Search results for: Backward/Forward Sweep
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 508

Search results for: Backward/Forward Sweep

508 Power Flow Analysis for Radial Distribution System Using Backward/Forward Sweep Method

Authors: J. A. Michline Rupa, S. Ganesh

Abstract:

This paper proposes a backward/forward sweep method to analyze the power flow in radial distribution systems. The distribution system has radial structure and high R/X ratios. So the newton-raphson and fast decoupled methods are failed with distribution system. The proposed method presents a load flow study using backward/forward sweep method, which is one of the most effective methods for the load-flow analysis of the radial distribution system. By using this method, power losses for each bus branch and voltage magnitudes for each bus node are determined. This method has been tested on IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system and effective results are obtained using MATLAB.

Keywords: Backward/Forward sweep method, Distribution system, Load flow analysis.

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507 Neutral to Earth Voltage Analysis in Harmonic Polluted Distribution Networks with Multi- Grounded Neutrals

Authors: G. Ahmadi, S.M. Shahrtash

Abstract:

A multiphase harmonic load flow algorithm is developed based on backward/forward sweep to examine the effects of various factors on the neutral to earth voltage (NEV), including unsymmetrical system configuration, load unbalance and harmonic injection. The proposed algorithm composes fundamental frequency and harmonic frequencies power flows. The algorithm and the associated models are tested on IEEE 13 bus system. The magnitude of NEV is investigated under various conditions of the number of grounding rods per feeder lengths, the grounding rods resistance and the grounding resistance of the in feeding source. Additionally, the harmonic injection of nonlinear loads has been considered and its influences on NEV under different conditions are shown.

Keywords: NEV, Distribution System, Multi-grounded, Backward/Forward Sweep, Harmonic Analysis

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506 A Simplified Approach for Load Flow Analysis of Radial Distribution Network

Authors: K. Vinoth Kumar, M.P. Selvan

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple approach for load flow analysis of a radial distribution network. The proposed approach utilizes forward and backward sweep algorithm based on Kirchoff-s current law (KCL) and Kirchoff-s voltage law (KVL) for evaluating the node voltages iteratively. In this approach, computation of branch current depends only on the current injected at the neighbouring node and the current in the adjacent branch. This approach starts from the end nodes of sub lateral line, lateral line and main line and moves towards the root node during branch current computation. The node voltage evaluation begins from the root node and moves towards the nodes located at the far end of the main, lateral and sub lateral lines. The proposed approach has been tested using four radial distribution systems of different size and configuration and found to be computationally efficient.

Keywords: constant current load, constant impedance load, constant power load, forward–backward sweep, load flow analysis, radial distribution system.

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505 On the Central Limit Theorems for Forward and Backward Martingales

Authors: Yilun Shang

Abstract:

Let {Xi}i≥1 be a martingale difference sequence with Xi = Si - Si-1. Under some regularity conditions, we show that (X2 1+· · ·+X2N n)-1/2SNn is asymptotically normal, where {Ni}i≥1 is a sequence of positive integer-valued random variables tending to infinity. In a similar manner, a backward (or reverse) martingale central limit theorem with random indices is provided.

Keywords: central limit theorem, martingale difference sequence, backward martingale.

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504 An Index based Forward Backward Multiple Pattern Matching Algorithm

Authors: Raju Bhukya, DVLN Somayajulu

Abstract:

Pattern matching is one of the fundamental applications in molecular biology. Searching DNA related data is a common activity for molecular biologists. In this paper we explore the applicability of a new pattern matching technique called Index based Forward Backward Multiple Pattern Matching algorithm(IFBMPM), for DNA Sequences. Our approach avoids unnecessary comparisons in the DNA Sequence due to this; the number of comparisons of the proposed algorithm is very less compared to other existing popular methods. The number of comparisons rapidly decreases and execution time decreases accordingly and shows better performance.

Keywords: Comparisons, DNA Sequence, Index.

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503 Macro Corruption: A Conceptual Analysis of Its Dimensions and Forward and Backward Linkages

Authors: Ahmed Sakr Ashour, Hoda Saad AboRemila

Abstract:

An attempt was made to fill the gap in the macro analysis of corruption by suggesting a conceptual framework that differentiates four types of macro corruption: state capture, political, bureaucratic and financial/corporate. The economic consequences or forward linkages (growth, inclusiveness and sustainability of development) and macro institutional determinants constituting the backward linkages of each type were delineated. The research implications of the macro perspective and proposed framework were discussed. Implications of the findings for theory, research and reform policies addressing macro corruption issues were discussed.

Keywords: Economic growth, Inclusive growth, macro corruption, sustainable development.

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502 The Relationship of Eigenvalues between Backward MPSD and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zhuan-de Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward MPSD (Modified Preconditioned Simultaneous Displacement) iterative matrix is firstly proposed. The relationship of eigenvalues between the backward MPSD iterative matrix and backward Jacobi iterative matrix for block p-cyclic case is obtained, which improves and refines the results in the corresponding references.

Keywords: Backward MPSD iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, eigenvalue, p-cyclic matrix.

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501 Application of the Central-Difference with Half- Sweep Gauss-Seidel Method for Solving First Order Linear Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: E. Aruchunan, J. Sulaiman

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to analyse the application of the Half-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (HSGS) method by using the Half-sweep approximation equation based on central difference (CD) and repeated trapezoidal (RT) formulas to solve linear fredholm integro-differential equations of first order. The formulation and implementation of the Full-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (FSGS) and Half- Sweep Gauss-Seidel (HSGS) methods are also presented. The HSGS method has been shown to rapid compared to the FSGS methods. Some numerical tests were illustrated to show that the HSGS method is superior to the FSGS method.

Keywords: Integro-differential equations, Linear fredholm equations, Finite difference, Quadrature formulas, Half-Sweep iteration.

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500 The Convergence Results between Backward USSOR and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zuan-De Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward Ussor iterative matrix is proposed. The relationship of convergence between the backward Ussor iterative matrix and Jacobi iterative matrix is obtained, which makes the results in the corresponding references be improved and refined.Moreover,numerical examples also illustrate the effectiveness of these conclusions.

Keywords: Backward USSOR iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, convergence, spectral radius

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499 Backward Erosion Piping through Vertically Layered Sands

Authors: K. Vandenboer, L. Dolphen, A. Bezuijen

Abstract:

Backward erosion piping is an important failure mechanism for water-retaining structures, a phenomenon that results in the formation of shallow pipes at the interface of a sandy or silty foundation and a cohesive cover layer. This paper studies the effect of two soil types on backward erosion piping; both in case of a homogeneous sand layer, and in a vertically layered sand sample, where the pipe is forced to subsequently grow through the different layers. Two configurations with vertical sand layers are tested; they both result in wider pipes and higher critical gradients, thereby making this an interesting topic in research on measures to prevent backward erosion piping failures.

Keywords: Backward erosion piping, embankments, physical modelling, sand.

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498 Efficient Program Slicing Algorithms for Measuring Functional Cohesion and Parallelism

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Program slicing is the task of finding all statements in a program that directly or indirectly influence the value of a variable occurrence. The set of statements that can affect the value of a variable at some point in a program is called a program slice. In several software engineering applications, such as program debugging and measuring program cohesion and parallelism, several slices are computed at different program points. In this paper, algorithms are introduced to compute all backward and forward static slices of a computer program by traversing the program representation graph once. The program representation graph used in this paper is called Program Dependence Graph (PDG). We have conducted an experimental comparison study using 25 software modules to show the effectiveness of the introduced algorithm for computing all backward static slices over single-point slicing approaches in computing the parallelism and functional cohesion of program modules. The effectiveness of the algorithm is measured in terms of time execution and number of traversed PDG edges. The comparison study results indicate that using the introduced algorithm considerably saves the slicing time and effort required to measure module parallelism and functional cohesion.

Keywords: Backward slicing, cohesion measure, forward slicing, parallelism measure, program dependence graph, program slicing, static slicing.

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497 Transient Solution of an Incompressible Viscous Flow in a Channel with Sudden Expansion/Contraction

Authors: Durga C. Dalal, Swapan K. Pandit

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical study has been made to analyze the transient 2-D flows of a viscous incompressible fluid through channels with forward or backward constriction. Problems addressed include flow through sudden contraction and sudden expansion channel geometries with rounded and increasingly sharp reentrant corner. In both the cases, numerical results are presented for the separation and reattachment points, streamlines, vorticity and flow patterns. A fourth order accurate compact scheme has been employed to efficiently capture steady state solutions of the governing equations. It appears from our study that sharpness of the throat in the channel is one of the important parameters to control the strength and size of the separation zone without modifying the general flow patterns. The comparison between the two cases shows that the upstream geometry plays a significant role on vortex growth dynamics.

Keywords: Forward and backward constriction, HOC scheme, Incompressible viscous flows, Separation and reattachment points.

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496 The Light Response Characteristics of Oxide-Based Thin Film Transistors

Authors: Soo-Yeon Lee, Seung-Min Song, Moon-Kyu Song, Woo-Geun Lee, Kap-Soo Yoon, Jang-Yeon Kwon, Min-Koo Han

Abstract:

We fabricated the inverted-staggered etch stopper structure oxide-based TFT and investigated the characteristics of oxide TFT under the 400 nm wavelength light illumination. When 400 nm light was illuminated, the threshold voltage (Vth) decreased and subthreshold slope (SS) increased at forward sweep, while Vth and SS were not altered when larger wavelength lights, such as 650 nm, 550 nm and 450 nm, were illuminated. At reverse sweep, the transfer curve barely changed even under 400 nm light. Our experimental results support that photo-induced hole carriers are captured by donor-like interface trap and it caused the decrease of Vth and increase of SS. We investigated the interface trap density increases proportionally to the photo-induced hole concentration at active layer.

Keywords: thin film transistor, oxide-based semiconductor, lightresponse

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495 Direct Block Backward Differentiation Formulas for Solving Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Mohamed Suleiman, Khairil Iskandar Othman

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct method based on variable step size Block Backward Differentiation Formula which is referred as BBDF2 for solving second order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is developed. The advantages of the BBDF2 method over the corresponding sequential variable step variable order Backward Differentiation Formula (BDFVS) when used to solve the same problem as a first order system are pointed out. Numerical results are given to validate the method.

Keywords: Backward Differentiation Formula, block, secondorder.

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494 Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Laminar Flow over a Backward Facing Step with and without Obstacle

Authors: Hussein Togun, Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, M. K. A. Ariffin, M. N. M. Zubir

Abstract:

Heat transfer and laminar fluid flow over backward facing step with and without obstacle numerically studied in this paper. The finite volume method adopted to solve continuity, momentum and energy equations in two dimensions. Backward facing step without obstacle and with different dimension of obstacle were presented. The step height and expansion ratio of channel were 4.8mm and 2 respectively, the range of Reynolds number varied from 75 to 225, constant heat flux subjected on downstream of wall was 2000W/m2, and length of obstacle was 1.5, 3, and 4.5mm with width 1.5mm. The separation length noticed increase with increase Reynolds number and height of obstacle. The result shows increase of heat transfer coefficient for backward facing step with obstacle in compared to those without obstacle. The maximum enhancement of heat transfer observed at 4.5mm of height obstacle due to increase recirculation flow after the obstacle in addition that at backward. Streamline of velocity showing the increase of recirculation region with used obstacle in compared without obstacle and highest recirculation region observed at obstacle height 4.5mm. The amount of enhancement heat transfer was varied between 3-5% compared to backward without obstacle.

Keywords: Separation flow, Backward facing step, Heat transfer, Laminar flow.

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493 An eighth order Backward Differentiation Formula with Continuous Coefficients for Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Olusheye Akinfenwa, Samuel Jator, Nianmin Yoa

Abstract:

A block backward differentiation formula of uniform order eight is proposed for solving first order stiff initial value problems (IVPs). The conventional 8-step Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) and additional methods are obtained from the same continuous scheme and assembled into a block matrix equation which is applied to provide the solutions of IVPs on non-overlapping intervals. The stability analysis of the method indicates that the method is L0-stable. Numerical results obtained using the proposed new block form show that it is attractive for solutions of stiff problems and compares favourably with existing ones.

Keywords: Stiff IVPs, System of ODEs, Backward differentiationformulas, Block methods, Stability.

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492 One-DOF Precision Position Control using the Combined Piezo-VCM Actuator

Authors: Yung-Tien Liu, Chun-Chao Wang

Abstract:

This paper presents the control performance of a high-precision positioning device using the hybrid actuator composed of a piezoelectric (PZT) actuator and a voice-coil motor (VCM). The combined piezo-VCM actuator features two main characteristics: a large operation range due to long stroke of the VCM, and high precision and heavy load positioning ability due to PZT impact force. A one-degree-of-freedom (DOF) experimental setup was configured to examine the fundamental characteristics, and the control performance was effectively demonstrated by using a switching controller. In rough positioning state, an integral variable structure controller (IVSC) was used for the VCM to conduct long range of operation; in precision positioning state, an impact force controller (IFC) for the PZT actuator coupled with presliding states of the sliding table was used to obtain high-precision position control and achieve both forward and backward actuations. The experimental results showed that the sliding table having a mass of 881g and with a preload of 10 N was successfully positioned within the positioning accuracy of 10 nm in both forward and backward position controls.

Keywords: Integral variable structure controller (IVSC), impact force, precision positioning, presliding, PZT actuator, voice-coil motor (VCM).

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491 Optimization of the Transfer Molding Process by Implementation of Online Monitoring Techniques for Electronic Packages

Authors: Burcu Kaya, Jan-Martin Kaiser, Karl-Friedrich Becker, Tanja Braun, Klaus-Dieter Lang

Abstract:

Quality of the molded packages is strongly influenced by the process parameters of the transfer molding. To achieve a better package quality and a stable transfer molding process, it is necessary to understand the influence of the process parameters on the package quality. This work aims to comprehend the relationship between the process parameters, and to identify the optimum process parameters for the transfer molding process in order to achieve less voids and wire sweep. To achieve this, a DoE is executed for process optimization and a regression analysis is carried out. A systematic approach is represented to generate models which enable an estimation of the number of voids and wire sweep. Validation experiments are conducted to verify the model and the results are presented.

Keywords: Epoxy molding compounds, optimization, regression analysis, transfer molding process, voids, wire sweep.

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490 An Efficient Algorithm for Computing all Program Forward Static Slices

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Program slicing is the task of finding all statements in a program that directly or indirectly influence the value of a variable occurrence. The set of statements that can affect the value of a variable at some point in a program is called a program backward slice. In several software engineering applications, such as program debugging and measuring program cohesion and parallelism, several slices are computed at different program points. The existing algorithms for computing program slices are introduced to compute a slice at a program point. In these algorithms, the program, or the model that represents the program, is traversed completely or partially once. To compute more than one slice, the same algorithm is applied for every point of interest in the program. Thus, the same program, or program representation, is traversed several times. In this paper, an algorithm is introduced to compute all forward static slices of a computer program by traversing the program representation graph once. Therefore, the introduced algorithm is useful for software engineering applications that require computing program slices at different points of a program. The program representation graph used in this paper is called Program Dependence Graph (PDG).

Keywords: Program slicing, static slicing, forward slicing, program dependence graph (PDG).

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489 Neuromuscular Control and Performance during Sudden Acceleration in Subjects with and without Unilateral Acute Ankle Sprains

Authors: M. Qorbani

Abstract:

Neuromuscular control of posture as understood through studies of responses to mechanical sudden acceleration automatically has been previously demonstrated in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), but the presence of acute condition has not been previously explored specially in a sudden acceleration. The aim of this study was to determine neuromuscular control pattern in those with and without unilateral acute ankle sprains. Design: Case - control. Setting: University research laboratory. The sinker–card protocol with surface translation was be used as a sudden acceleration protocol with study of EMG upon 4 posture stabilizer muscles in two sides of the body in response to sudden acceleration in forward and backward directions. 20 young adult women in two groups (10 LAS; 23.9 ± 2.03 yrs and 10 normal; 26.4 ± 3.2 yrs). The data of EMG were assessed by using multivariate test and one-way repeated measures 2×2×4 ANOVA (P< 0.05). The results showed a significant muscle by direction interaction. Higher TA activity of left and right side in LAS group than normal group in forward direction significantly be showed. Higher MGR activity in normal group than LAS group in backward direction significantly showed. These findings suggest that compared two sides of the body in two directions for 4 muscles EMG activities between and within group for neuromuscular control of posture in avoiding fall. EMG activations of two sides of the body in lateral ankle sprain (LAS) patients were symmetric significantly. Acute ankle instability following once ankle sprains caused to coordinated temporal spatial patterns and strategy selection.

Keywords: Neuromuscular response, sEMG, Lateral Ankle Sprain, posture.

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488 An Efficient Backward Semi-Lagrangian Scheme for Nonlinear Advection-Diffusion Equation

Authors: Soyoon Bak, Sunyoung Bu, Philsu Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a backward semi-Lagrangian scheme combined with the second-order backward difference formula is designed to calculate the numerical solutions of nonlinear advection-diffusion equations. The primary aims of this paper are to remove any iteration process and to get an efficient algorithm with the convergence order of accuracy 2 in time. In order to achieve these objects, we use the second-order central finite difference and the B-spline approximations of degree 2 and 3 in order to approximate the diffusion term and the spatial discretization, respectively. For the temporal discretization, the second order backward difference formula is applied. To calculate the numerical solution of the starting point of the characteristic curves, we use the error correction methodology developed by the authors recently. The proposed algorithm turns out to be completely iteration free, which resolves the main weakness of the conventional backward semi-Lagrangian method. Also, the adaptability of the proposed method is indicated by numerical simulations for Burgers’ equations. Throughout these numerical simulations, it is shown that the numerical results is in good agreement with the analytic solution and the present scheme offer better accuracy in comparison with other existing numerical schemes.

Keywords: Semi-Lagrangian method, Iteration free method, Nonlinear advection-diffusion equation.

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487 An Approaching Index to Evaluate a forward Collision Probability

Authors: Yuan-Lin Chen

Abstract:

This paper presents an approaching forward collision probability index (AFCPI) for alerting and assisting driver in keeping safety distance to avoid the forward collision accident in highway driving. The time to collision (TTC) and time headway (TH) are used to evaluate the TTC forward collision probability index (TFCPI) and the TH forward collision probability index (HFCPI), respectively. The Mamdani fuzzy inference algorithm is presented combining TFCPI and HFCPI to calculate the approaching collision probability index of the vehicle. The AFCPI is easier to understand for the driver who did not even have any professional knowledge in vehicle professional field. At the same time, the driver’s behavior is taken into account for suiting each driver. For the approaching index, the value 0 is indicating the 0% probability of forward collision, and the values 0.5 and 1 are indicating the 50% and 100% probabilities of forward collision, respectively. The AFCPI is useful and easy-to-understand for alerting driver to avoid the forward collision accidents when driving in highway.

Keywords: Approaching index, forward collision probability, time to collision, time headway.

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486 Parallel Block Backward Differentiation Formulas for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Khairil Iskandar Othman, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Mohamed Suleiman

Abstract:

A parallel block method based on Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF) is developed for the parallel solution of stiff Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). Most common methods for solving stiff systems of ODEs are based on implicit formulae and solved using Newton iteration which requires repeated solution of systems of linear equations with coefficient matrix, I - hβJ . Here, J is the Jacobian matrix of the problem. In this paper, the matrix operations is paralleled in order to reduce the cost of the iterations. Numerical results are given to compare the speedup and efficiency of parallel algorithm and that of sequential algorithm.

Keywords: Backward Differentiation Formula, block, ordinarydifferential equations.

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485 Fifth Order Variable Step Block Backward Differentiation Formulae for Solving Stiff ODEs

Authors: S.A.M. Yatim, Z.B. Ibrahim, K.I. Othman, F. Ismail

Abstract:

The implicit block methods based on the backward differentiation formulae (BDF) for the solution of stiff initial value problems (IVPs) using variable step size is derived. We construct a variable step size block methods which will store all the coefficients of the method with a simplified strategy in controlling the step size with the intention of optimizing the performance in terms of precision and computation time. The strategy involves constant, halving or increasing the step size by 1.9 times the previous step size. Decision of changing the step size is determined by the local truncation error (LTE). Numerical results are provided to support the enhancement of method applied.

Keywords: Backward differentiation formulae, block backwarddifferentiation formulae, stiff ordinary differential equation, variablestep size.

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484 Intuitive Robot Control Using Surface EMG and Accelerometer Signals

Authors: Kiwon Rhee, Kyung-Jin You, Hyun-Chool Shin

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method of remotely controlling robots with arm gestures using surface electromyography (EMG) and accelerometer sensors attached to the operator’s wrists. The EMG and accelerometer sensors receive signals from the arm gestures of the operator and infer the corresponding movements to execute the command to control the robot. The movements of the robot include moving forward and backward and turning left and right. The accuracy is over 99% and movements can be controlled in real time.

Keywords: EMG, accelerometer, K-nn, entropy.

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483 Feed-Forward Control in Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in resonant dc link inverter. The feed-forward control configuration is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation. The simulation results showing the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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482 Design and Construction of PIC-Based IR Remote Control Moving Robot

Authors: Sanda Win, Tin Shein, Khin Maung Latt

Abstract:

This document describes an electronic speed control designed to drive two DC motors from a 6 V battery pack to be controlled by a commercial universal infrared remote control hand set. Conceived for a tank-like vehicle, one motor drives the left side wheels or tracks and the other motor drives the right side. As it is shown here, there is a left-right steering input and a forward– backward throttles input, like would be used on a model car. It is designed using a microcontroller PIC16F873A.

Keywords: Assembly Language, Direction Control, SpeedControl, PIC 16F 873A

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481 Neural Networks Approaches for Computing the Forward Kinematics of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

Authors: H. Sadjadian , H.D. Taghirad Member, A. Fatehi

Abstract:

In this paper, different approaches to solve the forward kinematics of a three DOF actuator redundant hydraulic parallel manipulator are presented. On the contrary to series manipulators, the forward kinematic map of parallel manipulators involves highly coupled nonlinear equations, which are almost impossible to solve analytically. The proposed methods are using neural networks identification with different structures to solve the problem. The accuracy of the results of each method is analyzed in detail and the advantages and the disadvantages of them in computing the forward kinematic map of the given mechanism is discussed in detail. It is concluded that ANFIS presents the best performance compared to MLP, RBF and PNN networks in this particular application.

Keywords: Forward Kinematics, Neural Networks, Numerical Solution, Parallel Manipulators.

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480 Chaotic Behavior in Monetary Systems: Comparison among Different Types of Taylor Rule

Authors: Reza Moosavi Mohseni, Wenjun Zhang, Jiling Cao

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to detect the chaotic behavior in monetary economic relevant dynamical system. The study employs three different forms of Taylor rules: current, forward, and backward looking. The result suggests the existence of the chaotic behavior in all three systems. In addition, the results strongly represent that using expectations in policy rule especially rational expectation hypothesis can increase complexity of the system and leads to more chaotic behavior.

Keywords: Chaos theory, GMM estimator, Lyapunov Exponent, Monetary System, Taylor Rule.

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479 The Impact of Market-Related Variables on Forward-Looking Disclosure in the Annual Reports of Non-Financial Egyptian Companies

Authors: Bassam Baroma

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to test the relationship between numbers of variables representing the firm characteristics (market-related variables) and the extent of voluntary disclosure levels (forward-looking disclosure) in the annual reports of Egyptian firms listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange. The results show that audit firm size is significantly positively correlated (in all the three years) with the level of forward-looking disclosure. However, industry type variable (which divided to: industries, cement, construction, petrochemicals and services), is found being insignificantly association with the level of forward-looking information disclosed in the annual reports for all the three years.

Keywords: Forward-looking disclosure, market-related variables, annual reports, Egyptian Stock Exchange.

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