Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 370

Search results for: Centrifugal pump setup

370 Experimental Set-Up for Investigation of Fault Diagnosis of a Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Maamar Ali Saud Al Tobi, Geraint Bevan, K. P. Ramachandran, Peter Wallace, David Harrison

Abstract:

Centrifugal pumps are complex machines which can experience different types of fault. Condition monitoring can be used in centrifugal pump fault detection through vibration analysis for mechanical and hydraulic forces. Vibration analysis methods have the potential to be combined with artificial intelligence systems where an automatic diagnostic method can be approached. An automatic fault diagnosis approach could be a good option to minimize human error and to provide a precise machine fault classification. This work aims to introduce an approach to centrifugal pump fault diagnosis based on artificial intelligence and genetic algorithm systems. An overview of the future works, research methodology and proposed experimental setup is presented and discussed. The expected results and outcomes based on the experimental work are illustrated.

Keywords: Centrifugal pump setup, vibration analysis, artificial intelligence, genetic algorithm.

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369 A Study on Prediction of Cavitation for Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Myung Jin Kim, Hyun Bae Jin, Wui Jun Chung

Abstract:

In this study, to accurately predict cavitation of a centrifugal pump, numerical analysis was compared with experimental results modeled on a small industrial centrifugal pump. In this study, numerical analysis was compared with experimental results modeled on a small industrial centrifugal pump for reliable prediction on cavitation of a centrifugal pump. To improve validity of the numerical analysis, transient analysis was conducted on the calculated domain of full-type geometry, such as an experimental apparatus. The numerical analysis from the results was considered to be a reliable prediction of cavitaion.

Keywords: Centrifugal Pump, Cavitation, NPSH, CFD.

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368 A Study on the Effect of Variation of the Cross-sectional Area of Spiral Volute Casing for Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Hyun Bae Jin, Myung Jin Kim, Wui Jun Chung

Abstract:

The impeller and the casing are the key components of a centrifugal pump. Although there have been many studies on the impeller and the volute casing of centrifugal pump, further study of the volute casing to improve the performance of centrifugal pumps is needed. In this paper, the effect of cross-sectional area on the performance of volute casing was investigated using a commercial CFD code. The performance characteristics, not only at the off-design point but also for a full type model are required these days. So we conducted numerical analysis for all operating points by using complete geometry through transient analysis. Transient analysis on the complete geometry of a real product has the advantage of simulating realistic flow. The results of this study show the variation of a performance curve by modifying the above-mentioned design parameter.

Keywords: Centrifugal Pump, Volute Casing, Cross-Section area, CFD

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367 Direct Torque Control - DTC of Induction Motor Used for Piloting a Centrifugal Pump Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

Authors: S. Abouda, F. Nollet, A. Chaari, N. Essounbouli, Y. Koubaa

Abstract:

In this paper we propose the study of a centrifugal pump control system driven by a three-phase induction motor, which is supplied by a PhotoVoltaic PV generator. The system includes solar panel, a DC / DC converter equipped with its MPPT control, a voltage inverter to three-phase Pulse Width Modulation - PWM and a centrifugal pump driven by a three phase induction motor. In order to control the flow of the centrifugal pump, a Direct Torque Control - DTC of the induction machine is used. To illustrate the performances of the control, simulation results are carried out using Matlab/Simulink.

Keywords: Photovoltaic generators, Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), DC/DC converters, Induction motor, Direct torque control (DTC).

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366 Investigation of Recirculation Effects on the Formation of Vapor Bubbles in Centrifugal Pump Blades

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Shervani Tabar, Seyyed Hojjat Majidi, Zahra Poursharifi

Abstract:

Cavitation in pumps is known as the formation of vapor bubbles due to pressure drop and collapsing these bubbles. In some conditions, it has been observed that the formation of bubbles occurs at the pressure side of centrifugal pump blades. In this study, the formation of bubbles at the pressure side of blades has been investigated. Water is used in this study as the fluid and performance curves were depicted for different flow rates in an approximately constant speed. The results show that when a centrifugal pump works in low flow rates, a secondary flow namely recirculation starts to begin. In this condition, separation of flow increases which causes vortex formation and local pressure drop and eventually the formation of vapor bubbles starts.

Keywords: Cavitation, Centrifugal pump, Recirculation, Vapor bubble.

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365 CFD Predictions of Dense Slurry Flow in Centrifugal Pump Casings

Authors: Krishnan V. Pagalthivarthi, Pankaj K. Gupta, Vipin Tyagi, M. R. Ravi

Abstract:

Dense slurry flow through centrifugal pump casing has been modeled using the Eulerian-Eulerian approach with Eulerian multiphase model in FLUENT 6.1®. First order upwinding is considered for the discretization of momentum, k and ε terms. SIMPLE algorithm has been applied for dealing with pressurevelocity coupling. A mixture property based k-ε turbulence model has been used for modeling turbulence. Results are validated first against mesh independence and experiments for a particular set of operational and geometric conditions. Parametric analysis is then performed to determine the effect on important physical quantities viz. solid velocities, solid concentration and solid stresses near the wall with various operational geometric conditions of the pump.

Keywords: Centrifugal pump casing, Dense slurry, Solidsconcentration, Wall shear stress, Pump geometric parameters.

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364 Detecting Cavitation in a Vertical Sea water Centrifugal Lift Pump Related to Iran Oil Industry Cooling Water Circulation System

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Cavitation is one of the most well-known process faults that may occur in different industrial equipment especially centrifugal pumps. Cavitation also may happen in water pumps and turbines. Sometimes cavitation has been severe enough to wear holes in the impeller and damage the vanes to such a degree that the impeller becomes very ineffective. More commonly, the pump efficiency will decrease significantly during cavitation and continue to decrease as damage to the impeller increases. Typically, when cavitation occurs, an audible sound similar to ‘marbles’ or ‘crackling’ is reported to be emitted from the pump. In this paper, the most effective monitoring items and techniques in detecting cavitation discussed in details. Besides, some successful solutions for solving this problem for sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pump discussed through a case history related to Iran oil industry. Furthermore, balance line modification, strainer choking and random resonance in sea water pumps discussed. In addition, a new Method for diagnosing mechanical conditions of sea water vertical Centrifugal lift Pumps introduced. This method involves disaggregating bus current by device into disaggregated currents having correspondences with operating currents in response to measured bus current. Moreover, some new patents and innovations in mechanical sea water pumping and cooling systems discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Cavitation, Vibration Analysis, Centrifugal Pump, Vertical Pump, Sea Water Pump, Balance Line, Strainer, Time Wave Form (TWF), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

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363 Analysis of SEIG for a Wind Pumping Plant Using Induction Motor

Authors: A. Abbou, H. Mahmoudi, M. Akherraz

Abstract:

In contrast to conventional generators, self-excited induction generators are found to be most suitable machines for wind energy conversion in remote and windy areas due to many advantages over grid connected machines. This papers presents a Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) driven by wind turbine and supplying an induction motor which is coupled to a centrifugal pump. A method to describe the steady state performance based on nodal analysis is presented. Therefore the advanced knowledge of the minimum excitation capacitor value is required. The effects of variation of excitation capacitance on system and rotor speed under different loading conditions have been analyzed and considered to optimize induction motor pump performances.

Keywords: SEIG, Induction Motor, Centrifugal Pump, capacitance requirements, wind rotor speed.

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362 Development of Piezoelectric Gas Micro Pumps with the PDMS Check Valve Design

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hong-Yih Cheng, Ming-Yu Lai

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and fabrication of a novel piezoelectric actuator for a gas micro pump with check valve having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. The micro pump is designed to have eight major components, namely a stainless steel upper cover layer, a piezoelectric actuator, a stainless steel diaphragm, a PDMS chamber layer, two stainless steel channel layers with two valve seats, a PDMS check valve layer with two cantilever-type check valves and an acrylic substrate. A prototype of the gas micro pump, with a size of 52 mm × 50 mm × 5.0 mm, is fabricated by precise manufacturing. This device is designed to pump gases with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micro pump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micro pump and the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator, simultaneously. The gas micro pump obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 250 Vpp. The micro pump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 1185 ml/min and back pressure of 7.14 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 120 and 50 Hz.

Keywords: PDMS, Check valve, Micro pump, Piezoelectric.

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361 The Best Efficiency Point of the Performance of Solar Cell Panel System for Pumping Water at Various Lifting Heads Using 100 W Motor- Pump Unit

Authors: S. Himran, B. Mire, N. Salam, L. Sule

Abstract:

This study was carried out experimentally and analytically about the performance of solar cell panel system for operating the pump coupled by dc-motor. The solar cell panel with total area 1.9848 m2 consists of three modules of 80 Wp each. The small centrifugal pump powered by dc-motor is operated to lift water from 1m to 7m heads in sequence and gives the amount of water pumped over the whole day from 08.00 to 16.00 h are 11988, 10851, 8874, 7695, 5760, 3600, 2340 L/d respectively. The hourly global solar radiation during the day is an average of 506 W/m2. This study also presents the I-V characteristics of the panel at global radiations 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 W/m2 matched with the operation of the pump at the above lifting heads. It proves that the only solar radiations 800 and 1000 W/m2 could provide lifting head from 1m to 7m. The analysis shows the best efficiency point of the performance of solar cell panel system occurs at the pumping head 2.89 m.

Keywords: Solar cell, dc- motor-pump, I-V characteristics, best efficiency point.

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360 Conversion of Mechanical Water Pump to Electric Water Pump for a CI Engine

Authors: K. Arunachalam, P. Mannar Jawahar

Abstract:

Presently, engine cooling pump is driven by toothed belt. Therefore, the pump speed is dependent on engine speed which varies their output. At normal engine operating conditions (Higher RPM and low load, Higher RPM and high load), mechanical water pumps in existing engines are inevitably oversized and so the use of an electric water pump together with state-of-the-art thermal management of the combustion engine has measurable advantages. Demand-driven cooling, particularly in the cold-start phase, saves fuel (approx 3 percent) and leads to a corresponding reduction in emissions. The lack of dependence on a mechanical drive also results in considerable flexibility in component packaging within the engine compartment. This paper describes the testing and comparison of existing mechanical water pump with that of the electric water pump. When the existing mechanical water pump is replaced with the new electric water pump the percentage gain in system efficiency is also discussed.

Keywords: Cooling system, Electric water pump, Mechanical water pump.

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359 Gravitational and Centrifugal Forces in the Nut-Kerr-Newman Space-Time

Authors: Atikur Rahman Baizid, Md. Elias Uddin Biswas, Ahsan Habib

Abstract:

Nayak et al have discussed in detail the inertial forces such as Gravitational, Coriolis-Lense-Thirring and Centrifugal forces in the Kerr-Newman Space-time in the Kerr-Newman Space-time. The main theme of this paper is to study the Gravitational and Centrifugal forces in the NUT-Kerr-Newman Space-time.

Keywords: Gravitational Forces, Centrifugal Forces, Nut-Kerr-Newman, Space time.

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358 A Semi-Classical Signal Analysis Method for the Analysis of Turbomachinery Flow Unsteadiness

Authors: Fadi Eleiwi, Taous Meriem Laleg-Kirati, Sofiane Khelladi, Farid Bakir

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of a semi-classical signal analysis method that has been developed recently for the analysis of turbomachinery flow unsteadiness. We will focus on the correlation between theSemi-Classical Signal Analysis parameters and some physical parameters in relation with turbomachinery features. To demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach, a static pressure signal issued from a rotor/stator interaction of a centrifugal pump is studied. Several configurations of the pump are compared.

Keywords: Semi-classical signal analysis, turbomachines, newindices, physical parameters

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357 Charge-Pump with a Regulated Cascode Circuit for Reducing Current Mismatch in PLLs

Authors: Jae Hyung Noh, Hang Geun Jeong

Abstract:

The charge-pump circuit is an important component in a phase-locked loop (PLL). The charge-pump converts Up and Down signals from the phase/frequency detector (PFD) into current. A conventional CMOS charge-pump circuit consists of two switched current sources that pump charge into or out of the loop filter according to two logical inputs. The mismatch between the charging current and the discharging current causes phase offset and reference spurs in a PLL. We propose a new charge-pump circuit to reduce the current mismatch by using a regulated cascode circuit. The proposed charge-pump circuit is designed and simulated by spectre with TSMC 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS technology.

Keywords: Phase-locked loop (PLL), charge-pump, phase/frequency detector (PFD), regulated cascode.

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356 Towards the Integration of a Micro Pump in μTAS

Authors: Y. Haik

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to present a micro mechanical pump that was fabricated using SwIFT™ microfabrication surface micromachining process and to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating such micro pump into a micro analysis system. The micropump circulates the bio-sample and magnetic nanoparticles through different compartments to separate and purify the targeted bio-sample. This article reports the flow characteristics in the microchannels and in a crescent micro pump.

Keywords: Crescent micropumps, microanalysis, nanoparticles.

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355 Simulation of Particle Damping under Centrifugal Loads

Authors: Riaz A. Bhatti, Wang Yanrong

Abstract:

Particle damping is a technique to reduce the structural vibrations by means of placing small metallic particles inside a cavity that is attached to the structure at location of high vibration amplitudes. In this paper, we have presented an analytical model to simulate the particle damping of two dimensional transient vibrations in structure operating under high centrifugal loads. The simulation results show that this technique remains effective as long as the ratio of the dynamic acceleration of the structure to the applied centrifugal load is more than 0.1. Particle damping increases with the increase of particle to structure mass ratio. However, unlike to the case of particle damping in the absence of centrifugal loads where the damping efficiency strongly depends upon the size of the cavity, here this dependence becomes very weak. Despite the simplicity of the model, the simulation results are considerably in good agreement with the very scarce experimental data available in the literature for particle damping under centrifugal loads.

Keywords: Impact damping, particle damping, vibration control, vibration suppression.

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354 A Comparative Study of Vapour Compression Heat Pump Systems under Air to Air and Air to Water Mode

Authors: Kemal Çomakli, Uğur Çakir

Abstract:

This research evaluated and compared the thermodynamic performance of heat pump systems which can be run under two different modes as air to air and air to water by using only one compressor. To achieve this comparison an experimental performance study was made on a traditional vapor compressed heat pump system that can be run air to air mode and air to water mode by help of a valve. The experiments made under different thermal conditions. Thermodynamic performance of the systems are presented and compared with each other for different working conditions.

Keywords: Air source heat pump, Energy Analysis, Heat Pump

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353 Energy Savings in Pumps

Authors: N. Dizadji, P. Entezar, A. Shabani

Abstract:

This study presents energy saving in general-purpose pumps widely used in industrial applications. Such pumps are normally driven by a constant-speed electrical motor which in most applications must support varying load conditions. This is equivalent to saying the loading conditions mismatch the designed optimal energy consumption requirements of the intended application thus resulting in substantial energy losses. In the held experiments it was indicated that combination of mechanical and electrical speed drives can contribute to lower energy consumption in the pump without negatively distorting the required performance indices of a typical centrifugal pump at substantially lower energy consumption. The registered energy savings were recorded to be within the 15-40% margin. It was also indicated that although VSDs are installed at a cost, the financial burden is balanced against the earnings resulting from the associated energy savings.

Keywords: Industrial motors, Pumps, Energy consumption, Energy savings, Variable speed drive.

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352 Separation of Dissolved Gases from Water for a Portable Underwater Breathing

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

Water contains oxygen which may make a human breathe under water like a fish. Centrifugal separator can separate dissolved gases from water. Carrier solution can increase the separation of dissolved oxygen from water. But, to develop an breathing device for a human under water, the enhancement of separation of dissolved gases including oxygen and portable devices which have dc battery based device and proper size are needed. In this study, we set up experimental device for analyzing separation characteristics of dissolved gases including oxygen from water using a battery based portable vacuum pump. We characterized vacuum state, flow rate of separation of dissolved gases and oxygen concentration which were influenced by the manufactured vacuum pump.

Keywords: Portable, breathing, water, separation, battery.

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351 Shape Optimization of Impeller Blades for a Bidirectional Axial Flow Pump using Polynomial Surrogate Model

Authors: I. S. Jung, W. H. Jung, S. H. Baek, S. Kang

Abstract:

This paper describes the shape optimization of impeller blades for a anti-heeling bidirectional axial flow pump used in ships. In general, a bidirectional axial pump has an efficiency much lower than the classical unidirectional pump because of the symmetry of the blade type. In this paper, by focusing on a pump impeller, the shape of blades is redesigned to reach a higher efficiency in a bidirectional axial pump. The commercial code employed in this simulation is CFX v.13. CFD result of pump torque, head, and hydraulic efficiency was compared. The orthogonal array (OA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques and surrogate model based optimization using orthogonal polynomial, are employed to determine the main effects and their optimal design variables. According to the optimal design, we confirm an effective design variable in impeller blades and explain the optimal solution, the usefulness for satisfying the constraints of pump torque and head.

Keywords: Bidirectional axial flow pump, Impeller blade, CFD, Analysis of variance, Polynomial surrogate model

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350 The Modification of the Mixed Flow Pump with Respect to Stability of the Head Curve

Authors: Roman Klas, František Pochylý, Pavel Rudolf

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the CFD simulation of the radiaxial pump (i.e. mixed flow pump) with the aim to detect the reasons of Y-Q characteristic instability. The main reasons of pressure pulsations were detected by means of the analysis of velocity and pressure fields within the pump combined with the theoretical approach. Consequently, the modifications of spiral case and pump suction area were made based on the knowledge of flow conditions and the shape of dissipation function. The primary design of pump geometry was created as the base model serving for the comparison of individual modification influences. The basic experimental data are available for this geometry. This approach replaced the more complicated and with respect to convergence of all computational tasks more difficult calculation for the compressible liquid flow. The modification of primary pump consisted in inserting the three fins types. Subsequently, the evaluation of pressure pulsations, specific energy curves and visualization of velocity fields were chosen as the criterion for successful design. 

Keywords: CFD, radiaxial pump, spiral case, stability

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349 Effect of Various Nozzle Profiles on Performance of a Two Phase Flow Jet Pump

Authors: Vishnu Prasad Sharma, S. Kumaraswamy, A. Mani

Abstract:

This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations on the performance of a jet pump operated under selected primary flows to optimize the related parameters. For this purpose a two-phase flow jet pump was used employing various profiles of nozzles as the primary device which was designed, fabricated and used along with the combination of mixing tube and diffuser. The profiles employed were circular, conical, and elliptical. The diameter of the nozzle used was 4 mm. The area ratio of the jet pump was 0.16. The test facility created for this purpose was an open loop continuous circulation system. Performance of the jet pump was obtained as iso-efficiency curves on characteristic curves drawn for various water flow rates. To perform the suction capability, evacuation test was conducted at best efficiency point for all the profiles.

Keywords: Evacuation test, jet pump, nozzle profile, nozzle spacing, performance test, two phase flow

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348 An Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Cavitation Inception in an Axial Flow Pump

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Shervani Tabar, Zahra Poursharifi

Abstract:

The interaction of the blade tip with the casing boundary layer and the leakage flow may lead to a kind of cavitation namely tip vortex cavitation. In this study, the onset of tip vortex cavitation was experimentally investigated in an axial flow pump. For a constant speed and a fixed angle of attack and by changing the flow rate, the pump head, input power, output power and efficiency were calculated and the pump characteristic curves were obtained. The cavitation phenomenon was observed with a camera and a stroboscope. Finally, the critical flow region, which tip vortex cavitation might have occurred, was identified. The results show that just by adjusting the flow rate, out of the specified region, the possibility of occurring tip vortex cavitation, decreases to a great extent.

Keywords: Axial flow pump, Gap cavitation, Leakage vortex, Tip vortex cavitation.

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347 Simulation of Internal Flow Field of Pitot-Tube Jet Pump

Authors: Iqra Noor, Ihtzaz Qamar

Abstract:

Pitot-tube Jet pump, single-stage pump with low flow rate and high head, consists of a radial impeller that feeds water to rotating cavity. Water then enters stationary pitot-tube collector (diffuser), which discharges to the outside. By means of ANSYS Fluent 15.0, the internal flow characteristics for Pitot-tube Jet pump with standard pitot and curved pitot are studied. Under design condition, realizable k-e turbulence model and SIMPLEC algorithm are used to calculate 3D flow field inside both pumps. The simulation results reveal that energy is imparted to the flow by impeller and inside the rotor, forced vortex type flow is observed. Total pressure decreases inside pitot-tube whereas static pressure increases. Changing pitot-tube from standard to curved shape results in minimum flow circulation inside pitot-tube and leads to a higher pump performance.

Keywords: CFD, flow circulation, high pressure pump, impeller, internal flow, pickup tube pump, rectangle channels, rotating casing, turbulence.

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346 Reliability Verification of the Performance Evaluation of Multiphase Pump

Authors: Joon-Hyung Kim, Him-Chan Lee, Jin-Hyuk Kim, Yong-Kab Lee, Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

The crude oil in an oil well exists in various phases such as gas, seawater, and sand, as well as oil. Therefore, a phase separator is needed at the front of a single-phase pump for pressurization and transfer. On the other hand, the application of a multiphase pump can provide such advantages as simplification of the equipment structure and cost savings, because there is no need for a phase separation process. Therefore, the crude oil transfer method using a multiphase pump is being applied to recently developed oil wells. Due to this increase in demand, technical demands for the development of multiphase pumps are sharply increasing, but the progress of research into related technologies is insufficient, due to the nature of multiphase pumps that require high levels of skills. This study was conducted to verify the reliability of pump performance evaluation using numerical analysis, which is the basis of the development of a multiphase pump. For this study, a model was designed by selecting the specifications of this study. The performance of the designed model was evaluated through numerical analysis and experiment. The results of the performance evaluation were compared to verify the reliability of the result using numerical analysis.

Keywords: Multiphase pump, Numerical analysis, Experiment, Performance evaluation, Reliability verification.

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345 Design of High Gain, High Bandwidth Op-Amp for Reduction of Mismatch Currents in Charge Pump PLL in 180 nm CMOS Technology

Authors: R .H. Talwekar, S. S Limaye

Abstract:

The designing of charge pump with high gain Op- Amp is a challenging task for getting faithful response .Design of high performance phase locked loop require ,a design of high performance charge pump .We have designed a operational amplifier for reducing the error caused by high speed glitch in a transistor and mismatch currents . A separate Op-Amp has designed in 180 nm CMOS technology by CADENCE VIRTUOSO tool. This paper describes the design of high performance charge pump for GHz CMOS PLL targeting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) application. A high speed low power consumption Op-Amp with more than 500 MHz bandwidth has designed for increasing the speed of charge pump in Phase locked loop.

Keywords: Charge pump (CP) Orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM), Phase locked loop (PLL), Phase frequencydetector (PFD), Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO),

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344 Modal Dynamic Analysis of a Mechanism with Deformable Elements from an Oil Pump Unit Structure

Authors: N. Dumitru, S. Dumitru, C. Copilusi, N. Ploscaru

Abstract:

On this research, experimental analyses have been performed in order to determine the oil pump mechanism dynamics and stability from an oil unit mechanical structure. The experimental tests were focused on the vibrations which occur inside of the rod element during functionality of the oil pump unit. The oil pump mechanism dynamic parameters were measured and also determined through numerical computations. Entire research is based on the oil pump unit mechanical system virtual prototyping. For a complete analysis of the mechanism, the frequency dynamic response was identified, mainly for the mechanism driven element, based on two methods: processing and virtual simulations with MSC Adams aid and experimental analysis. In fact, through this research, a complete methodology is presented where numerical simulations of a mechanism with deformed elements are developed on a dynamic mode and these can be correlated with experimental tests.

Keywords: Modal dynamic analysis, oil pump, vibrations, flexible elements, frequency response.

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343 Development of a New Piezoelectrically Actuated Micropump for Liquid and Gas

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Chih-Jer Lin, Chun-Ying Lee

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the design, fabrication and test of a novel piezoelectric actuated, check-valves embedded micropump having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. This device is designed to pump gases and liquids with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micropump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micropump, the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator and the deformation of the check valve, simultaneously. The micropump with check valve 0.4 mm in thickness obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 120 Vpp. The micropump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 42.2 ml/min and back pressure of 14.0 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 28 and 20 Hz. The presented micropump is able to pump gases with a pumping rate of 196 ml/min at operating frequencies of 280 Hz under the sinusoidal waveform of 120 Vpp.

Keywords: Actuator, Check-valve, Micropump, Piezoelectric.

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342 Design Optimization for Efficient Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers

Authors: Parekhan M. Aljaff, Banaz O. Rasheed

Abstract:

The exact gain shape profile of erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA`s) are depends on fiber length and Er3 ion densities. This paper optimized several of erbium doped fiber parameters to obtain high performance characteristic at pump wavelengths of λp= 980 nm and λs= 1550 nm for three different pump powers. The maximum gain obtained for pump powers (10, 30 and 50mw) is nearly (19, 30 and 33 dB) at optimizations. The required numerical aperture NA to obtain maximum gain becomes less when pump power increased. The amplifier gain is increase when Er+3doped near the center of the fiber core. The simulation has been done by using optisystem 5.0 software (CAD for Photonics, a license product of a Canadian based company) at 2.5 Gbps.

Keywords: EDFA, Erbium Doped Fiber, optimization OpticalAmplifiers.

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341 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

In wastewater treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the wastewater. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in wastewater treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: Jet pump, air bubbles size, retention time.

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