and compared. This paper makes clear that in order to decrease both NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust when the pulsated fuel lean reburning system was adapted, it is important that the control of some factors such as frequency and duty ratio. Also it shows the fuel lean reburning is also effective method to reduce NOx as much as reburning.
Keywords: Fuel lean reburn, NOx, CO, LNG flame.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2093
623 Thermo Mechanical Design and Analysis of PEM Fuel cell Plate
Authors: Saravana Kannan Thangavelu
Abstract:Fuel and oxidant gas delivery plate, or fuel cell plate, is a key component of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. To manufacture low-cost and high performance fuel cell plates, advanced computer modeling and finite element structure analysis are used as virtual prototyping tools for the optimization of the plates at the early design stage. The present study examines thermal stress analysis of the fuel cell plates that are produced using a patented, low-cost fuel cell plate production technique based on screen-printing. Design optimization is applied to minimize the maximum stress within the plate, subject to strain constraint with both geometry and material parameters as design variables. The study reveals the characteristics of the printed plates, and provides guidelines for the structure and material design of the fuel cell plate.
Keywords: Design optimization, FEA, PEM fuel cell, Thermal stressProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2046
622 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique
Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro
Abstract:In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.
Keywords: Electrophoretic mobility, essential oil, nanoemulsion, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Tween 80, zeta potential.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1885
621 A Comparison of Fuel Usage and Harvest Capacity in Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters
Authors: Brian H. Marsh
Self-propelled forage harvesters in the 850 horsepower range were tested over three years for fuel consumption, throughput and quality of chop for corn silage. Cut length had a significant effect on fuel consumption, throughput and some aspects of chop quality. Measure cut length was often different than theoretical length of cut. Where cut length was equivalent fuel consumption and throughput were equivalent across brands. Shortening cut length from 17 to 11mm increases fuel consumption 53 percent measured as Mg of silage harvested per gallon of fuel used and a 42 percent decrease in capacity as tons of fresh material per hour run time.
Keywords: Corn silage, forage harvester, fuel use, length of cut.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4859
620 Irreversibility and Electrochemical Modeling of GT-SOFC Hybrid System and Parametric Analysis on Performance of Fuel Cell
Authors: R. Mahjoub, K. Maghsoudi Mehraban
Abstract:Since the heart of the hybrid system is the fuel cell and it has vital impact on efficiency and performance of cycle, in this study, the major modeling of electrochemical reaction within the fuel cell is analyzed. Also, solid oxide fuel cell is integrated with the gas turbine and thermodynamic analysis on different elements of hybrid system is applied. Next, in predefined operational points of hybrid cycle, the simulation results are obtained. Then, different source of irreversibility in fuel cell is modeled and influence of different major parameters on different irreversibility is computed and applied. Then, the effect of important parameters such as thickness and surface of electrolyte fuel cell are simulated in fuel cell and its dependency to these parameters is explained. At the end of the paper, different impact of parameters on fuel cell with a gas turbine and current density and voltage of fuel cell are simulated.
Keywords: Electrochemical analysis, Gas turbine, Hybrid system, Irreversibility analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1327
619 The Fuel Consumption and Non Linear Model Metropolitan and Large City Transportation System
Authors: Mudjiastuti Handajani
Abstract:The national economy development affects the vehicle ownership which ultimately increases fuel consumption. The rise of the vehicle ownership is dominated by the increasing number of motorcycles. This research aims to analyze and identify the characteristics of fuel consumption, the city transportation system, and to analyze the relationship and the effect of the city transportation system on the fuel consumption. A multivariable analysis is used in this study. The data analysis techniques include: a Multivariate Multivariable Analysis by using the R software. More than 84% of fuel on Java is consumed in metropolitan and large cities. The city transportation system variables that strongly effect the fuel consumption are population, public vehicles, private vehicles and private bus. This method can be developed to control the fuel consumption by considering the urban transport system and city tipology. The effect can reducing subsidy on the fuel consumption, increasing state economic.
Keywords: city, consumption, fuel, transportationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1623
618 Design and Simulation of Air-Fuel Ratio Control System for Distributorless CNG Engine
Authors: Ei Ei Moe, Zaw Min Aung, Kyawt Khin
Abstract:This paper puts forward one kind of air-fuel ratio control method with PI controller. With the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK software, the mathematical model of air-fuel ratio control system for distributorless CNG engine is constructed. The objective is to maintain cylinder-to-cylinder air-fuel ratio at a prescribed set point, determined primarily by the state of the Three- Way-Catalyst (TWC), so that the pollutants in the exhaust are removed with the highest efficiency. The concurrent control of airfuel under transient conditions could be implemented by Proportional and Integral (PI) controller. The simulation result indicates that the control methods can easily eliminate the air/fuel maldistribution and maintain the air/fuel ratio at the stochiometry within minimum engine events.
Keywords: Distributorless CNG Engine, Mathematical Modelof Air-fuel control, MATLAB/SIMULINK, PI controllerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4336
617 An Empirical Dynamic Fuel Cell Model Used for Power System Verification in Aerospace
Authors: Giuliano Raimondo, Jörg Wangemann, Peer Drechsel
In systems development involving Fuel Cells generators, it is important to have from an early stage of the project a dynamic model for the electrical behavior of the stack to be shared between involved development parties. It allows independent and early design and tests of fuel cell related power electronic. This paper presents an empirical Fuel Cell system model derived from characterization tests on a real system. Moreover, it is illustrated how the obtained model is used to build and validate a real-time Fuel Cell system emulator which is used for aerospace electrical integration testing activities.
Keywords: Fuel cell dynamics, real time simulation, fuel cell, modelling, testing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 913
616 Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Producer Gas and Esters of Hingan (Balanites)Oil in Dual Fuel Mode
Authors: Samir J. Deshmukh, Lalit B. Bhuyar, Shashank B. Thakre
Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used for heating purposes and as supplementary or sole fuel in internal combustion engines. In this study, the virgin biomass obtained from hingan shell is used as the feedstock for gasifier to generate producer gas. The gasifier-engine system is operated on diesel and on esters of vegetable oil of hingan in liquid fuel mode operation and then on liquid fuel and producer gas combination in dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the CI engine is analyzed by running the engine in liquid fuel mode operation and in dual fuel mode operation at different load conditions with respect to maximum diesel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. It was observed that specific energy consumption in the dual fuel mode of operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine using diesel or hingan oil methyl ester (HOME) is higher than that of dual fuel mode operation. A diesel replacement in the tune of 60% in dual fuel mode is possible with the use of hingan shell producer gas. The emissions parameters such CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and smoke are higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to that of liquid fuel mode.
Keywords: Esters, performance, producer gas, vegetable oil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1748
615 Evaluation of Model and Performance of Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle in Different Drive Cycles
Authors: Fathollah Ommi, Golnaz Pourabedin, Koros Nekofa
Abstract:In recent years fuel cell vehicles are rapidly appearing all over the globe. In less than 10 years, fuel cell vehicles have gone from mere research novelties to operating prototypes and demonstration models. At the same time, government and industry in development countries have teamed up to invest billions of dollars in partnerships intended to commercialize fuel cell vehicles within the early years of the 21st century. The purpose of this study is evaluation of model and performance of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle in different drive cycles. A fuel cell system model developed in this work is a semi-experimental model that allows users to use the theory and experimental relationships in a fuel cell system. The model can be used as part of a complex fuel cell vehicle model in advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR). This work reveals that the fuel consumption and energy efficiency vary in different drive cycles. Arising acceleration and speed in a drive cycle leads to Fuel consumption increase. In addition, energy losses in drive cycle relates to fuel cell system power request. Parasitic power in different parts of fuel cell system will increase when power request increases. Finally, most of energy losses in drive cycle occur in fuel cell system because of producing a lot of energy by fuel cell stack.
Keywords: Drive cycle, Energy efficiency, energy consumption, Fuel cell system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1554
614 Performance and Emission Study of Linseed Oilas a Fuel for CI Engine
Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Naveen Kumar, Bhupendra Singh Chauhan
Abstract:Increased energy demand and the concern about environment friendly technology, renewable bio-fuels are better alternative to petroleum products. In the present study linseed oil was used as alternative source for diesel engine fuel and the results were compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emissions parameters such as CO, unburned hydro carbon (UBHC), NOx, CO2 and exhaust temperature were compared. BTE of the engine was lower and BSFC was higher when the engine was fueled with Linseed oil compared to diesel fuel. Emission characteristics are better than diesel fuel. NOx formation by using linseed oil during the experiment was lower than diesel fuel. Linseed oil is non edible oil, so it can be used as an extender of diesel fuel energy source for small and medium energy needs.
Keywords: Bio-fuel, exhaust emission, linseed oil, triglyceride.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3720
613 Thermo-chemical Characteristics of Powder Fabricated by Oxidation of Spent PWR Fuel
Authors: Geun-Il Park, Jae-Won Lee, Dou-Youn Lee, Jung-Won Lee, Kwang-Wook Kim, Kee-Chan Song
Abstract:Thermochemcial characteristics of powder fabricated using oxidation treatment of spent PWR fuel and SIMFUEL were evaluated for recycling of spent fuel such as DUPIC process. Especially, the influence of spent fuel burn-ups on the powder fabrication characteristics was experimentally evaluated, ranging from 27,300 to 65,000 MWd/tU. Densities of powder manufactured from an oxidation, OREOX and the milling processes at the same process conditions were compared as a function of the fuel burn-ups respectively. Also, based on chemical analysis results, homogeneity of fissile elements in oxidized powder was confirmed.
Keywords: Spent PWR fuel, DUPIC, Oxidation, OREOX, Powder, Chemical analysisProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1572
612 Study of Temperature Distribution in Coolant Channel of Nuclear Power with Fuel Cylinder Element Using Fluent Software
Authors: Elham Zamiri
Abstract:In this research, we have focused on numeral simulation of a fuel rod in order to examine distribution of heat temperature in components of fuel rod by Fluent software by providing steady state, single phase fluid flow, frequency heat flux in a fuel rod in nuclear reactor to numeral simulation. Results of examining different layers of a fuel rod consist of fuel layer, gap, pod, and fluid cooling flow, also examining thermal properties and fluids such as heat transition rate and pressure drop. The obtained results through analytical method and results of other sources have been compared and have appropriate correspondence. Results show that using heavy water as cooling fluid along with few layers of gas and pod have the ability of reducing the temperature from above 300 ◦C to 70 ◦C. This investigation is developable for any geometry and material used in the nuclear reactor.
Keywords: Nuclear fuel fission, numberal simulation, fuel rod, reactor, fluent software.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 546
611 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant
Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu
Abstract:The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.
Keywords: Used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container, deep geological repository.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 751
610 Hysteresis Control of Power Conditioning Unit for Fuel Cell Distributed Generation System
Authors: Kanhu Charan Bhuyan, Subhransu Padhee, Rajesh Kumar Patjoshi, Kamalakanta Mahapatra
Fuel cell is an emerging technology in the field of renewable energy sources which has the capacity to replace conventional energy generation sources. Fuel cell utilizes hydrogen energy to produce electricity. The electricity generated by the fuel cell can’t be directly used for a specific application as it needs proper power conditioning. Moreover, the output power fluctuates with different operating conditions. To get a stable output power at an economic rate, power conditioning circuit is essential for fuel cell. This paper implements a two-staged power conditioning unit for fuel cell based distributed generation using hysteresis current control technique.
Keywords: Fuel cell, power conditioning unit, hysteresis control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2309
609 Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data
Authors: Ayudhia P. Gusti, Semin
It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. How to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized is the question that arises. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time, and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The presented speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and to reduce the cost of fuel consumption.
Keywords: Maritime transportation, reducing fuel, shipping log data, speed optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1532
608 A Review on Design and Fabrication of Fuel Fired Crucible Furnace
Authors: Oluwaseyi O. Taiwo, Adeolu A. Adediran, Abayomi A. Akinwande, Frank C. Okoyeh
The use of fuel fired crucible furnace is essential in the foundries of developing countries owing to the luxury of electricity. Fuel fired crucible furnace are commonly used in recycling, casting, research and training activities in tertiary institutions, therefore, several attempts are being made to improve the performance and service life of fuel fired crucible. The current study reviews the sequential stages involved in the designs and fabrication of fuel fired crucible furnace which include; design, material selection, modelling and simulation as well as performance evaluation. The study shows that selecting appropriate materials for the different units in the fabrication process is important to the efficiency and service life of fuel fired crucible furnaces. Also, efficiency and performance of fuel fired furnaces are independent of cost of fabrication and their capacity. The importance of modelling and simulation tools in the fabrication process are identified while their non-frequent usage in several works is observed. The need to widen performance evaluations in further studies beyond efficiency determination to give a more detailed assessment of fuel fired crucible furnaces is also observed.
Keywords: Crucible furnace, furnace design, fabrication, fuel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 27
607 Influence of Driving Strategy on Power and Fuel Consumption of Lightweight PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain
Authors: Suhadiyana Hanapi, Alhassan Salami Tijani, W. A. N Wan Mohamed
Abstract:In this paper, a prototype PEM fuel cell vehicle integrated with a 1 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack as a main power sources has been developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The test vehicle is equipped with a PEM fuel cell system that provides electric power to a brushed DC motor. This vehicle was designed to compete with industrial lightweight vehicle with the target of consuming least amount of energy and high performance. Individual variations in driving style have a significant impact on vehicle energy efficiency and it is well established from the literature. The primary aim of this study was to assesses the power and fuel consumption of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle operating at three difference driving technique (i.e. 25 km/h constant speed, 22-28 km/h speed range, 20-30 km/h speed range). The goal is to develop the best driving strategy to maximize performance and minimize fuel consumption for the vehicle system. The relationship between power demand and hydrogen consumption has also been discussed. All the techniques can be evaluated and compared on broadly similar terms. Automatic intelligent controller for driving prototype fuel cell vehicle on different obstacle while maintaining all systems at maximum efficiency was used. The result showed that 25 km/h constant speed was identified for optimal driving with less fuel consumption.
Keywords: Prototype fuel cell electric vehicles, energy efficient, control/driving technique, fuel economy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1902
606 Electrical Performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Unit with Non-Uniform Inlet Flow and High Fuel Utilization
Authors: Ping Yuan, Mu-Sheng Chiang, Syu-Fang Liu, Shih-Bin Wang, Ming-Jun Kuo
Abstract:This study investigates the electrical performance of a planar solid oxide fuel cell unit with cross-flow configuration when the fuel utilization gets higher and the fuel inlet flow are non-uniform. A software package in this study solves two-dimensional, simultaneous, partial differential equations of mass, energy, and electro-chemistry, without considering stack direction variation. The results show that the fuel utilization increases with a decrease in the molar flow rate, and the average current density decreases when the molar flow rate drops. In addition, non-uniform Pattern A will induce more severe happening of non-reaction area in the corner of the fuel exit and the air inlet. This non-reaction area deteriorates the average current density and then deteriorates the electrical performance to –7%.
Keywords: Performance, Solid oxide fuel cell, non-uniform, fuelutilizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1199
605 Reducing Energy Consumption and GHG Emission by Integration of Flare Gas with Fuel Gas Network in Refinery
Authors: N. Tahouni, M. Gholami, M. H. Panjeshahi
Gas flaring is one of the most GHG emitting sources in the oil and gas industries. It is also a major way for wasting such an energy that could be better utilized and even generates revenue. Minimize flaring is an effective approach for reducing GHG emissions and also conserving energy in flaring systems. Integrating waste and flared gases into the fuel gas networks (FGN) of refineries is an efficient tool. A fuel gas network collects fuel gases from various source streams and mixes them in an optimal manner, and supplies them to different fuel sinks such as furnaces, boilers, turbines, etc. In this article we use fuel gas network model proposed by Hasan et al. as a base model and modify some of its features and add constraints on emission pollution by gas flaring to reduce GHG emissions as possible. Results for a refinery case study showed that integration of flare gas stream with waste and natural gas streams to construct an optimal FGN can significantly reduce total annualized cost and flaring emissions.
Keywords: Flaring, Fuel gas network, GHG emissions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1269
604 Expert System for Sintering Process Control based on the Information about solid-fuel Flow Composition
Authors: Yendiyarov Sergei, Zobnin Boris, Petrushenko Sergei
Abstract:Usually, the solid-fuel flow of an iron ore sinter plant consists of different types of the solid-fuels, which differ from each other. Information about the composition of the solid-fuel flow usually comes every 8-24 hours. It can be clearly seen that this information cannot be used to control the sintering process in real time. Due to this, we propose an expert system which uses indirect measurements from the process in order to obtain the composition of the solid-fuel flow by solving an optimization task. Then this information can be used to control the sintering process. The proposed technique can be successfully used to improve sinter quality and reduce the amount of solid-fuel used by the process.
Keywords: sintering process, particle swarm optimization, optimal control, expert system, solid-fuelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1771
603 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT
Authors: Imane Khalil, Quinn Pratt
Abstract:In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A computational model of a Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assembly is modeled using FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics package. Heat transfer simulations were performed on the two-dimensional 9x9 spent fuel assembly to predict the maximum cladding temperature for different input to the FLUENT model. Uncertainty quantification is used to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature profile inside the assembly.
Keywords: Spent nuclear fuel, conduction, heat transfer, uncertainty quantification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 722
602 Experimental Investigations on the Use of Preheated Neat Karanja Oil as Fuel in a Compression Ignition Engine
Authors: Sagar Pramodrao Kadu, Rajendra H. Sarda
Abstract:The concerns about clean environment and high oil prices driving forces for the research on alternative fuels. The research efforts directed towards improving the performance of C.I engines using vegetable oil as fuel. The paper deals results of performance of a four stroke, single cylinder C.I. engine by preheated neat Karanja oil is done from 30 o C to 100 o C. The performance of the engine was studied for a speed range between 1500 to 4000 rpm, with the engine operated under full load conditions. The performance parameters considered for comparing are brake specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, brake power, Nox emission of the engine. The engine offers lower thermal efficiency when it is powered by preheated neat Karanja oil at higher speed. The power developed and Nox emission increase with the increase in the fuel inlet temperature and the specific fuel consumption is higher than diesel fuel operation at all elevated fuel inlet temperature.
Keywords: Alternative fuel, Compression ignition engine, neatKaranja oil, preheating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2096
601 Experimental Study of Fuel Tank Filling
Authors: Maurizio Mastroianni, Lou Savoni, Paul Henshaw, Gary W. Rankin
Abstract:The refueling of a transparent rectangular fuel tank fitted with a standard filler pipe and roll-over valve was experimentally studied. A fuel-conditioning cart, capable of handling fuels of different Reid vapor pressure at a constant temperature, was used to dispense fuel at the desired rate. The experimental protocol included transient recording of the tank and filler tube pressures while video recording the flow patterns in the filler tube and tank during the refueling process. This information was used to determine the effect of changes in the vent tube diameter, fuel-dispense flow rate and fuel Reid vapor pressure on the pressure-time characteristics and the occurrence of premature fuel filling shut-off and fuel spill-back. Pressure-time curves for the case of normal shut-off demonstrated the classic, three-phase characteristic noted in the literature. The variation of the maximum values of tank dome and filler tube pressures are analyzed in relation to the occurrence of premature shut-off.
Keywords: experimental study, fuel tank filling, premature shutoff, spill-backProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4060
600 CFD Simulation the Thermal-Hydraulic Characteristic within Fuel Rod Bundle near Grid Spacers
Authors: David Lávicka
Abstract:This paper looks into detailed investigation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the flow field in a fuel rod model, especially near the spacer. The area investigate represents a source of information on the velocity flow field, vortex, and on the amount of heat transfer into the coolant all of which are critical for the design and improvement of the fuel rod in nuclear power plants. The flow field investigation uses three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with the Reynolds stresses turbulence model (RSM). The fuel rod model incorporates a vertical annular channel where three different shapes of spacers are used; each spacer shape is addressed individually. These spacers are mutually compared in consideration of heat transfer capabilities between the coolant and the fuel rod model. The results are complemented with the calculated heat transfer coefficient in the location of the spacer and along the stainless-steel pipe.
Keywords: CFD, fuel rod model, heat transfer, spacerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1674
599 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine
Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin
The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine. However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.
Keywords: Diesel engine, dual fuel engine, emissions, technical characteristics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 638