Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30127
Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro

Abstract:

In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: Electrophoretic mobility, essential oil, nanoemulsion, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Tween 80, zeta potential.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124113

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1502

References:


[1] J. Mailina, J. Abd. Majid, S. Saidatul Husni, Y. S. Chang, M. A. Nor Azah, H. Nor Hasnida, A. Abu Said, and M. A. Mohamad Nasir, “Profiles of selected supreme agarwood oils from Malaysia.” Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), 2009.
[2] R. Naef, “The volatile and semi-volatile constituents of agarwood, the infected heartwood of Aquilaria species: a review,” Flavour Fragr. J., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 73–87, 2011.
[3] S. N. Tajuddin, N. S. Muhamad, M. A. Yarmo, and M. M. Yusoff, “Characterization of the Chemical Constituents of Agarwood Oils from Malaysia by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry,” Mendeleev Commun., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 51–52, 2013.
[4] W. Hidayat, A. Y. M. Shakaff, M. N. Ahmad, and A. H. Adom, “Classification of agarwood oil using an electronic nose.,” Sensors (Basel)., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 4675–85, 2010.
[5] R. E. Wrolstad, E. A. Decker, S. J. Schwartz, and P. Sporns, Handbook of Food Analytical Chemistry, Water, Proteins, Enzymes, Lipids, and Carbohydrates. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
[6] N. C. Stellwagen, “Effect of the electric field on the apparent mobility of large DNA fragments in agarose gels,” Biopolymers, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 2243–2255, 1985.
[7] J.-L. Viovy, “Electrophoresis of DNA and other polyelectrolytes: Physical mechanisms,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 813–872, 2000.
[8] P. Ghosh, Colloid and Interface Science. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2009.
[9] S. Ariyaprakai, Mechanisms of oil transport by micelles in oil-in-water emulsions. ProQuest, 2007.
[10] A. Takamura, F. Ishii, S. Noro, M. Tanifuji, and S. Nakajima, “Study of intravenous hyperalimentation: effect of selected amino acids on the stability of intravenous fat emulsions.,” J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 91–4, 1984.
[11] BioRad and Laboratories, “A Guide to Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Detection Part I : Theory and Product Selection Part II : Methods Part III : Troubleshooting Part IV : Appendices,” 2012..
[12] T. Tadros, P. Izquierdo, J. Esquena, and C. Solans, “Formation and stability of nano-emulsions.,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., vol. 108–109, pp. 303–18, 2004.
[13] D. J. McClements, C. C. Akoh, and D. B. Min, “Lipid-based emulsions and emulsifiers.,” no. Ed.2, pp. 63–101, 2002.
[14] T. G. Mason, J. N. Wilking, K. Meleson, C. B. Chang, and S. M. Graves, “Nanoemulsions: formation, structure, and physical properties,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, vol. 18, no. 41, pp. R635–R666, 2006.
[15] J. Rao and D. J. McClements, “Formation of flavor oil microemulsions, nanoemulsions and emulsions: influence of composition and preparation method.,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 5026–35, 2011.
[16] T. P. Sari, B. Mann, R. Kumar, R. R. B. Singh, R. Sharma, M. Bhardwaj, and S. Athira, “Preparation and characterization of nanoemulsion encapsulating curcumin,” Food Hydrocoll., vol. 43, pp. 540–546, 2015.
[17] S. Mun, E. A. Decker, and D. J. McClements, “Influence of droplet characteristics on the formation of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by surfactant-chitosan layers.,” Langmuir, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 6228–34, 2005.
[18] A. Gürses, K. Doymuş, and S. Bayrakçeken, “Evaluation of response of brown coal to selective oil agglomeration by zeta potential measurements of the agglomerates,” Fuel, vol. 76, no. 14–15, pp. 1439–1444, 1997.
[19] J. M. de Morais, O. D. H. dos Santos, T. Delicato, and P. A. da Rocha‐Filho, “Characterization and Evaluation of Electrolyte Influence on Canola Oil/Water Nano‐Emulsion,” J. Dispers. Sci. Technol., vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1009–1014, 2006.