Search results for: vehicle detection.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2026

Search results for: vehicle detection.

2026 Vehicle Detection Method using Haar-like Feature on Real Time System

Authors: Sungji Han, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust vehicle detection approach using Haar-like feature. It is possible to get a strong edge feature from this Haar-like feature. Therefore it is very effective to remove the shadow of a vehicle on the road. And we can detect the boundary of vehicles accurately. In the paper, the vehicle detection algorithm can be divided into two main steps. One is hypothesis generation, and the other is hypothesis verification. In the first step, it determines vehicle candidates using features such as a shadow, intensity, and vertical edge. And in the second step, it determines whether the candidate is a vehicle or not by using the symmetry of vehicle edge features. In this research, we can get the detection rate over 15 frames per second on our embedded system.

Keywords: vehicle detection, haar-like feauture, single camera, real time

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2025 Moving Vehicles Detection Using Automatic Background Extraction

Authors: Saad M. Al-Garni, Adel A. Abdennour

Abstract:

Vehicle detection is the critical step for highway monitoring. In this paper we propose background subtraction and edge detection technique for vehicle detection. This technique uses the advantages of both approaches. The practical applications approved the effectiveness of this method. This method consists of two procedures: First, automatic background extraction procedure, in which the background is extracted automatically from the successive frames; Second vehicles detection procedure, which depend on edge detection and background subtraction. Experimental results show the effective application of this algorithm. Vehicles detection rate was higher than 91%.

Keywords: Image processing, Automatic background extraction, Moving vehicle detection.

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2024 Imposter Detection Based on Location in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network

Authors: Sanjoy Das, Akash Arya, Rishi Pal Singh

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc Network is basically the solution of several problems associated while vehicles are plying on the road. In this paper, we have focused on the detection of imposter node while it has stolen the ID's of the authenticated vehicle in the network. The purpose is to harm the network through imposter messages. Here, we have proposed a protocol namely Imposter Detection based on Location (IDBL), which will store the location coordinate of the each vehicle as the key of the authenticity of the message so that imposter node can be detected. The imposter nodes send messages from a stolen ID and show that it is from an authentic node ID. So, to detect this anomaly, the first location is checked and observed different from original vehicle location. This node is known as imposter node. We have implemented the algorithm through JAVA and tested various types of node distribution and observed the detection probability of imposter node.

Keywords: Authentication, detection, IDBL protocol, imposter node, node detection.

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2023 A Real-time Computer Vision System for VehicleTracking and Collision Detection

Authors: Mustafa Kisa, Fatih Mehmet Botsali

Abstract:

Recent developments in automotive technology are focused on economy, comfort and safety. Vehicle tracking and collision detection systems are attracting attention of many investigators focused on safety of driving in the field of automotive mechatronics. In this paper, a vision-based vehicle detection system is presented. Developed system is intended to be used in collision detection and driver alert. The system uses RGB images captured by a camera in a car driven in the highway. Images captured by the moving camera are used to detect the moving vehicles in the image. A vehicle ahead of the camera is detected in daylight conditions. The proposed method detects moving vehicles by subtracting successive images. Plate height of the vehicle is determined by using a plate recognition algorithm. Distance of the moving object is calculated by using the plate height. After determination of the distance of the moving vehicle relative speed of the vehicle and Time-to-Collision are calculated by using distances measured in successive images. Results obtained in road tests are discussed in order to validate the use of the proposed method.

Keywords: Image possessing, vehicle tracking, license plate detection, computer vision.

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2022 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong, Min Xu

Abstract:

This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: Vehicle classification, signal processing, road traffic model, magnetic sensing.

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2021 A Background Subtraction Based Moving Object Detection around the Host Vehicle

Authors: Hyojin Lim, Cuong Nguyen Khac, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose moving object detection method which is helpful for driver to safely take his/her car out of parking lot. When moving objects such as motorbikes, pedestrians, the other cars and some obstacles are detected at the rear-side of host vehicle, the proposed algorithm can provide to driver warning. We assume that the host vehicle is just before departure. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based background subtraction is basically applied. Pre-processing such as smoothing and post-processing as morphological filtering are added. We examine “which color space has better performance for detection of moving objects?” Three color spaces including RGB, YCbCr, and Y are applied and compared, in terms of detection rate. Through simulation, we prove that RGB space is more suitable for moving object detection based on background subtraction.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, background subtraction, Moving object detection, color space, morphological filtering.

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2020 Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yu-Sheng Hsu

Abstract:

On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be used for constructing the 2D vehicle environmental map and available parking type judgment. Finally, the auto-parking controller executes the on-line optimal parking trajectory planning based on this 2D environmental map, and monitors the real-time vehicle parking trajectory tracking control. This low cost auto-parking system was tested on a model car.

Keywords: Vehicle auto-parking, parking space detection, parking path tracking, intelligent fuzzy controller.

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2019 Vehicle Position Estimation for Driver Assistance System

Authors: Hyun-Koo Kim, Sangmoon Lee, Ho-Youl Jung, Ju H. Park

Abstract:

We present a system that finds road boundaries and constructs the virtual lane based on fusion data from a laser and a monocular sensor, and detects forward vehicle position even in no lane markers or bad environmental conditions. When the road environment is dark or a lot of vehicles are parked on the both sides of the road, it is difficult to detect lane and road boundary. For this reason we use fusion of laser and vision sensor to extract road boundary to acquire three dimensional data. We use parabolic road model to calculate road boundaries which is based on vehicle and sensors state parameters and construct virtual lane. And then we distinguish vehicle position in each lane.

Keywords: Vehicle Detection, Adaboost, Haar-like Feature, Road Boundary Detection

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2018 Over-Height Vehicle Detection in Low Headroom Roads Using Digital Video Processing

Authors: Vahid Khorramshahi, Alireza Behrad, Neeraj K. Kanhere

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new method for over-height vehicle detection in low headroom streets and highways using digital video possessing. The accuracy and the lower price comparing to present detectors like laser radars and the capability of providing extra information like speed and height measurement make this method more reliable and efficient. In this algorithm the features are selected and tracked using KLT algorithm. A blob extraction algorithm is also applied using background estimation and subtraction. Then the world coordinates of features that are inside the blobs are estimated using a noble calibration method. As, the heights of the features are calculated, we apply a threshold to select overheight features and eliminate others. The over-height features are segmented using some association criteria and grouped using an undirected graph. Then they are tracked through sequential frames. The obtained groups refer to over-height vehicles in a scene.

Keywords: Feature extraction, over-height vehicle detection, traffic monitoring, vehicle tracking.

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2017 A Trends Analysis of Image Processing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Jae-Neung Lee, Keun-Chang Kwak

Abstract:

This paper describes an analysis of domestic and international trends of image processing for data in UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) and also explains about UAV and Quadcopter. Overseas examples of image processing using UAV include image processing for totaling the total numberof vehicles, edge/target detection, detection and evasion algorithm, image processing using SIFT(scale invariant features transform) matching, and application of median filter and thresholding. In Korea, many studies are underway including visualization of new urban buildings.

Keywords: Image Processing, UAV, Quadcopter, Target detection.

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2016 Design and Implementation of a Counting and Differentiation System for Vehicles through Video Processing

Authors: Derlis Gregor, Kevin Cikel, Mario Arzamendia, Raúl Gregor

Abstract:

This paper presents a self-sustaining mobile system for counting and classification of vehicles through processing video. It proposes a counting and classification algorithm divided in four steps that can be executed multiple times in parallel in a SBC (Single Board Computer), like the Raspberry Pi 2, in such a way that it can be implemented in real time. The first step of the proposed algorithm limits the zone of the image that it will be processed. The second step performs the detection of the mobile objects using a BGS (Background Subtraction) algorithm based on the GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model), as well as a shadow removal algorithm using physical-based features, followed by morphological operations. In the first step the vehicle detection will be performed by using edge detection algorithms and the vehicle following through Kalman filters. The last step of the proposed algorithm registers the vehicle passing and performs their classification according to their areas. An auto-sustainable system is proposed, powered by batteries and photovoltaic solar panels, and the data transmission is done through GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)eliminating the need of using external cable, which will facilitate it deployment and translation to any location where it could operate. The self-sustaining trailer will allow the counting and classification of vehicles in specific zones with difficult access.

Keywords: Intelligent transportation systems, object detection, video processing, road traffic, vehicle counting, vehicle classification.

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2015 Malicious Vehicle Detection Using Monitoring Algorithm in Vehicular Adhoc Networks

Authors: S. Padmapriya

Abstract:

Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANETs), a subset of Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs), refers to a set of smart vehicles used for road safety. This vehicle provides communication services among one another or with the Road Side Unit (RSU). Security is one of the most critical issues related to VANET as the information transmitted is distributed in an open access environment. As each vehicle is not a source of all messages, most of the communication depends on the information received from other vehicles. To protect VANET from malicious action, each vehicle must be able to evaluate, decide and react locally on the information received from other vehicles. Therefore, message verification is more challenging in VANET because of the security and privacy concerns of the participating vehicles. To overcome security threats, we propose Monitoring Algorithm that detects malicious nodes based on the pre-selected threshold value. The threshold value is compared with the distrust value which is inherently tagged with each vehicle. The proposed Monitoring Algorithm not only detects malicious vehicles, but also isolates the malicious vehicles from the network. The proposed technique is simulated using Network Simulator2 (NS2) tool. The simulation result illustrated that the proposed Monitoring Algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of malicious node detection, network delay, packet delivery ratio and throughput, thereby uplifting the overall performance of the network.

Keywords: VANET, security, malicious vehicle detection, threshold value, distrust value.

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2014 Detecting and Tracking Vehicles in Airborne Videos

Authors: Hsu-Yung Cheng, Chih-Chang Yu

Abstract:

In this work, we present an automatic vehicle detection system for airborne videos using combined features. We propose a pixel-wise classification method for vehicle detection using Dynamic Bayesian Networks. In spite of performing pixel-wise classification, relations among neighboring pixels in a region are preserved in the feature extraction process. The main novelty of the detection scheme is that the extracted combined features comprise not only pixel-level information but also region-level information. Afterwards, tracking is performed on the detected vehicles. Tracking is performed using efficient Kalman filter with dynamic particle sampling. Experiments were conducted on a wide variety of airborne videos. We do not assume prior information of camera heights, orientation, and target object sizes in the proposed framework. The results demonstrate flexibility and good generalization abilities of the proposed method on a challenging dataset.

Keywords: Vehicle Detection, Airborne Video, Tracking, Dynamic Bayesian Networks

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2013 Location Detection of Vehicular Accident Using Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units Navigator

Authors: Neda Navidi, Rene Jr. Landry

Abstract:

Vehicle tracking and accident recognizing are considered by many industries like insurance and vehicle rental companies. The main goal of this paper is to detect the location of a car accident by combining different methods. The methods, which are considered in this paper, are Global Navigation Satellite Systems/Inertial Measurement Units (GNSS/IMU)-based navigation and vehicle accident detection algorithms. They are expressed by a set of raw measurements, which are obtained from a designed integrator black box using GNSS and inertial sensors. Another concern of this paper is the definition of accident detection algorithm based on its jerk to identify the position of that accident. In fact, the results convinced us that, even in GNSS blockage areas, the position of the accident could be detected by GNSS/INS integration with 50% improvement compared to GNSS stand alone.

Keywords: Driving behavior, integration, IMU, GNSS, monitoring, tracking.

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2012 Parallel Priority Region Approach to Detect Background

Authors: Sallama Athab, Hala Bahjat, Zhang Yinghui

Abstract:

Background detection is essential in video analyses; optimization is often needed in order to achieve real time calculation. Information gathered by dual cameras placed in the front and rear part of an Autonomous Vehicle (AV) is integrated for background detection. In this paper, real time calculation is achieved on the proposed technique by using Priority Regions (PR) and Parallel Processing together where each frame is divided into regions then and each region process is processed in parallel. PR division depends upon driver view limitations. A background detection system is built on the Temporal Difference (TD) and Gaussian Filtering (GF). Temporal Difference and Gaussian Filtering with multi threshold and sigma (weight) value are be based on PR characteristics. The experiment result is prepared on real scene. Comparison of the speed and accuracy with traditional background detection techniques, the effectiveness of PR and parallel processing are also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Autonomous Vehicle, Background Detection, Dual Camera, Gaussian Filtering, Parallel Processing.

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2011 Study of Integrated Vehicle Image System Including LDW, FCW, and AFS

Authors: Yi-Feng Su, Chia-Tseng Chen, Hsueh-Lung Liao

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop an advanced driver assistance system characterized with the functions of lane departure warning (LDW), forward collision warning (FCW) and adaptive front-lighting system (AFS). The system is mainly configured a CCD/CMOS camera to acquire the images of roadway ahead in association with the analysis made by an image-processing unit concerning the lane ahead and the preceding vehicles. The input image captured by a camera is used to recognize the lane and the preceding vehicle positions by image detection and DROI (Dynamic Range of Interesting) algorithms. Therefore, the system is able to issue real-time auditory and visual outputs of warning when a driver is departing the lane or driving too close to approach the preceding vehicle unwittingly so that the danger could be prevented from occurring. During the nighttime, in addition to the foregoing warning functions, the system is able to control the bending light of headlamp to provide an immediate light illumination when making a turn at a curved lane and adjust the level automatically to reduce the lighting interference against the oncoming vehicles driving in the opposite direction by the curvature of lane and the vanishing point estimations. The experimental results show that the integrated vehicle image system is robust to most environments such as the lane detection and preceding vehicle detection average accuracy performances are both above 90 %.

Keywords: Lane mark detection, lane departure warning (LDW), dynamic range of interesting (DROI), forward collision warning (FCW), adaptive front-lighting system (AFS).

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2010 An Effective Method of Head Lamp and Tail Lamp Recognition for Night Time Vehicle Detection

Authors: Hyun-Koo Kim, Sagong Kuk, MinKwan Kim, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

This paper presents an effective method for detecting vehicles in front of the camera-assisted car during nighttime driving. The proposed method detects vehicles based on detecting vehicle headlights and taillights using techniques of image segmentation and clustering. First, to effectively extract spotlight of interest, a segmentation process based on automatic multi-level threshold method is applied on the road-scene images. Second, to spatial clustering vehicle of detecting lamps, a grouping process based on light tracking and locating vehicle lighting patterns. For simulation, we are implemented through Da-vinci 7437 DSP board with near infrared mono-camera and tested it in the urban and rural roads. Through the test, classification performances are above 97% of true positive rate evaluated on real-time environment. Our method also has good performance in the case of clear, fog and rain weather.

Keywords: Assistance Driving System, Multi-level Threshold Method, Near Infrared Mono Camera, Nighttime Vehicle Detection.

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2009 A Convolutional Neural Network-Based Vehicle Theft Detection, Location, and Reporting System

Authors: Michael Moeti, Khuliso Sigama, Thapelo Samuel Matlala

Abstract:

One of the principal challenges that the world is confronted with is insecurity. The crime rate is increasing exponentially, and protecting our physical assets, especially in the motorist sector, is becoming impossible when applying our own strength. The need to develop technological solutions that detect and report theft without any human interference is inevitable. This is critical, especially for vehicle owners, to ensure theft detection and speedy identification towards recovery efforts in cases where a vehicle is missing or attempted theft is taking place. The vehicle theft detection system uses Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to recognize the driver's face captured using an installed mobile phone device. The location identification function uses a Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine the real-time location of the vehicle. Upon identification of the location, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology is used to report or notify the vehicle owner about the whereabouts of the vehicle. The installed mobile app was implemented by making use of Python as it is undoubtedly the best choice in machine learning. It allows easy access to machine learning algorithms through its widely developed library ecosystem. The graphical user interface was developed by making use of JAVA as it is better suited for mobile development. Google's online database (Firebase) was used as a means of storage for the application. The system integration test was performed using a simple percentage analysis. 60 vehicle owners participated in this study as a sample, and questionnaires were used in order to establish the acceptability of the system developed. The result indicates the efficiency of the proposed system, and consequently, the paper proposes that the use of the system can effectively monitor the vehicle at any given place, even if it is driven outside its normal jurisdiction. More so, the system can be used as a database to detect, locate and report missing vehicles to different security agencies.

Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network, CNN, location identification, tracking, GPS, GSM.

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2008 Optical Road Monitoring of the Future Smart Roads – Preliminary Results

Authors: Maria Jokela, Matti Kutila, Jukka Laitinen, Florian Ahlers, Nicolas Hautière, TobiasSchendzielorz

Abstract:

It has been shown that in most accidents the driver is responsible due to being distracted or misjudging the situation. In order to solve such problems research has been dedicated to developing driver assistance systems that are able to monitor the traffic situation around the vehicle. This paper presents methods for recognizing several circumstances on a road. The methods use both the in-vehicle warning systems and the roadside infrastructure. Preliminary evaluation results for fog and ice-on-road detection are presented. The ice detection results are based on data recorded in a test track dedicated to tyre friction testing. The achieved results anticipate that ice detection could work at a performance of 70% detection with the right setup, which is a good foundation for implementation. However, the full benefit of the presented cooperative system is achieved by fusing the outputs of multiple data sources, which is the key point of discussion behind this publication.

Keywords: Smart roads, traffic monitoring, traffic scenedetection.

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2007 A Valley Detection for Path Planning

Authors: In-Geun Lim, Jin-Soo Kim, Chirl-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

This paper presents a constrained valley detection algorithm. The intent is to find valleys in the map for the path planning that enables a robot or a vehicle to move safely. The constraint to the valley is a desired width and a desired depth to ensure the space for movement when a vehicle passes through the valley. We propose an algorithm to find valleys satisfying these 2 dimensional constraints. The merit of our algorithm is that the pre-processing and the post-processing are not necessary to eliminate undesired small valleys. The algorithm is validated through simulation using digitized elevation data.

Keywords: valley, width, depth, path planning.

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2006 Intelligent Video-Based Monitoring of Freeway Traffic

Authors: Saad M. Al-Garni, Adel A. Abdennour

Abstract:

Freeways are originally designed to provide high mobility to road users. However, the increase in population and vehicle numbers has led to increasing congestions around the world. Daily recurrent congestion substantially reduces the freeway capacity when it is most needed. Building new highways and expanding the existing ones is an expensive solution and impractical in many situations. Intelligent and vision-based techniques can, however, be efficient tools in monitoring highways and increasing the capacity of the existing infrastructures. The crucial step for highway monitoring is vehicle detection. In this paper, we propose one of such techniques. The approach is based on artificial neural networks (ANN) for vehicles detection and counting. The detection process uses the freeway video images and starts by automatically extracting the image background from the successive video frames. Once the background is identified, subsequent frames are used to detect moving objects through image subtraction. The result is segmented using Sobel operator for edge detection. The ANN is, then, used in the detection and counting phase. Applying this technique to the busiest freeway in Riyadh (King Fahd Road) achieved higher than 98% detection accuracy despite the light intensity changes, the occlusion situations, and shadows.

Keywords: Background Extraction, Neural Networks, VehicleDetection, Freeway Traffic.

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2005 Traffic Density Measurement by Automatic Detection of Vehicles Using Gradient Vectors from Aerial Images

Authors: Saman Ghaffarian, Ilgın Gökasar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new automatic vehicle detection method from very high resolution aerial images to measure traffic density. The proposed method starts by extracting road regions from image using road vector data. Then, the road image is divided into equal sections considering resolution of the images. Gradient vectors of the road image are computed from edge map of the corresponding image. Gradient vectors on the each boundary of the sections are divided where the gradient vectors significantly change their directions. Finally, number of vehicles in each section is carried out by calculating the standard deviation of the gradient vectors in each group and accepting the group as vehicle that has standard deviation above predefined threshold value. The proposed method was tested in four very high resolution aerial images acquired from Istanbul, Turkey which illustrate roads and vehicles with diverse characteristics. The results show the reliability of the proposed method in detecting vehicles by producing 86% overall F1 accuracy value.

Keywords: Aerial images, intelligent transportation systems, traffic density measurement, vehicle detection.

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2004 Indian License Plate Detection and Recognition Using Morphological Operation and Template Matching

Authors: W. Devapriya, C. Nelson Kennedy Babu, T. Srihari

Abstract:

Automatic License plate recognition (ALPR) is a technology which recognizes the registration plate or number plate or License plate of a vehicle. In this paper, an Indian vehicle number plate is mined and the characters are predicted in efficient manner. ALPR involves four major technique i) Pre-processing ii) License Plate Location Identification iii) Individual Character Segmentation iv) Character Recognition. The opening phase, named pre-processing helps to remove noises and enhances the quality of the image using the conception of Morphological Operation and Image subtraction. The second phase, the most puzzling stage ascertain the location of license plate using the protocol Canny Edge detection, dilation and erosion. In the third phase, each characters characterized by Connected Component Approach (CCA) and in the ending phase, each segmented characters are conceptualized using cross correlation template matching- a scheme specifically appropriate for fixed format. Major application of ALPR is Tolling collection, Border Control, Parking, Stolen cars, Enforcement, Access Control, Traffic control. The database consists of 500 car images taken under dissimilar lighting condition is used. The efficiency of the system is 97%. Our future focus is Indian Vehicle License Plate Validation (Whether License plate of a vehicle is as per Road transport and highway standard).

Keywords: Automatic License plate recognition, Character recognition, Number plate Recognition, Template matching, morphological operation, canny edge detection.

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2003 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: Electrification strategy, hybrid electric vehicle, CO2 emission.

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2002 Data Analysis Techniques for Predictive Maintenance on Fleet of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authors: Antonis Sideris, Elias Chlis Kalogeropoulos, Konstantia Moirogiorgou

Abstract:

The present study proposes a methodology for the efficient daily management of fleet vehicles and construction machinery. The application covers the area of remote monitoring of heavy-duty vehicles operation parameters, where specific sensor data are stored and examined in order to provide information about the vehicle’s health. The vehicle diagnostics allow the user to inspect whether maintenance tasks need to be performed before a fault occurs. A properly designed machine learning model is proposed for the detection of two different types of faults through classification. Cross validation is used and the accuracy of the trained model is checked with the confusion matrix.

Keywords: Fault detection, feature selection, machine learning, predictive maintenance.

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2001 Challenges in Video Based Object Detection in Maritime Scenario Using Computer Vision

Authors: Dilip K. Prasad, C. Krishna Prasath, Deepu Rajan, Lily Rachmawati, Eshan Rajabally, Chai Quek

Abstract:

This paper discusses the technical challenges in maritime image processing and machine vision problems for video streams generated by cameras. Even well documented problems of horizon detection and registration of frames in a video are very challenging in maritime scenarios. More advanced problems of background subtraction and object detection in video streams are very challenging. Challenges arising from the dynamic nature of the background, unavailability of static cues, presence of small objects at distant backgrounds, illumination effects, all contribute to the challenges as discussed here.

Keywords: Autonomous maritime vehicle, object detection, situation awareness, tracking.

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2000 Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Based On Cepstrum Analysis

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová

Abstract:

Research on damage of gears and gear pairs using vibration signals remains very attractive, because vibration signals from a gear pair are complex in nature and not easy to interpret. Predicting gear pair defects by analyzing changes in vibration signal of gears pairs in operation is a very reliable method. Therefore, a suitable vibration signal processing technique is necessary to extract defect information generally obscured by the noise from dynamic factors of other gear pairs.This article presents the value of cepstrum analysis in vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis. Cepstrum represents the overall power content of a whole family of harmonics and sidebands when more than one family of sidebands is present at the same time. The concept for the measurement and analysis involved in using the technique are briefly outlined. Cepstrum analysis is used for detection of an artificial pitting defect in a vehicle gearbox loaded with different speeds and torques. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves asthe internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of the output joint shafts. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a gear of the fifth speed on the secondary shaft. Also, a method for fault diagnosis of gear faults is presented based on order Cepstrum. The procedure is illustrated with the experimental vibration data of the vehicle gearbox. The results show the effectiveness of Cepstrum analysis in detection and diagnosis of the gear condition.

Keywords: Cepstrum analysis, fault diagnosis, gearbox.

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1999 The Effect of Gross Vehicle Weight on the Stability of Heavy Vehicle during Cornering

Authors: Nurzaki Ikhsan, Ahmad Saifizul Abdullah, Rahizar Ramli

Abstract:

One of the functions of the commercial heavy vehicle is to safely and efficiently transport goods and people. Due to its size and carrying capacity, it is important to study the vehicle dynamic stability during cornering. Study has shown that there are a number of overloaded heavy vehicles or permissible Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) violations recorded at selected areas in Malaysia assigned by its type and category. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the correlation and effect of the GVW on heavy vehicle stability during cornering event using simulation. Various selected heavy vehicle types and category are simulated using IPG/Truck Maker® with different GVW and road condition (coefficient of friction of road surface), while the speed, driver characteristic, center of gravity of load and road geometry are constant. Based on the analysis, the relationship between GVW and lateral acceleration were established. As expected, on the same value of coefficient of friction, the maximum lateral acceleration would be increased as the GVW increases.

Keywords: Heavy Vehicle, Road Safety, Vehicle Stability, Lateral Acceleration, Gross Vehicle Weight.

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1998 New Suspension Mechanism Using Camber Thrust for a Formula Car

Authors: Shinji Kajiwara

Abstract:

The basic ability of a vehicle is to “run”, “turn” and “stop”. The safeness and comfort during a drive on various road surfaces and speed depends on the performance of these basic abilities of the vehicle. Stability and maneuverability of a vehicle are vital in automotive engineering. The stability of a vehicle is the ability of the vehicle to revert back to a stable state during a drive when faced with crosswinds and irregular road conditions. Maneuverability of a vehicle is the ability of the vehicle to change direction during a drive swiftly based on the steering of the driver. The stability and maneuverability of a vehicle can also be defined as the driving stability of the vehicle. Since the fossil fueled vehicle is the main type of transportation today, the environmental factor in automotive engineering is also vital. By improving the fuel efficiency of the vehicle, the overall carbon emission will be reduced, thus reducing the effect of global warming and greenhouse gas on the Earth. Another main focus of the automotive engineering is the safety performance of the vehicle, especially with the worrying increase of vehicle collision every day. With better safety performance of a vehicle, every driver will be more confident driving every day. Next, let us focus on the “turn” ability of a vehicle. By improving this particular ability of the vehicle, the cornering limit of the vehicle can be improved, thus increasing the stability and maneuverability factor. In order to improve the cornering limit of the vehicle, a study to find the balance between the steering systems, the stability of the vehicle, higher lateral acceleration and the cornering limit detection must be conducted. The aim of this research is to study and develop a new suspension system that will boost the lateral acceleration of the vehicle and ultimately improving the cornering limit of the vehicle. This research will also study environmental factor and the stability factor of the new suspension system. The double wishbone suspension system is widely used in a four-wheel vehicle, especially for high cornering performance sports car and racing car. The double wishbone designs allow the engineer to carefully control the motion of the wheel by controlling such parameters as camber angle, caster angle, toe pattern, roll center height, scrub radius, scuff, and more. The development of the new suspension system will focus on the ability of the new suspension system to optimize the camber control and to improve the camber limit during a cornering motion. The research will be carried out using the CAE analysis tool. Using this analysis tool we will develop a JSAE Formula Machine equipped with the double wishbone system and also the new suspension system and conduct simulation and conduct studies on the performance of both suspension systems.

Keywords: Automobile, Camber Thrust, Cornering force, Suspension.

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1997 The Comprehensive Study Based on Ultrasonic and X-ray Visual Technology for GIS Equipment Detection

Authors: Wei Zhang, Hong Yu, Xian-ping Zhao, Da-da Wang, Fei Xue

Abstract:

For lack of the visualization of the ultrasonic detection method of partial discharge (PD), the ultrasonic detection technology combined with the X-ray visual detection method (UXV) is proposed. The method can conduct qualitative analysis accurately and conduct reliable positioning diagnosis to the internal insulation defects of GIS, and while it could make up the blindness of the X-ray visual detection method and improve the detection rate. In this paper, an experimental model of GIS is used as the trial platform, a variety of insulation defects are set inside the GIS cavity. With the proposed method, the ultrasonic method is used to conduct the preliminary detection, and then the X-ray visual detection is used to locate and diagnose precisely. Therefore, the proposed UXV technology is feasible and practical.

Keywords: GIS, ultrasonic, visual detection, X-ray

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