Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30169
Open Jet Testing for Buoyant and Hybrid Buoyant Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:Open jet testing is a valuable testing technique which provides the desired results with reasonable accuracy. It has been used in past for the airships and now has recently been applied for the hybrid ones, having more non-buoyant force coming from the wings, empennage and the fuselage. In the present review work, an effort has been done to review the challenges involved in open jet testing. In order to shed light on the application of this technique, the experimental results of two different configurations are presented. Although, the aerodynamic results of such vehicles are unique to its own design; however, it will provide a starting point for planning any future testing. Few important testing areas which need more attention are also highlighted. Most of the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles are unconventional in shape and there experimental data is generated, which is unique to its own design.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1338676Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1733
 R. Pannel, J. R. and Jones, “Experiments on a Model of the German Rigid Airship L33,”NACA Report, 1917.
 A. H. Jones, R., Williams, D. H., and Bell, “Experiments on a Model of the Airship R.29,” NACA Report, 1920.
 Jones, R., Williams, D. H., and Bell, A. H., “The distribution of pressure over the hull and fins of a model of the rigid airship R.101, and a determination of the hinge moments on the control surfaces.,” NACA Report, 1920.
 V. Gomes and D. J. Speirits, “Airship response to turbulence: Results from a flight dynamics Simulation combined with a wind tunnel,” AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology Conference, 9 th, San Diego, CA, Technical Papers. Vol. 9. No. 11. 1991.
 Y. M. Huang and S. W. Changt, “Practical Design of an Airship,” Journal of aircraft 32.6 (1995): 1294-1296.
 N. S. Tureaud, T.F., and Smith, “Wind Tunnel Characterization of a Scaled Class IV Aerostat,” in 12th AIAA Ligher Than Air System Technology Conference, 1997.
 P. Gill, S. Malik, and R. S. Pant, “Estimation of aerodynamic characteristics of un-symmetrically finned bodies of revolutions Estimation of Aerodynamic Coefficients Estimation of Unknowns Involved in Aerodynamic Coefficients,” in 28th National Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, 2001.
 A. Malik, S., Gupta S., Sharma, V., Purkait, P.K, and Singh, “Drag measurement through wind tunnel testing for different hull shapes used in aerostat application,” Aerodynamic and Mechanical Decelerations and Inflatable Systems. Para, India, 1999.
 S. Sundaram, “Wind Tunnel Tests on 1:7 and 1:28 Scale Aerostat Models,” PD EA 9905, Bangalore, India, 1999.
 S. P. Badesha, S., and Jones, “Aerodynamics of the TCOM 71 mm Aerostat,” 1993.
 X. Wang, “Experimental Investigations on Aerodynamic Characteristics of the ZHIYUAN-1 Airship,” Journal of aircraft (2010): 1463-1468.
 G. E. Dorrington, “Drag of Spheroid-Cone Shaped Airship,” Journal of aircraft, (2006), 43(2), 363-371.
 T. Lutz, P. Funk, A. Jakobi, and S. Wagner, “Summary of Aerodynamic Studies on the Lotte Airship” In 4th International Airship Convention and Exhibition, pp. 1-12. July, 2002
 P. Funk, T. Lutz, and S. Wagner, “Experimental investigations on hullfin interferences of the LOTTE airship,” Aerospace Science and Technology 7.8 (2003): 603-610.
 C. Jordi, S. Michel, and E. Fink, “Fish-like propulsion of an airship with planar membrane dielectric elastomer actuators.,” Bioinspiration & biomimetics 5, no. 2 (2010): 026007
 A. Ribeiro, V. R. Mantha, A. I. Rouboa, D. a. Marinho, and A. J. Silva, “Study of external air flow for an AURORA,” Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology 83, no. 5 (2011): 255-265.
 S. C. Chan and J. D. Hunt, “Wind Tunnel Study of a Large Aerostat,” AIAA Paper 7068 (2011): 20-22.
 P. Liu, G. Fu, L. Zhu, and X. Wang, “Aerodynamic characteristics of airship Zhiyuan-1,” Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science) 18 (2013): 679-687.
 B. T. Buerge and I. Introduction, “Influence of Surface Roughness on the Drag of Very Large,” AIAA lighter-than-air systems technology (LTA) conference 2013, no. March, pp. 1–6.
 S. Chan, K. Shervington, and J. Hunt, “Wind Tunnel Study of a Large Aerostat, CFD Validation,” AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology (LTA) Conference., pp. 1–8, March 2013.
 P. Liu, J. Sun, and Z. Tang, “Wind Tunnel Tests of the Counter- Rotating Propeller of Stratospheric Airship,” In APCOM & ISCM Conference, 2013.
 P. Liu, Y. Fu, L. Wang, and Q. Song, “Study on Pressure Coefficient Distribution of the Airship Zhiyuan-,” Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology 3 (2013): 015..
 K. E. Urbahs, A., D. Titovs, A.Barovs, A. Aleksandrovs, S. Lučkinskis, “Experimental Research of aerodynamic characteristics of the ESTOLAS hybrid aircraft,” in AVIA INVEST International Conference, 2014, no. October.
 A. D. Andan, W. Asrar, and A. a. Omar, “Investigation of Aerodynamic Parameters of a Hybrid Airship,” Journal of Aircraft 49, no. 2 (2012): 658-662.
 Y. Liu, P. Zeng, and L. P. Lei, “Experimental Study on the Stability Properties of Different Design of Tandem Wing Airship Models,” Appl. Mech. Mater., vol. 457–458, pp. 1611–1614, Oct. 2013.
 A. Suñol, D. Vucinic, and S. Vanlanduit, “Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Lateral Wind on the Feeder Airship,” proceedings of International Conference on Fluid Dynamics and Mechanics (ICFDM-2013). 2013.
 R. Rist and B. Martin, “Introduction of the Dynalifter TM Aircraft.” 2012. (Online). Available: tmacog.org/OCF_09/Presentations /Dynalifter.pdf. Accessed November 30, 2015
 Y. Chen, P. Liu, Z. Tang, and H. Guo, “Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers,” Theor. Appl. Mech. Lett., Feb. 2015.
 A. U. Haque, N. Mohamad, A. Hafiz, S. M. Kashif, A. A. Omar, E. Sulaeman, and J. S. M. Ali, “Design and Fabrication of a Winged Hybrid Airship Model for IIUM-LSWT,” In Advanced Materials Research, vol. 1115, pp. 513-516. 2015.
 F. Dynamics and P. Worklng, Quality Assessment for Wind Tunnel Testing, July. 1994.
 J. Green and J. Quest, “A short history of the European Transonic Wind Tunnel ETW,” Progress in Aerospace Sciences 47, no. 5 (2011): 319-368.
 Grant E Carichner and Leland M Nicolai, Fundamentals of Aircraft and Airship Design: Volume II, Airship Design. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,AIAA, 2013.
 H Multhopp “Aerodynamics of the Fuselage.” NACA TM 1046, 1942.
 R. W. Abbott, I. H., & Noyes, “Airship model tests in the variable density wind tunnel,” NACA Report, 1931.
 C. Stephenson,. Zeppelins: German Airships, 1900-40 (Vol. 101). Osprey Publishing, 2004.
 A. Gamaleyev, “ESTOLAS Project Description,” 2012. (Online). Available: http://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/58762_en.html. Accessed December 1, 2015.
 R. Rist,“World’s First Practical Airship,” 2012. (Online). Available: tmacog.org/OCF_09/Presentations/Dynalifter.pdf. Accessed November 30, 2015.
 Hybrid Air Vehicles, Press Release, “Hybrid Air Vehicles receives a multi-million pound government grant, to ensure Airlander returns to flight, 2015, URL: http://www.blimpinfo.com/airships/ hybrid-airvehicles- receives-a-multi-million-pound-government-grant-to-ensureairlander- returns-to-flight/. Accessed December 11, 2015.
 A. U. Haque, W. Asrar, A. A. Omar, E. Sulaeman, and J. S. M. Ali, “Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals-An Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft.” 4th ICASE, 3rd - 4th October, 2015, Langkawi, Malaysia
 B. Gumse, “Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Full-Scale M2-F2 Lifting Body Model,” NACA Report, 1967.
 G. Ash, Lawrence, (Flight Test and Wind Tunnel Performance Characteristics of the X-24A Lifting Body, FTC-TD-71-8, June 1972
 E. and C. I. C. Jackson, “‘Preliminary Subsonic Aerodynamic Model for Simulation Studies of the HL-20 Lifting body,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Management, Scientific and Technical Information Program, 1992 , 1992.
 B. T. Buerge, “Scalability of Heaviness Fraction for Large Airships,” AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology (LTA) Conference, Proceedings-20th Conference, 2013-1317, 2013..
 G. E. Carichner and L. M. Nicolai, “Hybrids ... the Airship Messiah ?,” AIAA Lighter-Than-Air Systems Technology (LTA) Conference, Proceedings-20th Conference, 2013-1317, 2013.
 B.,Jones, D., Grant, H.Rosenstein, J. Schneider. Feasibility Study of Modern Airships, Final Report, Phase I, Vol. I. NASA CR-137691, 1975
 K.E. Urbahs, A., D. Titovs, A.Barovs, A. Aleksandrovs, S. Lučkinskis, Experimental Research of aerodynamic characteristics of the ESTOLAS hybrid aircraft, in: AVIA INVEST Int. Conf., Riga, Latvia, 2014.
 S. B. V., Gomes, "An investigation into the flight dynamics of airships with application to the YEZ-2A." (1990).
 M. Rennie, “Effect of jet length on pressure fluctuations in 3/4 open-jet wind tunnels. In Motor Industry Research Association, Vehicle Aerodynamics Symposium, October 2000
 S.,Oerlemans, L., Broersma and P.Sijtsma (2007). Quantification of airframe noise using microphone arrays in open and closed wind tunnels. International Journal of Aeroacoustics, 6(4), 309-333..
 C., Kramer, H. J. Gerhardt and L. J. Janssen, "Flow studies of an open jet wind tunnel and comparison with closed and slotted walls", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 22(2), 115-127, 1986.
 M., Knight, T. A. Harris (1930). Experimental determination of jet boundary corrections for airfoil tests in four open wind tunnel jets of different shapes. US Government Printing Office.
 R.Hills R. A Review of measurements on AGARD calibration models. NACA Report, 1961.