Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 290

Search results for: Aerial robots

260 Construction of Large Scale UAVs Using Homebuilt Composite Techniques

Authors: Brian J. Kozak, Joshua D. Shipman, Peng Hao Wang, Blake Shipp

Abstract:

The unmanned aerial system (UAS) industry is growing at a rapid pace. This growth has increased the demand for low cost, custom made and high strength unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The area of most growth is in the area of 25 kg to 200 kg vehicles. Vehicles this size are beyond the size and scope of simple wood and fabric designs commonly found in hobbyist aircraft. These high end vehicles require stronger materials to complete their mission. Traditional aircraft construction materials such as aluminum are difficult to use without machining or advanced computer controlled tooling. However, by using general aviation composite aircraft homebuilding techniques and materials, a large scale UAV can be constructed cheaply and easily. Furthermore, these techniques could be used to easily manufacture cost made composite shapes and airfoils that would be cost prohibitive when using metals. These homebuilt aircraft techniques are being demonstrated by the researchers in the construction of a 75 kg aircraft.

Keywords: Composite aircraft, homebuilding, unmanned aerial system, unmanned aerial vehicles.

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259 A Method to Compute Efficient 3D Helicopters Flight Trajectories Based on a Motion Polymorph-Primitives Algorithm

Authors: Konstanca Nikolajevic, Nicolas Belanger, David Duvivier, Rabie Ben Atitallah, Abdelhakim Artiba

Abstract:

Finding the optimal 3D path of an aerial vehicle under flight mechanics constraints is a major challenge, especially when the algorithm has to produce real time results in flight. Kinematics models and Pythagorian Hodograph curves have been widely used in mobile robotics to solve this problematic. The level of difficulty is mainly driven by the number of constraints to be saturated at the same time while minimizing the total length of the path. In this paper, we suggest a pragmatic algorithm capable of saturating at the same time most of dimensioning helicopter 3D trajectories’ constraints like: curvature, curvature derivative, torsion, torsion derivative, climb angle, climb angle derivative, positions. The trajectories generation algorithm is able to generate versatile complex 3D motion primitives feasible by a helicopter with parameterization of the curvature and the climb angle. An upper ”motion primitives’ concatenation” algorithm is presented based. In this article we introduce a new way of designing three-dimensional trajectories based on what we call the ”Dubins gliding symmetry conjecture”. This extremely performing algorithm will be soon integrated to a real-time decisional system dealing with inflight safety issues.

Keywords: Aerial robots, Motion primitives, Robotics.

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258 Open Jet Testing for Buoyant and Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicles

Authors: A. U. Haque, W. Asrar, A. A. Omar, E. Sulaeman, J. S Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

Open jet testing is a valuable testing technique which provides the desired results with reasonable accuracy. It has been used in past for the airships and now has recently been applied for the hybrid ones, having more non-buoyant force coming from the wings, empennage and the fuselage. In the present review work, an effort has been done to review the challenges involved in open jet testing. In order to shed light on the application of this technique, the experimental results of two different configurations are presented. Although, the aerodynamic results of such vehicles are unique to its own design; however, it will provide a starting point for planning any future testing. Few important testing areas which need more attention are also highlighted. Most of the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles are unconventional in shape and there experimental data is generated, which is unique to its own design.

Keywords: Open jet testing, aerodynamics, hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles, airships.

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257 Traffic Density Measurement by Automatic Detection of Vehicles Using Gradient Vectors from Aerial Images

Authors: Saman Ghaffarian, Ilgın Gökasar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new automatic vehicle detection method from very high resolution aerial images to measure traffic density. The proposed method starts by extracting road regions from image using road vector data. Then, the road image is divided into equal sections considering resolution of the images. Gradient vectors of the road image are computed from edge map of the corresponding image. Gradient vectors on the each boundary of the sections are divided where the gradient vectors significantly change their directions. Finally, number of vehicles in each section is carried out by calculating the standard deviation of the gradient vectors in each group and accepting the group as vehicle that has standard deviation above predefined threshold value. The proposed method was tested in four very high resolution aerial images acquired from Istanbul, Turkey which illustrate roads and vehicles with diverse characteristics. The results show the reliability of the proposed method in detecting vehicles by producing 86% overall F1 accuracy value.

Keywords: Aerial images, intelligent transportation systems, traffic density measurement, vehicle detection.

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256 Lane Changing and Merging Maneuvers of Carlike Robots

Authors: Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai, Ravindra Rai

Abstract:

This research paper designs a unique motion planner of multiple platoons of nonholonomic car-like robots as a feasible solution to the lane changing/merging maneuvers. The decentralized planner with a leaderless approach and a path-guidance principle derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme generates collision free avoidance and safe merging maneuvers from multiple lanes to a single lane by deploying a split/merge strategy. The fixed obstacles are the markings and boundaries of the road lanes, while the moving obstacles are the robots themselves. Real and virtual road lane markings and the boundaries of road lanes are incorporated into a workspace to achieve the desired formation and configuration of the robots. Convergence of the robots to goal configurations and the repulsion of the robots from specified obstacles are achieved by suitable attractive and repulsive potential field functions, respectively. The results can be viewed as a significant contribution to the avoidance algorithm of the intelligent vehicle systems (IVS). Computer simulations highlight the effectiveness of the split/merge strategy and the acceleration-based controllers.

Keywords: Lane merging, Lyapunov-based control scheme, path-guidance principle, split/merge strategy.

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255 Study on Construction of 3D Topography by UAV-Based Images

Authors: Yun-Yao Chi, Chieh-Kai Tsai, Dai-Ling Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a method of fast 3D topography modeling using the high-resolution camera images is studied based on the characteristics of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry and the need of three dimensional (3D) urban landscape modeling. Firstly, the existing high-resolution digital camera with special design of overlap images is designed by reconstructing and analyzing the auto-flying paths of UAVs, which improves the self-calibration function to achieve the high precision imaging by software, and further increased the resolution of the imaging system. Secondly, several-angle images including vertical images and oblique images gotten by the UAV system are used for the detail measure of urban land surfaces and the texture extraction. Finally, the aerial photography and 3D topography construction are both developed in campus of Chang-Jung University and in Guerin district area in Tainan, Taiwan, provide authentication model for construction of 3D topography based on combined UAV-based camera images from system. The results demonstrated that the UAV system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry can be used in the construction of 3D topography production, and the technology solution in this paper offers a new, fast, and technical plan for the 3D expression of the city landscape, fine modeling and visualization.

Keywords: 3D, topography, UAV, images.

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254 Novel Mobile Climbing Robot Agent for Offshore Platforms

Authors: Akbar F. Moghaddam, Magnus Lange, Omid Mirmotahari, Mats Høvin

Abstract:

To improve HSE standards, oil and gas industries are interested in using remotely controlled and autonomous robots instead of human workers on offshore platforms. In addition to earlier reason this strategy would increase potential revenue, efficient usage of work experts and even would allow operations in more remote areas. This article is the presentation of a custom climbing robot, called Walloid, designed for offshore platform topside automation. This 4 arms climbing robot with grippers is an ongoing project at University of Oslo.

Keywords: Climbing Robots, Mobile Robots, Offshore Robotics, Offshore Platforms, Automation, Inspection, Monitoring.

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253 Automatic Extraction of Roads from High Resolution Aerial and Satellite Images with Heavy Noise

Authors: Yan Li, Ronald Briggs

Abstract:

Aerial and satellite images are information rich. They are also complex to analyze. For GIS systems, many features require fast and reliable extraction of roads and intersections. In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithms to address some difficult issues that are commonly seen in high resolution aerial and satellite images, nonetheless not well addressed in existing solutions, such as blurring, broken or missing road boundaries, lack of road profiles, heavy shadows, and interfering surrounding objects. The new scheme is based on a new method, namely reference circle, to properly identify the pixels that belong to the same road and use this information to recover the whole road network. This feature is invariable to the shape and direction of roads and tolerates heavy noise and disturbances. Road extraction based on reference circles is much more noise tolerant and flexible than the previous edge-detection based algorithms. The scheme is able to extract roads reliably from images with complex contents and heavy obstructions, such as the high resolution aerial/satellite images available from Google maps.

Keywords: Automatic road extraction, Image processing, Feature extraction, GIS update, Remote sensing, Geo-referencing

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252 Flight Control of Vectored Thrust Aerial Vehicle by Neural Network Predictive Controller for Enhanced Situational Awareness

Authors: Igor Astrov, Mikhail Pikkov, Rein Paluoja

Abstract:

This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the control of autonomous vertical flight for vectored thrust aerial vehicle (VTAV). With the SA strategy, we proposed a flight control procedure to address the dynamics variation and performance requirement difference of flight trajectory for an unmanned helicopter model with vectored thrust configuration. This control strategy for chosen model of VTAV has been verified by simulation of take-off and forward maneuvers using software package Simulink and demonstrated good performance for fast stabilization of motors, consequently, fast SA with economy in energy can be asserted during search-and-rescue operations.

Keywords: Neural network predictive controller, situational awareness, vectored thrust aerial vehicle.

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251 Dynamic Stall Characterization of Low Reynolds Airfoil in Mars and Titan’s Atmosphere

Authors: Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma, Ayush Gupta, Rajesh Yadav

Abstract:

Exploratory missions to Mars and Titan have increased recently with various endeavors to find an alternate home to humankind. The use of surface rovers has its limitations due to rugged and uneven surfaces of these planetary bodies. The use of aerial robots requires the complete aerodynamic characterization of these vehicles in the atmospheric conditions of these planetary bodies. The dynamic stall phenomenon is extremely important for rotary wings performance under low Reynolds number that can be encountered in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere. The current research focuses on the aerodynamic characterization and exploration of the dynamic stall phenomenon of two different airfoils viz. E387 and Selig-Donovan7003 in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere at low Reynolds numbers of 10000 and 50000. The two-dimensional numerical simulations are conducted using commercially available finite volume solver with multi-species non-reacting mixture of gases as the working fluid. The k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model is used to capture the unsteady flow separation and the effect of turbulence. The dynamic characteristics are studied at a fixed different constant rotational extreme of angles of attack. This study of airfoils at different low Reynolds number and atmospheric conditions on Mars and Titan will be resulting in defining the aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils for unmanned aerial missions for outer space exploration.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, dynamic stall, low Reynolds, Mars, Titan.

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250 An AR/VR Based Approach Towards the Intuitive Control of Mobile Rescue Robots

Authors: Jürgen Roßmann, André Kupetz, Roland Wischnewski

Abstract:

An intuitive user interface for the teleoperation of mobile rescue robots is one key feature for a successful exploration of inaccessible and no-go areas. Therefore, we have developed a novel framework to embed a flexible and modular user interface into a complete 3-D virtual reality simulation system. Our approach is based on a client-server architecture to allow for a collaborative control of the rescue robot together with multiple clients on demand. Further, it is important that the user interface is not restricted to any specific type of mobile robot. Therefore, our flexible approach allows for the operation of different robot types with a consistent concept and user interface. In laboratory tests, we have evaluated the validity and effectiveness of our approach with the help of two different robot platforms and several input devices. As a result, an untrained person can intuitively teleoperate both robots without needing a familiarization time when changing the operating robot.

Keywords: Teleoperation of mobile robots, augmented reality, user interface, virtual reality.

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249 Walking Hexapod Robot in Disaster Recovery: Developing Algorithm for Terrain Negotiation and Navigation

Authors: Md. Masum Billah, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Soheli Farhana

Abstract:

In modern day disaster recovery mission has become one of the top priorities in any natural disaster management regime. Smart autonomous robots may play a significant role in such missions, including search for life under earth quake hit rubbles, Tsunami hit islands, de-mining in war affected areas and many other such situations. In this paper current state of many walking robots are compared and advantages of hexapod systems against wheeled robots are described. In our research we have selected a hexapod spider robot; we are developing focusing mainly on efficient navigation method in different terrain using apposite gait of locomotion, which will make it faster and at the same time energy efficient to navigate and negotiate difficult terrain. This paper describes the method of terrain negotiation navigation in a hazardous field.

Keywords: Walking robots, locomotion, hexapod robot, gait, hazardous field.

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248 An Algorithm for Autonomous Aerial Navigation using MATLAB® Mapping Tool Box

Authors: Mansoor Ahsan, Suhail Akhtar, Adnan Ali, Farrukh Mazhar, Muddssar Khalid

Abstract:

In the present era of aviation technology, autonomous navigation and control have emerged as a prime area of active research. Owing to the tremendous developments in the field, autonomous controls have led today’s engineers to claim that future of aerospace vehicle is unmanned. Development of guidance and navigation algorithms for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an extremely challenging task, which requires efforts to meet strict, and at times, conflicting goals of guidance and control. In this paper, aircraft altitude and heading controllers and an efficient algorithm for self-governing navigation using MATLAB® mapping toolbox is presented which also enables loitering of a fixed wing UAV over a specified area. For this purpose, a nonlinear mathematical model of a UAV is used. The nonlinear model is linearized around a stable trim point and decoupled for controller design. The linear controllers are tested on the nonlinear aircraft model and navigation algorithm is subsequently developed for for autonomous flight of the UAV. The results are presented for trajectory controllers and waypoint based navigation. Our investigation reveals that MATLAB® mapping toolbox can be exploited to successfully deliver an efficient algorithm for autonomous aerial navigation for a UAV.

Keywords: Navigation, trajectory-control, unmanned aerial vehicle, PID-control, MATLAB® mapping toolbox.

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247 Ground System Software for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles on Android Device

Authors: Thach D. Do, Juhum Kwon, Chang-Joo Moon

Abstract:

A Ground Control System (GCS), which controls Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and monitors their missionrelated data, is one of the major components of UAVs. In fact, some traditional GCSs were built on an expensive, complicated hardware infrastructure with workstations and PCs. In contrast, a GCS on a portable device – such as an Android phone or tablet – takes advantage of its light-weight hardware and the rich User Interface supported by the Android Operating System. We implemented that kind of GCS and called it Ground System Software (GSS) in this paper. In operation, our GSS communicates with UAVs or other GSS via TCP/IP connection to get mission-related data, visualizes it on the device-s screen, and saves the data in its own database. Our study showed that this kind of system will become a potential instrument in UAV-related systems and this kind of topic will appear in many research studies in the near future.

Keywords: Android Operating System, Ground Control System, Mobile Device, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

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246 Analytical Approach of the In-Pipe Robot on Branched Pipe Navigation and Its Solution

Authors: Yoon Koo Kang, Jung wan Park, Hyun Seok Yang

Abstract:

This paper determines most common model of in-pipe robots to derive its degree of freedom in order to compare with the necessary degree of freedom required for a system to move inside pipelines freely in order to derive analytical reason for losing control of in-pipe robots at branched pipe. DOF of most common mechanism in in-pipe robots can be calculated by considering the robot as a parallel manipulator. A new design based on previously researched in-pipe robot PAROYS has been suggested, and its possibility to overcome branched section has been simulated.

Keywords: Branched pipe, Degree of freedom, In-pipe robot, Parallel manipulator.

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245 Vision-Based Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Recurrent Neural Networks

Authors: Yao-Hong Tsai

Abstract:

Due to the sensor technology, video surveillance has become the main way for security control in every big city in the world. Surveillance is usually used by governments for intelligence gathering, the prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or the investigation of crime. Many surveillance systems based on computer vision technology have been developed in recent years. Moving target tracking is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to find and track objects of interest in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications. The paper is focused on vision-based collision avoidance for UAVs by recurrent neural networks. First, images from cameras on UAV were fused based on deep convolutional neural network. Then, a recurrent neural network was constructed to obtain high-level image features for object tracking and extracting low-level image features for noise reducing. The system distributed the calculation of the whole system to local and cloud platform to efficiently perform object detection, tracking and collision avoidance based on multiple UAVs. The experiments on several challenging datasets showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle, object tracking, deep learning, collision avoidance.

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244 A Universal Approach for the Intuitive Control of Mobile Robots using an AR/VR-based Interface

Authors: Juergen Rossmann, Andre Kupetz, Roland Wischnewski

Abstract:

Mobile robots are used in a large field of scenarios, like exploring contaminated areas, repairing oil rigs under water, finding survivors in collapsed buildings, etc. Currently, there is no unified intuitive user interface (UI) to control such complex mobile robots. As a consequence, some scenarios are done without the exploitation of experience and intuition of human teleoperators. A novel framework has been developed to embed a flexible and modular UI into a complete 3-D virtual reality simulation system. This new approach wants to access maximum benefits of human operators. Sensor information received from the robot is prepared for an intuitive visualization. Virtual reality metaphors support the operator in his decisions. These metaphors are integrated into a real time stereo video stream. This approach is not restricted to any specific type of mobile robot and allows for the operation of different robot types with a consistent concept and user interface.

Keywords: 3-D simulation system, augmented reality, teleoperation of mobile robots, user interface.

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243 3D Guidance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Sliding Mode Approach

Authors: M. Zamurad Shah, M. Kemal Özgören, Raza Samar

Abstract:

This paper presents a 3D guidance scheme for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed guidance scheme is based on the sliding mode approach using nonlinear sliding manifolds. Generalized 3D kinematic equations are considered here during the design process to cater for the coupling between longitudinal and lateral motions. Sliding mode based guidance scheme is then derived for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system using the proposed nonlinear manifolds. Instead of traditional sliding surfaces, nonlinear sliding surfaces are proposed here for performance and stability in all flight conditions. In the reaching phase control inputs, the bang-bang terms with signum functions are accompanied with proportional terms in order to reduce the chattering amplitudes. The Proposed 3D guidance scheme is implemented on a 6-degrees-of-freedom (6-dof) simulation of a UAV and simulation results are presented here for different 3D trajectories with and without disturbances.

Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Sliding mode control, 3D Guidance, Path following, trajectory tracking, nonlinear sliding manifolds.

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242 A Trends Analysis of Image Processing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Jae-Neung Lee, Keun-Chang Kwak

Abstract:

This paper describes an analysis of domestic and international trends of image processing for data in UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) and also explains about UAV and Quadcopter. Overseas examples of image processing using UAV include image processing for totaling the total numberof vehicles, edge/target detection, detection and evasion algorithm, image processing using SIFT(scale invariant features transform) matching, and application of median filter and thresholding. In Korea, many studies are underway including visualization of new urban buildings.

Keywords: Image Processing, UAV, Quadcopter, Target detection.

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241 CQAR: Closed Quarter Aerial Robot Design for Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition Tasks in Urban Areas

Authors: Paul Y. Oh, William E. Green

Abstract:

This paper describes a prototype aircraft that can fly slowly, safely and transmit wireless video for tasks like reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition. The aircraft is designed to fly in closed quarters like forests, buildings, caves and tunnels which are often spacious but GPS reception is poor. Envisioned is that a small, safe and slow flying vehicle can assist in performing dull, dangerous and dirty tasks like disaster mitigation, search-and-rescue and structural damage assessment.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomous collisionavoidance, optic flow, near-Earth environments

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240 Implementing Delivery Drones in Logistics Business Process: Case of Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Nikola Vlahovic, Blazenka Knezevic, Petra Batalic

Abstract:

In this paper, we will present a research about feasibility of implementing unmanned aerial vehicles, also known as 'drones', in logistics. Research is based on available information about current incentives and experiments in application of delivery drones in commercial use. Overview of current pilot projects and literature, as well as an overview of detected challenges, will be compiled and presented. Based on these findings, we will present a conceptual model of business process that implements delivery drones in business to business logistic operations. Business scenario is based on a pharmaceutical supply chain. Simulation modeling will be used to create models for running experiments and collecting performance data. Comparative study of the presented conceptual model will be given. The work will outline the main advantages and disadvantages of implementing unmanned aerial vehicles in delivery services as a supplementary distribution channel along the supply chain.

Keywords: Business process, delivery drones, logistics, simulation modelling, unmanned aerial vehicles.

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239 Fuzzy Separation Bearing Control for Mobile Robots Formation

Authors: A. Bazoula, H. Maaref

Abstract:

In this article we address the problem of mobile robot formation control. Indeed, the most work, in this domain, have studied extensively classical control for keeping a formation of mobile robots. In this work, we design an FLC (Fuzzy logic Controller) controller for separation and bearing control (SBC). Indeed, the leader mobile robot is controlled to follow an arbitrary reference path, and the follower mobile robot use the FSBC (Fuzzy Separation and Bearing Control) to keep constant relative distance and constant angle to the leader robot. The efficiency and simplicity of this control law has been proven by simulation on different situation.

Keywords: Autonomous mobile robot, Formation control, Fuzzy logic control, Multiple robots, Leader-Follower.

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238 Pipelines Monitoring System Using Bio-mimetic Robots

Authors: Seung You Na, Daejung Shin, Jin Young Kim, Seong-Joon Baek, Bae-Ho Lee

Abstract:

Recently there has been a growing interest in the field of bio-mimetic robots that resemble the behaviors of an insect or an aquatic animal, among many others. One of various bio-mimetic robot applications is to explore pipelines, spotting any troubled areas or malfunctions and reporting its data. Moreover, the robot is able to prepare for and react to any abnormal routes in the pipeline. Special types of mobile robots are necessary for the pipeline monitoring tasks. In order to move effectively along a pipeline, the robot-s movement will resemble that of insects or crawling animals. When situated in massive pipelines with complex routes, the robot places fixed sensors in several important spots in order to complete its monitoring. This monitoring task is to prevent a major system failure by preemptively recognizing any minor or partial malfunctions. Areas uncovered by fixed sensors are usually impossible to provide real-time observation and examination, and thus are dependent on periodical offline monitoring. This paper proposes a monitoring system that is able to monitor the entire area of pipelines–with and without fixed sensors–by using the bio-mimetic robot.

Keywords: Bio-mimetic robots, Plant pipes monitoring, Mobile and active monitoring.

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237 Autonomous Flight Performance Improvement of Load-Carrying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Active Morphing

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed, Murat Aydin, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Mustafa Soylak

Abstract:

In this paper, it is aimed to improve autonomous flight performance of a load-carrying (payload: 3 kg and total: 6kg) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) through active wing and horizontal tail active morphing and also integrated autopilot system parameters (i.e. P, I, D gains) and UAV parameters (i.e. extension ratios of wing and horizontal tail during flight) design. For this purpose, a loadcarrying UAV (i.e. ZANKA-II) is manufactured in Erciyes University, College of Aviation, Model Aircraft Laboratory is benefited. Optimum values of UAV parameters and autopilot parameters are obtained using a stochastic optimization method. Using this approach autonomous flight performance of UAV is substantially improved and also in some adverse weather conditions an opportunity for safe flight is satisfied. Active morphing and integrated design approach gives confidence, high performance and easy-utility request of UAV users.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicles, morphing, autopilots, autonomous performance.

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236 Social Assistive Robots, Reframing the Human Robotics Interaction Benchmark of Social Success

Authors: Antonio Espingardeiro

Abstract:

It is likely that robots will cross the boundaries of industry into households over the next decades. With demographic challenges worldwide, the future ageing populations will require the introduction of assistive technologies capable of providing, care, human dignity and quality of life through the aging process. Robotics technology has a high potential for being used in the areas of social and healthcare by promoting a wide range of activities such as entertainment, companionship, supervision or cognitive and physical assistance. However such close Human Robotics Interaction (HRI) encompass a rich set of ethical scenarios that need to be addressed before Socially Assistive Robots (SARs) reach the global markets. Such interactions with robots may seem a worthy goal for many technical/financial reasons but inevitably require close attention to the ethical dimensions of such interactions. This article investigates the current HRI benchmark of social success. It revises it according to the ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and justice aligned with social care ethos. An extension of such benchmark is proposed based on an empirical study of HRIs conducted with elderly groups.

Keywords: HRI, SARs, Social Success, Benchmark, Elderly care.

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235 Topographic Mapping of Farmland by Integration of Multiple Sensors on Board Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial System

Authors: Mengmeng Du, Noboru Noguchi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Noriko Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper introduced a topographic mapping system with time-saving and simplicity advantages based on integration of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Post Processing Kinematic Global Positioning System (PPK GPS) data. This topographic mapping system used a low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct land survey in a low-cost, efficient, and totally autonomous manner. An experiment in a small-scale sugarcane farmland was conducted in Queensland, Australia. Subsequently, we synchronized LiDAR distance measurements that were corrected by using attitude information from gyroscope with PPK GPS coordinates for generation of precision topographic maps, which could be further utilized for such applications like precise land leveling and drainage management. The results indicated that LiDAR distance measurements and PPK GPS altitude reached good accuracy of less than 0.015 m.

Keywords: Land survey, light detection and ranging, post processing kinematic global positioning system, precision agriculture, topographic map, unmanned aerial vehicle.

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234 Integrate Communication Modeling into the Design Modeling at Early Stages of the Design Flow Case Study: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

Authors: Ibrahim A. Aref, Tarek A. El-Mihoub

Abstract:

This paper shows how we can integrate communication modeling into the design modeling at early stages of the design flow. We consider effect of incorporating noise such as impulsive noise on system stability. We show that with change of the system model and investigate the system performance under the different communication effects. We modeled a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as a demonstration using SystemC methodology. Moreover the system is modeled by joining the capabilities of UML and SystemC to operate at system level.

Keywords: Modelling, SoC, SystemC, UAV, Simulation, SoC.

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233 Minimizing of Target Localization Error using Multi-robot System and Particle Filters

Authors: Jana Puchyova

Abstract:

In recent years a number of applications with multirobot systems (MRS) is growing in various areas. But their design is in practice often difficult and algorithms are proposed for the theoretical background and do not consider errors and noise in real conditions, so they are not usable in real environment. These errors are visible also in task of target localization enough, when robots try to find and estimate the position of the target by the sensors. Localization of target is possible also with one robot but as it was examined target finding and localization with group of mobile robots can estimate the target position more accurately and faster. The accuracy of target position estimation is made by cooperation of MRS and particle filtering. Advantage of usage the MRS with particle filtering was tested on task of fixed target localization by group of mobile robots.

Keywords: Multi-robot system, particle filter, position estimation, target localization.

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232 Color Image Segmentation Using Kekre-s Algorithm for Vector Quantization

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul

Abstract:

In this paper we propose segmentation approach based on Vector Quantization technique. Here we have used Kekre-s fast codebook generation algorithm for segmenting low-altitude aerial image. This is used as a preprocessing step to form segmented homogeneous regions. Further to merge adjacent regions color similarity and volume difference criteria is used. Experiments performed with real aerial images of varied nature demonstrate that this approach does not result in over segmentation or under segmentation. The vector quantization seems to give far better results as compared to conventional on-the-fly watershed algorithm.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, , Codebook, Codevector, data compression, Encoding

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231 Optimal Design of Airfoil with High Aspect Ratio in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Ji-Won Han, Hyo-Jae Lim, Byeong-Sam Kim, Juhee Lee

Abstract:

Shape optimization of the airfoil with high aspect ratio of long endurance unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is performed by the multi-objective optimization technology coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For predicting the aerodynamic characteristics around the airfoil the high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver is employed and SMOGA (Simple Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm), which is developed by authors, is used for solving the multi-objective optimization problem. To obtain the optimal solutions of the design variable (i.e., sectional airfoil profile, wing taper ratio and sweep) for high performance of UAVs, both the lift and lift-to-drag ratio are maximized whereas the pitching moment should be minimized, simultaneously. It is found that the lift force and lift-to-drag ratio are linearly dependent and a unique and dominant solution are existed. However, a trade-off phenomenon is observed between the lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment. As the result of optimization, sixty-five (65) non-dominated Pareto individuals at the cutting edge of design spaces that is decided by airfoil shapes can be obtained.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Airfoil, CFD, Shape optimization, Lift-to-drag ratio.

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