Search results for: low Reynolds
278 Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow
Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar
The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.
Keywords: Bed roughness, ejection, sweep, open channel flow, Reynolds Shear Stress, turbulent boundary layer, velocity triple product.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1382
277 Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Fluid Behavior in Wavy Microchannel Used in Microelectronic Devices
Authors: A. Balabel, A. F. Khadrawi, Ali S. Al-Osaimy
Abstract:The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of fluid flow in wavy microchannel are investigated numerically. Effects of Reynolds number on the hydrodynamics and thermal behaviors are investigated. Three cases of Reynolds number (580, 1244, and 1910) are adopted in this study. It is found that the separation zone begin appears when Reynolds number is greater than 1910 at the endsection of the wave. Also it is found that dimensionless maximum velocity at the mid-section of the wave decreases and becomes as a turbulent behavior as Reynolds numbers increases. The maximum temperature at the center line at the mid-section of the wave increases as Reynolds number increases until it reaches the turbulent behavior when Reynolds number is equal or greater than 1244, while this behavior will be achieved at very high velocities at the end section of the wave.
Keywords: Thermo-Fluid Behavior, Microelectronic Devices, Numerical Simulation, Wavy Microchannel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1230
276 Behaviours of Energy Spectrum at Low Reynolds Numbers in Grid Turbulence
Authors: Md. Kamruzzaman, L. Djenidi, R. A. Antonia
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the energy spectrum of turbulent velocity fields at low Reynolds numbers in grid turbulence. Hot wire measurements are carried out in grid turbulence with subjected to a 1.36:1 contraction of the wind tunnel. Three different grids are used: (i) large square perforated grid (mesh size 43.75mm), (ii) small square perforated grid (mesh size 14. and (iii) woven mesh grid (mesh size 5mm). The results indicate that the energy spectrum at small Reynolds numbers does not follow Kolmogorov’s universal scaling. It is further found that the critical Reynolds number, below which the scaling breaks down, is around 25.
Keywords: Decay exponent, Energy spectrum, Taylor microscale Reynolds number, Taylor microscale, Turbulent kinetic energy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2296
275 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer in a Channel with Delta Winglet Vortex Generators at Different Reynolds Numbers
Authors: N. K. Singh
In this study the augmentation of heat transfer in a rectangular channel with triangular vortex generators is evaluated. The span wise averaged Nusselt number, mean temperature and total heat flux are compared with and without vortex generators in the channel at a blade angle of 30° for Reynolds numbers 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000. The use of vortex generators increases the span wise averaged Nusselt number compared to the case without vortex generators considerably. At a particular blade angle, increasing the Reynolds number results in an enhancement in the overall performance and span wise averaged Nusselt number was found to be greater at particular location for larger Reynolds number. The total heat flux from the bottom wall with vortex generators was found to be greater than that without vortex generators and the difference increases with increase in Reynolds number.
Keywords: Heat transfer, channel with vortex generators, numerical simulation, effect of Reynolds number on heat transfer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2332
274 Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Drops Suspended in Poiseuille Flow: Effect of Reynolds Number
Authors: A. Nourbakhsh
A finite difference/front tracking method is used to study the motion of three-dimensional deformable drops suspended in plane Poiseuille flow at non-zero Reynolds numbers. A parallel version of the code was used to study the behavior of suspension on a reasonable grid resolution (grids). The viscosity and density of drops are assumed to be equal to that of the suspending medium. The effect of the Reynolds number is studied in detail. It is found that drops with small deformation behave like rigid particles and migrate to an equilibrium position about half way between the wall and the centerline (the Segre-Silberberg effect). However, for highly deformable drops there is a tendency for drops to migrate to the middle of the channel, and the maximum concentration occurs at the centerline. The effective viscosity of suspension and the fluctuation energy of the flow across the channel increases with the Reynolds number of the flow.
Keywords: Suspensions, Poiseuille flow, Effective viscosity, Reynolds number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1813
273 Assessment of Modern RANS Models for the C3X Vane Film Cooling Prediction
Authors: Mikhail Gritskevich, Sebastian Hohenstein
The paper presents the results of a detailed assessment of several modern Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models for prediction of C3X vane film cooling at various injection regimes. Three models are considered, namely the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, the modification of the SST model accounting for the streamlines curvature (SST-CC), and the Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model (EARSM). It is shown that all the considered models face with a problem in prediction of the adiabatic effectiveness in the vicinity of the cooling holes; however, accounting for the Reynolds stress anisotropy within the EARSM model noticeably increases the solution accuracy. On the other hand, further downstream all the models provide a reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the adiabatic effectiveness and among the considered models the most accurate results are obtained with the use EARMS.
Keywords: Discrete holes film cooling, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes, Reynolds stress tensor anisotropy, turbulent heat transfer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 849
272 Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Jet Impingement Cooling
Authors: Arun Jacob, Leena R., Krishnakumar T.S., Jose Prakash M.
Abstract:Effective cooling of electronic equipment has emerged as a challenging and constraining problem of the new century. In the present work the feasibility and effectiveness of jet impingement cooling on electronics were investigated numerically and experimentally. Studies have been conducted to see the effect of the geometrical parameters such as jet diameter (D), jet to target spacing (Z) and ratio of jet spacing to jet diameter (Z/D) on the heat transfer characteristics. The values of Reynolds numbers considered are in the range 7000 to 42000. The results obtained from the numerical studies are validated by conducting experiments. From the studies it is found that the optimum value of Z/D ratio is 5. For a given Reynolds number, the Nusselt number increases by about 28% if the diameter of the nozzle is increased from 1mm to 2mm. Correlations are proposed for Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds number and these are valid for air as the cooling medium.
Keywords: CFD, heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, ratio of jet diameter to jet spacing (Z/D), Reynolds number, turbulence model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2548
271 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency
Authors: Hamed Sanei, Mohammad Bagher Ayani
Abstract:Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.
Keywords: Chevron corrugated-plate heat exchanger, heat transfer, friction factor, Reynolds numbers.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2592
270 A Numerical Investigation on the Dynamic Stall of a Wind Turbine Section Using Different Turbulent Models
Authors: S. A. Ahmadi, S. Sharif, R. Jamshidi
In this article, the flow behavior around a NACA 0012 airfoil which is oscillating with different Reynolds numbers and in various amplitudes has been investigated numerically. Numerical simulations have been performed with ANSYS software. First, the 2- D geometry has been studied in different Reynolds numbers and angles of attack with various numerical methods in its static condition. This analysis was to choose the best turbulent model and comparing the grids to have the optimum one for dynamic simulations. Because the analysis was to study the blades of wind turbines, the Reynolds numbers were not arbitrary. They were in the range of 9.71e5 to 22.65e5. The angle of attack was in the range of -41.81° to 41.81°. By choosing the forward wind speed as the independent parameter, the others like Reynolds and the amplitude of the oscillation would be known automatically. The results show that the SST turbulent model is the best choice that leads the least numerical error with respect the experimental ones. Also, a dynamic stall phenomenon is more probable at lower wind speeds in which the lift force is less.
Keywords: Dynamic stall, Numerical simulation, Wind turbine, Turbulent ModelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1893
269 Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling
Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar
Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.
Keywords: Open channel flow, Reynolds Number, roughness, turbulence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 969
268 CFD Simulation of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Arterial Stenoses with Surface Irregularities
Authors: R. Manimaran
Abstract:CFD simulations are carried out in arterial stenoses with 48 % areal occlusion. Non-newtonian fluid model is selected for the blood flow as the same problem has been solved before with Newtonian fluid model. Studies on flow resistance with the presence of surface irregularities are carried out. Investigations are also performed on the pressure drop at various Reynolds numbers. The present study revealed that the pressure drop across a stenosed artery is practically unaffected by surface irregularities at low Reynolds numbers, while flow features are observed and discussed at higher Reynolds numbers.
Keywords: Blood flow, Roughness, Computational fluid dynamics, Bio fluid mechanics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4311
267 Force Statistics and Wake Structure Mechanism of Flow around a Square Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers
Authors: Shams-Ul-Islam, Waqas Sarwar Abbasi, Hamid Rahman
Numerical investigation of flow around a square cylinder are presented using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann methods at different Reynolds numbers. A detail analysis are given in terms of time-trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients, power spectra analysis of lift coefficient, vorticity contours visualizations, streamlines and phase diagrams. A number of physical quantities mean drag coefficient, drag coefficient, Strouhal number and root-mean-square values of drag and lift coefficients are calculated and compared with the well resolved experimental data and numerical results available in open literature. The Reynolds numbers affected the physical quantities.
Keywords: Code validation, Force statistics, Multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, Reynolds numbers, Square cylinder.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2966
266 Simulations of Laminar Liquid Flows through Superhydrophobic Micro-Pipes
Authors: Mohamed E. Eleshaky
This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of laminar water flows inside superhydrophobic micro-pipes patterned with square micro-posts features under different operating conditions. It also investigates the effects of air fraction and Reynolds number on the frictional performance of these pipes. Rather than modeling the air-water interfaces of superhydrophobic as a flat inflexible surface, a transient, incompressible, three-dimensional, volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology has been employed to continuously track the air–water interface shape inside micro-pipes. Also, the entrance effects on the flow field have been taken into consideration. The results revealed the strong dependency of the frictional performance on the air fractions and Reynolds number. The frictional resistance reduction becomes increasingly more significant at large air fractions and low Reynolds numbers. Increasing Reynolds number has an adverse effect on the frictional resistance reduction.
Keywords: Drag reduction, laminar flow in micropipes, numerical simulation, superhyrophobic surfaces, microposts.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1837
265 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct
Authors: Nur Irmawati, H.A. Mohammed
In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2 × 10^6 ≤ Ra ≤ 2 × 10^7 and Reynolds number in the range of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It is also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.
Keywords: Numerical simulation, Mixed convection, Horizontal rectangular duct, Nanofluids.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1907
264 Electroviscous Effects in Low Reynolds Number Flow through a Microfluidic Contraction with Rectangular Cross-Section
Authors: Malcolm R Davidson, Ram P. Bharti, Petar Liovic, Dalton J.E. Harvie
Abstract:The electrokinetic flow resistance (electroviscous effect) is predicted for steady state, pressure-driven liquid flow at low Reynolds number in a microfluidic contraction of rectangular cross-section. Calculations of the three dimensional flow are performed in parallel using a finite volume numerical method. The channel walls are assumed to carry a uniform charge density and the liquid is taken to be a symmetric 1:1 electrolyte. Predictions are presented for a single set of flow and electrokinetic parameters. It is shown that the magnitude of the streaming potential gradient and the charge density of counter-ions in the liquid is greater than that in corresponding two-dimensional slit-like contraction geometry. The apparent viscosity is found to be very close to the value for a rectangular channel of uniform cross-section at the chosen Reynolds number (Re = 0.1). It is speculated that the apparent viscosity for the contraction geometry will increase as the Reynolds number is reduced.
Keywords: Contraction, Electroviscous, Microfluidic, Numerical.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1666
263 Entropy Generation and Heat Transfer of Cu–Water Nanofluid Mixed Convection in a Cavity
Authors: Mliki Bouchmel, Belgacem Nabil, Abbassi Mohamed Ammar, Geudri Kamel, Omri Ahmed
Abstract:In this numerical work, mixed convection and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid in a lid-driven square cavity have been investigated numerically using the Lattice Boltzmann Method. Horizontal walls of the cavity are adiabatic and vertical walls have constant temperature but different values. The top wall has been considered as moving from left to right at a constant speed, U0. The effects of different parameters such as nanoparticle volume concentration (0–0.05), Rayleigh number (104–106) and Reynolds numbers (1, 10 and 100) on the entropy generation, flow and temperature fields are studied. The results have shown that addition of nanoparticles to the base fluid affects the entropy generation, flow pattern and thermal behavior especially at higher Rayleigh and low Reynolds numbers. For pure fluid as well as nanofluid, the increase of Reynolds number increases the average Nusselt number and the total entropy generation, linearly. The maximum entropy generation occurs in nanofluid at low Rayleigh number and at high Reynolds number. The minimum entropy generation occurs in pure fluid at low Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Also at higher Reynolds number, the effect of Cu nanoparticles on enhancement of heat transfer was decreased because the effect of lid-driven cavity was increased. The present results are validated by favorable comparisons with previously published results. The results of the problem are presented in graphical and tabular forms and discussed.
Keywords: Entropy generation, mixed convection, nanofluid, lattice Boltzmann method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1604
262 Multiscale Structures and Their Evolution in a Screen Cylinder Wake
Authors: Azlin M. Azmi, T. Zhou, A. Rinoshika, L. Cheng
The turbulent structures in the wake (x/d =10 to 60) of a screen cylinder have been educed to understand the roles of the various structures as evolving downstream by comparing with those obtained in a solid circular cylinder wake at Reynolds number, Re of 7000. Using a wavelet multiresolution technique, the flow structures are decomposed into a number of wavelet components based on their central frequencies. It is observed that in the solid cylinder wake, large-scale structures (of frequencyf0 and 1.2 f0) make the largest contribution to the Reynolds stresses although they start to lose their roles significantly at x/d> 20. In the screen cylinder wake, the intermediate-scale structures (2f0 and 4f0) contribute the most to the Reynolds stresses atx/d =10 before being taken over by the large-scale structures (f0) further downstream.
Keywords: Turbulent structure, screen cylinder, vortex, wavelet multiresolution analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1447
261 Numerical Simulation on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Channel by Triangular Ribs
Authors: Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, Hussein Togun, M. K. A. Ariffin, S. N. Kazi, NM Adam, S. Masuri
Turbulent heat transfer to fluid flow through channel with triangular ribs of different angles are presented in this paper. Ansys 14 ICEM and Ansys 14 Fluent are used for meshing process and solving Navier stokes equations respectively. In this investigation three angles of triangular ribs with the range of Reynolds number varied from 20000 to 60000 at constant surface temperature are considered. The results show that the Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number for all cases at constant surface temperature. According to the profile of local Nusselt number on ribs walled of channel, the peak is at the midpoint between the two ribs. The maximum value of average Nusselt number is obtained for triangular ribs of angel 60°and at Reynolds number of 60000 compared to the Nusselt number for the ribs of angel 90° and 45° and at same Reynolds number. The recirculation regions generated by the ribs corresponding to the velocity streamline show the largest recirculation region at triangular ribs of angle 60° which also provides the highest enhancement of heat transfer.
Keywords: Ribs channel, Turbulent flow, Heat transfer enhancement, Recirculation flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3081
260 Dynamic Stall Characterization of Low Reynolds Airfoil in Mars and Titan’s Atmosphere
Authors: Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma, Ayush Gupta, Rajesh Yadav
Exploratory missions to Mars and Titan have increased recently with various endeavors to find an alternate home to humankind. The use of surface rovers has its limitations due to rugged and uneven surfaces of these planetary bodies. The use of aerial robots requires the complete aerodynamic characterization of these vehicles in the atmospheric conditions of these planetary bodies. The dynamic stall phenomenon is extremely important for rotary wings performance under low Reynolds number that can be encountered in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere. The current research focuses on the aerodynamic characterization and exploration of the dynamic stall phenomenon of two different airfoils viz. E387 and Selig-Donovan7003 in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere at low Reynolds numbers of 10000 and 50000. The two-dimensional numerical simulations are conducted using commercially available finite volume solver with multi-species non-reacting mixture of gases as the working fluid. The k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model is used to capture the unsteady flow separation and the effect of turbulence. The dynamic characteristics are studied at a fixed different constant rotational extreme of angles of attack. This study of airfoils at different low Reynolds number and atmospheric conditions on Mars and Titan will be resulting in defining the aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils for unmanned aerial missions for outer space exploration.
Keywords: Aerodynamic, dynamic stall, low Reynolds, Mars, Titan.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 462
259 Computational Analysis of the Scaling Effects on the Performance of an Axial Compressor
Authors: Junting Xiang, Jörg Uwe Schlüter, Fei Duan
The miniaturization of gas turbines promises many advantages. Miniature gas turbines can be used for local power generation or the propulsion of small aircraft, such as UAV and MAV. However, experience shows that the miniaturization of conventional gas turbines, which are optimized at their current large size, leads to a substantial loss of efficiency and performance at smaller scales. This may be due to a number of factors, such as the Reynolds-number effect, the increased heat transfer, and manufacturing tolerances. In the present work, we focus on computational investigations of the Reynolds number effect and the wall heat transfer on the performance of axial compressor during its size change. The NASA stage 35 compressor is selected as the configuration in this study and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to carry out the miniaturization process and simulations. We perform parameter studies on the effect of Reynolds number and wall thermal conditions. Our results indicate a decrease of efficiency, if the compressor is miniaturized based on its original geometry due to the increase of viscous effects. The increased heat transfer through wall has only a small effect and will actually benefit compressor performance based on our study.
Keywords: Axial compressor, CFD, heat transfer, miniature gas turbines, Reynolds number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3065
258 Scale Effects on the Wake Airflow of a Heavy Truck
Authors: A. Pérard Lecomte, G. Fokoua, A. Mehel, A. Tanière
Automotive experimental measurements in wind tunnel are often conducted on reduced scale. Depending on the study, different similitude parameters are used by researchers to best reproduce the flow at full scale. In this paper, two parameters are investigated, which are Reynolds number and upstream velocity when dealing with airflow of typical urban speed range, below 15 m.s-1. Their impact on flow structures and aerodynamic drag in the wake of a heavy truck model are explored. To achieve this, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been conducted with the aim of modeling the wake airflow of full- and reduced-scaled heavy trucks (1/4 and 1/28). The Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach combined to the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) as the turbulence model closure was used. Both drag coefficients and upstream velocity profiles (flow topology) were found to be close one another for the three investigated scales, when the dynamical similitude Reynolds is achieved. Moreover, the difference is weak for the simulations based on the same inlet air velocity. Hence, for the relative low velocity range investigated here, the impact of the scale factor is limited.
Keywords: Aerodynamics, CFD, heavy truck, recirculation area, scale effects, similitude parameters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 119
257 A Novel Slip Correction Factor for Spherical Aerosol Particles
Authors: Abouzar Moshfegh, Mehrzad Shams, Goodarz Ahmadi, Reza Ebrahimi
Abstract:A 3D simulation study for an incompressible slip flow around a spherical aerosol particle was performed. The full Navier-Stokes equations were solved and the velocity jump at the gas-particle interface was treated numerically by imposition of the slip boundary condition. Analytical solution to the Stokesian slip flow past a spherical particle was used as a benchmark for code verification, and excellent agreement was achieved. The Simulation results showed that in addition to the Knudsen number, the Reynolds number affects the slip correction factor. Thus, the Cunningham-based slip corrections must be augmented by the inclusion of the effect of Reynolds number for application to Lagrangian tracking of fine particles. A new expression for the slip correction factor as a function of both Knudsen number and Reynolds number was developed.
Keywords: CFD, Cunningham correction, Slip correction factor, Spherical aerosol.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3379
256 Rear Separation in a Rotating Fluid at Moderate Taylor Numbers
Authors: S. Damodaran, T. V. S.Sekhar
Abstract:The motion of a sphere moving along the axis of a rotating viscous fluid is studied at high Reynolds numbers and moderate values of Taylor number. The Higher Order Compact Scheme is used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are written in the form of Stream function, Vorticity function and angular velocity which are highly non-linear, coupled and elliptic partial differential equations. The flow is governed by two parameters Reynolds number (Re) and Taylor number (T). For very low values of Re and T, the results agree with the available experimental and theoretical results in the literature. The results are obtained at higher values of Re and moderate values of T and compared with the experimental results. The results are fourth order accurate.
Keywords: Navier_Stokes equations, Taylor number, Reynolds number, Higher order compact scheme, Rotating Fluid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1212
255 Variation of Streamwise and Vertical Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Bed Open Channel Flow
Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar
Abstract:An experimental study with four different types of bed conditions was carried out to understand the effect of roughness in open channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers. The bed conditions include a smooth surface and three different roughness conditions, which were generated using sand grains with a median diameter of 2.46 mm. The three rough conditions include a surface with distributed roughness, a surface with continuously distributed roughness and a sand bed with a permeable interface. A commercial two-component fibre-optic LDA system was used to conduct the velocity measurements. The variables of interest include the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, correlation between the streamwise and the wall normal turbulence, Reynolds shear stress and velocity triple products. Quadrant decomposition was used to extract the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress of the turbulent bursting events. The effect of roughness was evident throughout the flow depth. The results show that distributed roughness has the greatest roughness effect followed by the sand bed and the continuous roughness. Compared to the smooth bed, the streamwise turbulence intensity reduces but the vertical turbulence intensity increases at a location very close to the bed due to the introduction of roughness. Although the same sand grain is used to create the three different rough bed conditions, the difference in the turbulence intensity is an indication that the specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence structure.
Keywords: Open channel flow, smooth bed, rough bed, Reynolds number, turbulence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1981
254 Flow Transformation: An Investigation on Theoretical Aspects and Numerical Computation
Authors: Abhisek Sarkar, Abhimanyu Gaur
In this report we have discussed the theoretical aspects of the flow transformation, occurring through a series of bifurcations. The parameters and their continuous diversion, the intermittent bursts in the transition zone, variation of velocity and pressure with time, effect of roughness in turbulent zone, and changes in friction factor and head loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number for a transverse flow across a cylinder have been discussed. An analysis of the variation in the wake length with Reynolds number was done in FORTRAN.
Keywords: Attractor, Bifurcation, Energy cascade, Energy spectra, Intermittence, Vortex stretching.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1763
253 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method
Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana
Abstract:The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. Expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points, and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on magnitude velocity, shear stress, and pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases magnitude velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation, and reattachment points are strongly affected by Reynolds number.
Keywords: Approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1590
252 Thermal Performance Analysis of Nanofluids in a Concetric Heat Exchanger Equipped with Turbulators
Authors: Feyza Eda Akyurek, Bayram Sahin, Kadir Gelis, Eyuphan Manay, Murat Ceylan
Turbulent forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3–water nanofluid flowing through a concentric tube heat exchanger with and without coiled wire turbulators were studied experimentally. The experiments were conducted in the Reynolds number ranging from 4000 to 20000, particle volume concentrations of 0.8 vol.% and 1.6 vol.%. Two turbulators with the pitches of 25 mm and 39 mm were used. The results of nanofluids indicated that average Nusselt number increased much more with increasing Reynolds number compared to that of pure water. Thermal conductivity enhancement by the nanofluids resulted in heat transfer enhancement. Once the pressure drop of the alumina/water nanofluid was analyzed, it was nearly equal to that of pure water at the same Reynolds number range. It was concluded that nanofluids with the volume fractions of 0.8 and 1.6 did not have a significant effect on pressure drop change. However, the use of wire coils in heat exchanger enhanced heat transfer as well as the pressure drop.
Keywords: Turbulators, heat exchanger, nanofluids, heat transfer enhancement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1342
251 Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil
Authors: Hadi Zarafshani, Shidvash Vakilipour, Shahin Teimori, Sara Barati
In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.
Keywords: Bio-inspired pitching airfoils, OpenFOAM, low Reynolds k-ω SST model, lift and drag coefficients.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 755
250 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study
Authors: E. Keramaris
In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.
Keywords: Particle image velocimetry, sand bed, velocity distribution, Reynolds number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1581
249 Bifurcations and Chaotic Solutions of Two-dimensional Zonal Jet Flow on a Rotating Sphere
Authors: Eiichi Sasaki, Shin-ichi Takehiro, Michio Yamada
Abstract:We study bifurcation structure of the zonal jet flow the streamfunction of which is expressed by a single spherical harmonics on a rotating sphere. In the non-rotating case, we find that a steady traveling wave solution arises from the zonal jet flow through Hopf bifurcation. As the Reynolds number increases, several traveling solutions arise only through the pitchfork bifurcations and at high Reynolds number the bifurcating solutions become Hopf unstable. In the rotating case, on the other hand, under the stabilizing effect of rotation, as the absolute value of rotation rate increases, the number of the bifurcating solutions arising from the zonal jet flow decreases monotonically. We also carry out time integration to study unsteady solutions at high Reynolds number and find that in the non-rotating case the unsteady solutions are chaotic, while not in the rotating cases calculated. This result reflects the general tendency that the rotation stabilizes nonlinear solutions of Navier-Stokes equations.
Keywords: rotating sphere, two-dimensional flow, bifurcationstructureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1521