Search results for: Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 582

Search results for: Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi

582 Monitoring and Prediction of Intra-Crosstalk in All-Optical Network

Authors: Ahmed Jedidi, Mesfer Mohammed Alshamrani, Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi

Abstract:

Optical performance monitoring and optical network management are essential in building a reliable, high-capacity, and service-differentiation enabled all-optical network. One of the serious problems in this network is the fact that optical crosstalk is additive, and thus the aggregate effect of crosstalk over a whole AON may be more nefarious than a single point of crosstalk. As results, we note a huge degradation of the Quality of Service (QoS) in our network. For that, it is necessary to identify and monitor the impairments in whole network. In this way, this paper presents new system to identify and monitor crosstalk in AONs in real-time fashion. particular, it proposes a new technique to manage intra-crosstalk in objective to relax QoS of the network.

Keywords: All-optical networks, optical crosstalk, optical cross-connect, crosstalk, monitoring crosstalk.

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581 Discovery of Production Rules with Fuzzy Hierarchy

Authors: Fadl M. Ba-Alwi, Kamal K. Bharadwaj

Abstract:

In this paper a novel algorithm is proposed that integrates the process of fuzzy hierarchy generation and rule discovery for automated discovery of Production Rules with Fuzzy Hierarchy (PRFH) in large databases.A concept of frequency matrix (Freq) introduced to summarize large database that helps in minimizing the number of database accesses, identification and removal of irrelevant attribute values and weak classes during the fuzzy hierarchy generation.Experimental results have established the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Data Mining, Degree of subsumption, Freq matrix, Fuzzy hierarchy.

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580 Advances on LuGre Friction Model

Authors: Mohammad Fuad Mohammad Naser, Faycal Ikhouane

Abstract:

LuGre friction model is an ordinary differential equation that is widely used in describing the friction phenomenon for mechanical systems. The importance of this model comes from the fact that it captures most of the friction behavior that has been observed including hysteresis. In this paper, we study some aspects related to the hysteresis behavior induced by the LuGre friction model.

Keywords: Hysteresis, LuGre model, operator, (strong) consistency.

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579 Adaptive Car Safety System

Authors: Shahram Jafari, Mohammad-Ali Nikouei Mahani, Mohammad Arabnezhad, Mahdi Sharifi

Abstract:

Car accident is one of the major causes of death in many countries. Many researchers have attempted to design and develop techniques to increase car safety in the past recent years. In spite of all the efforts, it is still challenging to design a system adaptive to the driver rather than the automotive characteristics. In this paper, the adaptive car safety system is explained which attempts to find a balance.

Keywords: Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), AdaptiveCar Safety System, Multi-Media Card (MMC).

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578 New Exact Solutions for the (3+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Maliheh Najafi, Mohammad Najafi

Abstract:

In this work, we obtain some analytic solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional breaking soliton after obtaining its Hirota-s bilinear form. Our calculations show that, three-wave method is very easy and straightforward to solve nonlinear partial differential equations.

Keywords: (3+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation, Hirota'sbilinear form.

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577 Some Complexiton Type Solutions of the (3+1)-Dimensional Jimbo-Miwa Equation

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Mohammad Najafi

Abstract:

By means of the extended homoclinic test approach (shortly EHTA) with the aid of a symbolic computation system such as Maple, some complexiton type solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation are presented.

Keywords: Jimbo-Miwa equation, painleve analysis, Hirota's bilinear form, computerized symbolic computation.

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576 New Application of EHTA for the Generalized(2+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Maliheh Najafi, Mohammad Najafi

Abstract:

In this paper, the generalized (2+1)-dimensional Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff (shortly CBS) equations are investigated. We employ the Hirota-s bilinear method to obtain the bilinear form of CBS equations. Then by the idea of extended homoclinic test approach (shortly EHTA), some exact soliton solutions including breather type solutions are presented.

Keywords: EHTA, (2+1)-dimensional CBS equations, (2+1)-dimensional breaking solution equation, Hirota's bilinear form.

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575 Some Exact Solutions of the (2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation using the Three-wave Method

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Mohammad Najafi

Abstract:

This paper considers the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation in its bilinear form. Some exact solutions to this equation are explicitly derived by the idea of three-wave solution method with the assistance of Maple. We can see that the new idea is very simple and straightforward.

Keywords: Soliton solution, computerized symbolic computation, painleve analysis, (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation, Hirota's bilinear form.

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574 The Impact of e-Learning and e-Teaching

Authors: Mohammad Mohammad

Abstract:

With the exponential progress of technological development comes a strong sense that events are moving too quickly for our schools and that teachers may be losing control of them in the process. This paper examines the impact of e-learning and e-teaching in universities, from both the student and teacher perspective. In particular, it is shown that e-teachers should focus not only on the technical capacities and functions of IT materials and activities, but must attempt to more fully understand how their e-learners perceive the learning environment. From the e-learner perspective, this paper indicates that simply having IT tools available does not automatically translate into all students becoming effective learners. More evidence-based evaluative research is needed to allow e-learning and e-teaching to reach full potential.

Keywords: e-learning, e-teaching, distance learning, education

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573 Fuzzy Control of a Three Phase ThyristorizedInduction Motor

Authors: Abolfazl Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza Feyzi, Sohrab Khanmohammad, Mohammad Bagher Bana Sharifian, Ali Sajjadi

Abstract:

Nowadays the control of stator voltage at a constant frequency is one of the traditional and low expense methods in order to control the speed of induction motors near its nominal speed. The torque of induction motor is a nonlinear function of the firing angle, phase angle and speed. In this paper the speed control of induction motor regarding various load torque and under different conditions will be investigated based on a fuzzy controller with inverse training.

Keywords: Three phase induction motor, AC converter, speedcontrol, fuzzy control.

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572 Quantitative Analysis of PCA, ICA, LDA and SVM in Face Recognition

Authors: Liton Jude Rozario, Mohammad Reduanul Haque, Md. Ziarul Islam, Mohammad Shorif Uddin

Abstract:

Face recognition is a technique to automatically identify or verify individuals. It receives great attention in identification, authentication, security and many more applications. Diverse methods had been proposed for this purpose and also a lot of comparative studies were performed. However, researchers could not reach unified conclusion. In this paper, we are reporting an extensive quantitative accuracy analysis of four most widely used face recognition algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) using AT&T, Sheffield and Bangladeshi people face databases under diverse situations such as illumination, alignment and pose variations.

Keywords: PCA, ICA, LDA, SVM, face recognition, noise.

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571 A Review of Control Schemes for Active Power Filters in Order to Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Mohammad Hasan Raouf, Azim Nowbakht, Mohammad Bagher Haddadi, Mohammad Reza Tabatabaei

Abstract:

Power quality has become a very important issue recently due to the impact on electricity suppliers, equipment manufacturers and customers. Power quality is described as the variation of voltage, current and frequency in a power system. Voltage magnitude is one of the major factors that determine the quality of power. Indeed, custom power technology, the low-voltage counterpart of the more widely known flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) technology, aimed at high-voltage power transmission applications, has emerged as a credible solution to solve many problems relating to power quality problems. There are various power quality problems such as voltage sags, swells, flickers, interruptions and harmonics etc. Active Power Filter (APF) is one of the custom power devices and can mitigate harmonics, reactive power and unbalanced load currents originating from load side. In this study, an extensive review of APF studies, the advantages and disadvantages of each introduced methods are presented. The study also helps the researchers to choose the optimum control techniques and power circuit configuration for APF applications.

Keywords: Power Quality, Custom Power, Active Filter, Control Approach.

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570 Stabilization of the Lorenz Chaotic Equations by Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Behrooz Rezaie, Zahra Rahmani Cherati, Mohammad Reza Jahed Motlagh, Mohammad Farrokhi

Abstract:

In this paper, a fuzzy controller is designed for stabilization of the Lorenz chaotic equations. A simple Mamdani inference method is used for this purpose. This method is very simple and applicable for complex chaotic systems and it can be implemented easily. The stability of close loop system is investigated by the Lyapunov stabilization criterion. A Lyapunov function is introduced and the global stability is proven. Finally, the effectiveness of this method is illustrated by simulation results and it is shown that the performance of the system is improved.

Keywords: Chaotic system, Fuzzy control, Lorenz equation.

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569 Comparison of the Existing Methods in Determination of the Characteristic Polynomial

Authors: Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei, Mohammad Haeri

Abstract:

This paper presents comparison among methods of determination of the characteristic polynomial coefficients. First, the resultant systems from the methods are compared based on frequency criteria such as the closed loop bandwidth, gain and phase margins. Then the step responses of the resultant systems are compared on the basis of the transient behavior criteria including overshoot, rise time, settling time and error (via IAE, ITAE, ISE and ITSE integral indices). Also relative stability of the systems is compared together. Finally the best choices in regards to the above diverse criteria are presented.

Keywords: Characteristic Polynomial, Transient Response, Filters, Stability.

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568 Exact Three-wave Solutions for High Nonlinear Form of Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers Equations

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Maliheh Najafi, Mohammad Najafi

Abstract:

By means of the idea of three-wave method, we obtain some analytic solutions for high nonlinear form of Benjamin-Bona- Mahony-Burgers (shortly BBMB) equations in its bilinear form.

Keywords: Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers equations, Hirota's bilinear form, three-wave method.

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567 Preparation and Evaluation of New Nanocatalysts for Selective Oxidation of H2S to Sulfur

Authors: Mohammad Rezaee, Mohammad Kazemeini, Ali Morad Rashidi, Moslem Fattahi

Abstract:

Selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur in a fixed bed reactor over newly synthesized alumina nanocatalysts was physio-chemically investigated and results compared with a commercial Claus catalyst. Amongst these new materials, Al2O3- supported sodium oxide prepared with wet chemical technique and Al2O3 nanocatalyst prepared with spray pyrolysis method were the most active catalysts for selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Other prepared nanocatalysts were quickly deactivated, mainly due to the interaction with H2S and conversion into sulfides.

Keywords: H2S, Claus process, Al2O3, Spray pyrolysis method, Wet chemical technique

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566 Flood Scenarios for Hydrological and Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: Md. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, Mohammad Masud Kamal khan, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Raj H Sharma, Fatema Akram

Abstract:

Future flood can be predicted using the probable maximum flood (PMF). PMF is calculated using the historical discharge or rainfall data considering the other climatic parameters remaining stationary. However climate is changing globally and the key climatic variables are temperature, evaporation, rainfall and sea level rise are likely to change. To develop scenarios to a basin or catchment scale these important climatic variables should be considered. Nowadays scenario based on climatic variables is more suitable than PMF. Six scenarios were developed for a large Fitzroy basin and presented in this paper.

Keywords: Climate change, rainfall, potential evaporation, scenario, sea level rise (SLR), sub-catchment.

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565 Detection of Legionella pneumophila in Cooling Water Systems of Hospitals and Nursing Homes of Kerman City, Iran by Semi- Nested PCR

Authors: Mohammad Ahmadinejad, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Kyvan Shams, Mohammad Khalili

Abstract:

Legionella pneumophila is involved in more than 95% cases of severe atypical pneumonia. Infection is mainly by inhalation the indoor aerosols through the water-coolant systems. Because some Legionella strains may be viable but not culturable, therefore, Taq polymerase, DNA amplification and semi-nested-PCR were carried out to detect Legionella-specific 16S-rDNA sequence. For this purpose, 1.5 litter of water samples from 77 water-coolant system were collected from four different hospitals, two nursing homes and one student hostel in Kerman city of Iran, each in a brand new plastic bottle during summer season of 2006 (from April to August). The samples were filtered in the sterile condition through the Millipore Membrane Filter. DNA was extracted from membrane and used for PCR to detect Legionella spp. The PCR product was then subjected to semi-nested PCR for detection of L. pneumophila. Out of 77 water samples that were tested by PCR, 30 (39%) were positive for most species of Legionella. However, L. pneumophila was detected from 14 (18.2%) water samples by semi-nested PCR. From the above results it can be concluded that water coolant systems of different hospitals and nursing homes in Kerman city of Iran are highly contaminated with L. pneumophila spp. and pose serious concern. So, we recommend avoiding such type of coolant system in the hospitals and nursing homes.

Keywords: Legionella pneumophila, water-coolant system, semi-nested -PCR.

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564 Synthesis of Sterile and Pyrogen Free Biogenic Magnetic Nanoparticles: Biotechnological Potential of Magnetotactic Bacteria for Production of Nanomaterials

Authors: Saeid Ghorbanzadeh-Mashkani, Parisa Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini, Ahmad Nozad-Golikand, Rouha Kasra-Kermanshahi, Mohammad-Reza Davarpanah

Abstract:

Today, biogenic magnetite nanoparticles among magnetic nanoparticles have unique attracted attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications in various fields such as therapeutic and diagnostic. A well known example of these biogenic nanoparticles is magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria. In this research, we used two different types of technique for the isolation and purification of magnetosome nanoparticles from the isolated magnetotactic bacterial cells, heat-alkaline treatment and sonication. Also we evaluated pyrogen content and sterility of synthesized the isolated individual magnetosome by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test and direct impedimetric method respectively.

Keywords: Biogenic magnetic nanoparticles, Magnetosome, Magnetotactic bacteria, Nanobiotechnology

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563 Development Framework Based on Mobile Augmented Reality for Pre-Literacy Kit

Authors: Nazatul Aini Abd Majid, Faridah Yunus, Haslina Arshad, Mohammad Farhan Mohammad Johari

Abstract:

Mobile technology, augmented reality, and game-based learning are some of the key learning technologies that can be fully optimized to promote pre-literacy skills. The problem is how to design an effective pre-literacy kit that utilizes some of the learning technologies. This paper presents a framework based on mobile augmented reality for the development of pre-literacy kit. This pre-literacy kit incorporates three main components which are contents, design, and tools. A prototype of a mobile app based on the three main components was developed for promoting pre-literacy. The results show that the children and teachers gave positive feedbacks after using the mobile app for the pre-literacy.

Keywords: Framework, mobile technology, augmented reality, pre-literacy skills.

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562 Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Christopher Spiewak, M. R. Islam, Mohammad Arifur Rahaman, Mohammad H. Rahman, Roger Smith, Maarouf Saad

Abstract:

For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.

Keywords: Biorobotics, rehabilitation, nonlinear control, robotic assistive device, exoskeleton.

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561 Traveling Wave Solutions for the (3+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation by (G'/G)- Expansion Method and Modified F-Expansion Method

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Maliheh Najafi, Mohammad Najafi

Abstract:

In this paper, using (G/G )-expansion method and modified F-expansion method, we give some explicit formulas of exact traveling wave solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation. A modified F-expansion method is proposed by taking full advantages of F-expansion method and Riccati equation in seeking exact solutions of the equation.

Keywords: Exact solution, The (3+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation, ( G G )-expansion method, Riccati equation, Modified Fexpansion method.

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560 A Novel Nano-Scaled SRAM Cell

Authors: Arash Azizi Mazreah, Mohammad Reza Sahebi, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani

Abstract:

To help overcome limits to the density of conventional SRAMs and leakage current of SRAM cell in nanoscaled CMOS technology, we have developed a four-transistor SRAM cell. The newly developed CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell uses one word-line and one bit-line during read/write operation. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 19% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also the leakage current of new cell is 60% smaller than a conventional sixtransistor SRAM cell. Simulation result in 65nm CMOS technology shows new cell has correct operation during read/write operation and idle mode.

Keywords: SRAM Cell, leakage current, cell area.

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559 Tidal River Sediment Management–A Case Study in Southwestern Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Sharif Imam Ibne Amir, M. Shah Alam Khan, Mohammad Masud Kamal Khan, Mohammad Golam Rasul, Fatema Akram

Abstract:

The problems of severe drainage congestion and water logging in the southwestern Bangladesh have been solved by an innovative concept, Tidal River Management (TRM). TRM involves the uniform raising of the land inside a tidal basin (beel) while simultaneously maintaining the proper drainage capacity in the river. The present practice of TRM is to link the river with the selected beel by constructing a link canal at the entrance of which most of the sedimentation takes place. This localized sedimentation also creates drainage congestion and water logging making it unattractive to landowners who participate in the program. In this paper a functional sediment management plan is presented to get rid of this problem

Keywords: Beel, embankment, MIKE 21 Flow Model FM, Tidal River Management.

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558 Effect of Phosphate Solubilization Microorganisms (PSM) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Yield and Yield Components of Corn (Zea mays L.)

Authors: Mohammad Yazdani, Mohammad Ali Bahmanyar, Hemmatollah Pirdashti, Mohammad Ali Esmaili

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of phosphate solubilization microorganisms (PSM) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and yield components of corn Zea mays (L. cv. SC604) an experiment was conducted at research farm of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran during 2007. Experiment laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of manures (consisted of 20 Mg.ha-1 farmyard manure, 15 Mg.ha-1 green manure and check or without any manures) as main plots and eight levels of biofertilizers (consisted of 1-NPK or conventional fertilizer application; 2-NPK+PSM+PGPR; 3 NP50%K+PSM+PGPR; 4- N50%PK+PSM +PGPR; 5-N50%P50%K+PSM+ PGPR; 6-PK+PGPR; 7- NK+PSM and 8-PSM+PGPR) as sub plots were treatments. Results showed that farmyard manure application increased row number, ear weight, grain number per ear, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index compared to check. Furthermore, using of PSM and PGPR in addition to conventional fertilizer applications (NPK) could improve ear weight, row number and grain number per row and ultimately increased grain yield in green manure and check plots. According to results in all fertilizer treatments application of PSM and PGPR together could reduce P application by 50% without any significant reduction of grain yield. However, this treatment could not compensate 50% reduction of N application.

Keywords: Biofertilizers, corn, PSM, PGPR, grain yield.

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557 Online Information Seeking: A Review of the Literature in the Health Domain

Authors: Sharifah Sumayyah Engku Alwi, Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad

Abstract:

The development of the information technology and Internet has been transforming the healthcare industry. The internet is continuously accessed to seek for health information and there are variety of sources, including search engines, health websites, and social networking sites. Providing more and better information on health may empower individuals, however, ensuring a high quality and trusted health information could pose a challenge. Moreover, there is an ever-increasing amount of information available, but they are not necessarily accurate and up to date. Thus, this paper aims to provide an insight of the models and frameworks related to online health information seeking of consumers. It begins by exploring the definition of information behavior and information seeking to provide a better understanding of the concept of information seeking. In this study, critical factors such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence will be studied in relation to the value of seeking health information. It also aims to analyze the effect of age, gender, and health status as the moderator on the factors that influence online health information seeking, i.e. trust and information quality. A preliminary survey will be carried out among the health professionals to clarify the research problems which exist in the real world, at the same time producing a conceptual framework. A final survey will be distributed to five states of Malaysia, to solicit the feedback on the framework. Data will be analyzed using SPSS and SmartPLS 3.0 analysis tools. It is hoped that at the end of this study, a novel framework that can improve online health information seeking is developed. Finally, this paper concludes with some suggestions on the models and frameworks that could improve online health information seeking.

Keywords: Information behavior, information seeking, online health information, technology acceptance model, the theory of planned behavior, UTAUT.

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556 Heat Recovery System from Air-Cooled Chillers in Iranian Hospitals

Authors: Saeed Vahidifar, Mohammad Nakhaee Sharif, Mohammad Ghaffari

Abstract:

Few people would dispute the fact that one of the most common applications of energy is creating comfort in buildings, so it is probably true to say that management of energy consumption is required due to the environmental issues and increasing the efficiency of mechanical systems. From the geographical point of view, Iran is located in a warm and semi-arid region; therefore, air-cooled chillers are usually used for cooling residential buildings, commercial buildings, medical buildings, etc. In this study, a heat exchanger was designed for providing laundry hot water by utilizing condenser heat lost base on analytical results of a 540-bed hospital in the city of Mashhad in Iran. In this paper, by using the analytical method, energy consumption reduces about 13%, and coefficient of performance increases a bit. Results show that this method can help in the management of energy consumption a lot.

Keywords: Energy management, air-cooled chiller, heat exchanger, hospital laundry system.

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555 A Comparative Study of Afghan Traditional and Contemporary Courtyard Housing Regarding Affordable Planning and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to upgrade a pleasing, sustainable and safe shelter in the Afghan urban community. It also aims to maintain traditional housing, which is fitted to its environment, while attempting to upgrade it with new, traditional standards. The three main objectives of this study are to upgrade the traditional courtyard house to become safe and sustainable today and tomorrow; to fit the contemporary house environmentally and culturally, and to suppress or reduce the broad gap between traditional and contemporary housing. The paper tries to exhibit and analyze the sustainably best practices available in both traditional and contemporary courtyard housing in Afghanistan. For instance, the use of thick walls and Tawa-Khana (floor heating system) shows the best sustainable practice in that context.

Keywords: Afghan Traditional Courtyard Housing (ATCH), Afghan Contemporary Courtyard Housing (ACCH), suitability planning, affordable and thermal comfort.

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554 Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

Abstract:

The overall goal of this paper is to examine the suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration. Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of various types of housing development in all zones of the country. There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to have their own houses.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, housing policy, affordability, social housing, housing provision, environmental sustainability principles, resettlement.

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553 Khilafat from Khilafat-e-Rashida: The Only Form of Governance to Unite Muslim Countries

Authors: Zoaib Mirza

Abstract:

Half of the Muslim countries in the world have declared Islam the state religion in their constitutions. Yet, none of these countries have implemented authentic Islamic laws in line with the Quran (Holy Book), practices of Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) called the Sunnah, and his four successors known as the Rightly Guided - Khalifa. Since their independence, these countries have adopted different government systems like Democracy, Dictatorship, Republic, Communism, and Monarchy. Instead of benefiting the people, these government systems have put these countries into political, social, and economic crises. These Islamic countries do not have equal representation and membership in worldwide political forums. Western countries lead these forums. Therefore, it is now imperative for the Muslim leaders of all these countries to collaborate, reset, and implement the original Islamic form of government, which led to the prosperity and success of people, including non-Muslims, 1400 years ago. They should unite as one nation under Khalifat, which means establishing the authority of Allah (SWT) and following the divine commandments related to the social, political, and economic systems. As they have declared Islam in their constitution, they should work together to apply the divine framework of the governance revealed by Allah (SWT) and implemented by Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) and his four successors called Khalifas. This paper provides an overview of the downfall and the end of the Khalifat system by 1924, the ways in which the West caused political, social, and economic crises in the Muslim countries, and finally, a summary of the social, political, and economic systems implemented by the Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) and his successors, Khalifas, called the Rightly Guided – Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), Hazrat Omar (RA), Hazrat Usman (RA), and Hazrat Ali (RA).

Keywords: Khalifat, Khilafat-e-Rashida, The Rightly Guided, colonization, capitalism, neocolonization, government systems.

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