**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**488

# Search results for: triangular function

##### 488 Roll of Membership functions in Fuzzy Logic for Prediction of Shoot Length of Mustard Plant Based on Residual Analysis

**Authors:**
Satyendra Nath Mandal,
J. Pal Choudhury,
Dilip De,
S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fuzzification,
defuzzification,
gaussian function,
triangular function,
trapezoidal function,
s-function,
,
membership function,
residual analysis.

##### 487 Method for Solving Fully Fuzzy Assignment Problems Using Triangular Fuzzy Numbers

**Authors:**
Amit Kumar,
Anila Gupta,
Amarpreet Kaur

**Abstract:**

In this paper, a new method is proposed to find the fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy assignment problems by representing all the parameters as triangular fuzzy numbers. The advantages of the pro-posed method are also discussed. To illustrate the proposed method a fuzzy assignment problem is solved by using the proposed method and the obtained results are discussed. The proposed method is easy to understand and to apply for finding the fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy assignment problems occurring in real life situations.

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy assignment problem,
Ranking function,
Triangular fuzzy numbers.

##### 486 Optimization of a Triangular Fin with Variable Fin Base Thickness

**Authors:**
Hyung Suk Kang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
A triangular fin,
Convection characteristic number,
Heat loss,
Fin base thickness.

##### 485 Modeling and Identification of Hammerstein System by using Triangular Basis Functions

**Authors:**
K. Elleuch,
A. Chaari

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Identification,
Hammerstein model,
Piecewisenonlinear characteristic,
Dead-zone nonlinearity,
Triangular basisfunctions,
Singular Values Decomposition

##### 484 Numerical Analysis of Flow past Circular Cylinder with Triangular and Rectangular Wake Splitter

**Authors:**
Pavan Badami,
Vivek Shrivastava,
Saravanan V.,
Nandeesh Hiremath,
K. N. Seetharamu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Coefficient of drag and pressure,
CFDFLUENT,
Triangular and rectangular wake splitter,
wake length.

##### 483 Effective Cooling of Photovoltaic Solar Cells by Inserting Triangular Ribs: A Numerical Study

**Authors:**
S. Saadi,
S. Benissaad,
S. Poncet,
Y. Kabar

**Abstract:**

In photovoltaic (PV) cells, most of the absorbed solar radiation cannot be converted into electricity. A large amount of solar radiation is converted to heat, which should be dissipated by any cooling techniques. In the present study, the cooling is achieved by inserting triangular ribs in the duct. A comprehensive two-dimensional thermo-fluid model for the effective cooling of PV cells has been developed. It has been first carefully validated against experimental and numerical results available in the literature. A parametric analysis was then carried out about the influence of the number and size of the ribs, wind speed, solar irradiance and inlet fluid velocity on the average solar cell and outlet air temperatures as well as the thermal and electrical efficiencies of the module. Results indicated that the use of triangular ribbed channels is a very effective cooling technique, which significantly reduces the average temperature of the PV cell, especially when increasing the number of ribs.

**Keywords:**
Effective cooling,
numerical modeling,
photovoltaic cell,
triangular ribs.

##### 482 Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Study for Triangular Duct Solar Air Heater Having Discrete V-Shaped Ribs

**Authors:**
Varun

**Abstract:**

Solar energy is a good option among renewable energy resources due to its easy availability and abundance. The simplest and most efficient way to utilize solar energy is to convert it into thermal energy and this can be done with the help of solar collectors. The thermal performance of such collectors is poor due to less heat transfer from the collector surface to air. In this work, experimental investigations of single pass solar air heater having triangular duct and provided with roughness element on the underside of the absorber plate. V-shaped ribs are used for investigation having three different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 4- 16 for a fixed value of angle of attack (α), relative roughness height (e/Dh) and a relative gap distance (d/x) values are 60°, 0.044 and 0.60 respectively. Result shows that considerable augmentation in heat transfer has been obtained by providing roughness.

**Keywords:**
Artificial roughness,
Solar Air heater,
Triangular
duct,
V-Shaped Ribs.

##### 481 Reliability Evaluation using Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers Arithmetic Operations

**Authors:**
G. S. Mahapatra,
T. K. Roy

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy set,
Intuitionistic fuzzy number,
Systemreliability,
Triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number.

##### 480 Generalized Module Homomorphisms of Triangular Matrix Rings of Order Three

**Authors:**
Jianmin Xing

**Abstract:**

Let T,U and V be rings with identity and M be a unitary (T,U)-bimodule, N be a unitary (U, V )- bimodule, D be a unitary (T, V )-bimodule . We characterize homomorphisms and isomorphisms of the generalized matrix ring Γ = T M D 0 U N 0 0 V .

**Keywords:**
Generalized module homomorphism,
ring homomorphism,
isomorphisms,
triangular matrix rings.

##### 479 Multiplicative Functional on Upper Triangular Fuzzy Matrices

**Authors:**
Liu Ping

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Multiplicative functional,
triangular fuzzy matrix,
fuzzy addition operation,
fuzzy multiplication operation.

##### 478 Novel and Different Definitions for Fuzzy Union and Intersection Operations

**Authors:**
Aarthi Chandramohan,
M. V. C. Rao

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Centroid,
fuzzy set operations,
intersection,
triangular norms ,
triangular S-norms,
union.

##### 477 Solution of Fuzzy Maximal Flow Problems Using Fuzzy Linear Programming

**Authors:**
Amit Kumar,
Manjot Kaur

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy linear programming,
Fuzzy maximal flow problem,
Ranking function,
Triangular fuzzy number

##### 476 Reliability Analysis of k-out-of-n : G System Using Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers

**Authors:**
Tanuj Kumar,
Rakesh Kumar Bajaj

**Abstract:**

In the present paper, we analyze the vague reliability of k-out-of-n : G system (particularly, series and parallel system) with independent and non-identically distributed components, where the reliability of the components are unknown. The reliability of each component has been estimated using statistical confidence interval approach. Then we converted these statistical confidence interval into triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Based on these triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, the reliability of the k-out-of-n : G system has been calculated. Further, in order to implement the proposed methodology and to analyze the results of k-out-of-n : G system, a numerical example has been provided.

**Keywords:**
Vague set,
vague reliability,
triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number,
k-out-of-n : G system,
series and parallel system.

##### 475 Numerical Simulations of Shear Driven Square and Triangular Cavity by Using Lattice Boltzmann Scheme

**Authors:**
A. M. Fudhail,
N. A. C. Sidik,
M. Z. M. Rody,
H. M. Zahir,
M.T. Musthafah

**Abstract:**

In this paper, fluid flow patterns of steady incompressible flow inside shear driven cavity are studied. The numerical simulations are conducted by using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for different Reynolds numbers. In order to simulate the flow, derivation of macroscopic hydrodynamics equations from the continuous Boltzmann equation need to be performed. Then, the numerical results of shear-driven flow inside square and triangular cavity are compared with results found in literature review. Present study found that flow patterns are affected by the geometry of the cavity and the Reynolds numbers used.

**Keywords:**
Lattice Boltzmann method,
shear driven cavity,
square cavity,
triangular cavity.

##### 474 Noise Reduction in Image Sequences using an Effective Fuzzy Algorithm

**Authors:**
Mahmoud Saeidi,
Khadijeh Saeidi,
Mahmoud Khaleghi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Image Sequences,
Noise Reduction,
fuzzy algorithm,
triangular membership function

##### 473 An Extension of the Kratzel Function and Associated Inverse Gaussian Probability Distribution Occurring in Reliability Theory

**Authors:**
R. K. Saxena,
Ravi Saxena

**Abstract:**

In view of their importance and usefulness in reliability theory and probability distributions, several generalizations of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function are investigated in recent years. This has motivated the authors to introduce and study a new generalization of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function associated with a product of a Bessel function of the third kind )(zKQ and a Z - Fox-Wright generalized hyper geometric function introduced in this paper. The introduced function turns out to be a unified gamma-type function. Its incomplete forms are also discussed. Several properties of this gamma-type function are obtained. By means of this generalized function, we introduce a generalization of inverse Gaussian distribution, which is useful in reliability analysis, diffusion processes, and radio techniques etc. The inverse Gaussian distribution thus introduced also provides a generalization of the Krtzel function. Some basic statistical functions associated with this probability density function, such as moments, the Mellin transform, the moment generating function, the hazard rate function, and the mean residue life function are also obtained.KeywordsFox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

**Keywords:**
Fox-Wright function,
Inverse Gaussian distribution,
Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

##### 472 Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method

**Authors:**
F. Karim

**Abstract:**

In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.

**Keywords:**
Triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fiber,
dispersion compensation,
directed tabu search,
synthesis.

##### 471 Function Approximation with Radial Basis Function Neural Networks via FIR Filter

**Authors:**
Kyu Chul Lee,
Sung Hyun Yoo,
Choon Ki Ahn,
Myo Taeg Lim

**Abstract:**

Recent experimental evidences have shown that because of a fast convergence and a nice accuracy, neural networks training via extended kalman filter (EKF) method is widely applied. However, as to an uncertainty of the system dynamics or modeling error, the performance of the method is unreliable. In order to overcome this problem in this paper, a new finite impulse response (FIR) filter based learning algorithm is proposed to train radial basis function neural networks (RBFN) for nonlinear function approximation. Compared to the EKF training method, the proposed FIR filter training method is more robust to those environmental conditions. Furthermore , the number of centers will be considered since it affects the performance of approximation.

**Keywords:**
Extended kalmin filter (EKF),
classification problem,
radial basis function networks (RBFN),
finite impulse response (FIR)filter.

##### 470 Certain Conditions for Strongly Starlike and Strongly Convex Functions

**Authors:**
Sukhwinder Singh Billing,
Sushma Gupta,
Sukhjit Singh Dhaliwal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Analytic function,
Multiplier transformation,
Strongly starlike function,
Strongly convex function.

##### 469 Software Effort Estimation Models Using Radial Basis Function Network

**Authors:**
E. Praynlin,
P. Latha

**Abstract:**

Software Effort Estimation is the process of estimating the effort required to develop software. By estimating the effort, the cost and schedule required to estimate the software can be determined. Accurate Estimate helps the developer to allocate the resource accordingly in order to avoid cost overrun and schedule overrun. Several methods are available in order to estimate the effort among which soft computing based method plays a prominent role. Software cost estimation deals with lot of uncertainty among all soft computing methods neural network is good in handling uncertainty. In this paper Radial Basis Function Network is compared with the back propagation network and the results are validated using six data sets and it is found that RBFN is best suitable to estimate the effort. The Results are validated using two tests the error test and the statistical test.

**Keywords:**
Software cost estimation,
Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN),
Back propagation function network,
Mean Magnitude of Relative Error (MMRE).

##### 468 High Resolution Methods Based On Rank Revealing Triangular Factorizations

**Authors:**
M. Bouri,
S. Bourennane

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we propose a novel method for subspace estimation used high resolution method without eigendecomposition where the sample Cross-Spectral Matrix (CSM) is replaced by upper triangular matrix obtained from LU factorization. This novel method decreases the computational complexity. The method relies on a recently published result on Rank-Revealing LU (RRLU) factorization. Simulation results demonstrates that the new algorithm outperform the Householder rank-revealing QR (RRQR) factorization method and the MUSIC in the low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) scenarios.

**Keywords:**
Factorization,
Localization,
Matrix,
Signalsubspace.

##### 467 The Global Stability Using Lyapunov Function

**Authors:**
R. Kongnuy,
E. Naowanich,
T. Kruehong

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Age Group,
Leptospirosis,
Lyapunov Function,
Ordinary Differential Equation.

##### 466 A Case Study to Assess the Validity of Function Points

**Authors:**
Neelam Bawane nee' Singhal,
C. V. Srikrishna

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Function Points,
Data Flow Diagram,
Lines ofCodes.

##### 465 Application the Statistical Conditional Entropy Function for Definition of Cause-and-Effect Relations during Primary Soil Formation

**Authors:**
Vladimir K. Mukhomorov

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Chemical elements,
entropy function,
information,
plants.

##### 464 Calculation of Wave Function at the Origin (WFO) for the Ground State of Doubly Heavy Mesons Based On the Variational Method

**Authors:**
Maryam Momeni Feili,
Mahvash Zandy Navgaran

**Abstract:**

The wave function at the origin is an important quantity in studying many physical problems concerning heavy quarkonia. This is because that it is using for calculating spin state hyperfine splitting and also crucial to evaluating the production and decay amplitude of the heavy quarkonium. In this paper, we present the variational method by using the single-parameter wave function to estimate the WFO for the ground state of heavy mesons.

**Keywords:**
Wave function at the origin,
heavy mesons,
bound states,
variational method,
non-relativistic quark model,
potential model,
trial wave function.

##### 463 Recovering the Clipped OFDM Figurebased on the Conic Function

**Authors:**
Linjun Wu,
Shihua Zhu,
Xingle Feng

**Abstract:**

In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the peak to average power ratio (PAR) is much high. The clipping signal scheme is a useful method to reduce PAR. Clipping the OFDM signal, however, increases the overall noise level by introducing clipping noise. It is necessary to recover the figure of the original signal at receiver in order to reduce the clipping noise. Considering the continuity of the signal and the figure of the peak, we obtain a certain conic function curve to replace the clipped signal module within the clipping time. The results of simulation show that the proposed scheme can reduce the systems? BER (bit-error rate) 10 times when signal-to-interference-and noise-ratio (SINR) equals to 12dB. And the BER performance of the proposed scheme is superior to that of kim's scheme, too.

**Keywords:**
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,
Peak-to-Average Power Ratio,
clipping time,
conic function.

##### 462 Statistical Approach to Basis Function Truncation in Digital Interpolation Filters

**Authors:**
F. Castillo,
J. Arellano,
S. Sánchez

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Interpolation,
basis function,
over-sampling.

##### 461 A Transfer Function Representation of Thermo-Acoustic Dynamics for Combustors

**Authors:**
Myunggon Yoon,
Jung-Ho Moon

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Thermoacoustics,
dynamics,
combustor,
transfer
function.

##### 460 Studying Mistaken Theory of Calendar Function of Iran-s Cross-Vaults

**Authors:**
Ali Salehipour

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
cross-vault,
fire temple,
Calendar function,
Sassanid period

##### 459 Training Radial Basis Function Networks with Differential Evolution

**Authors:**
Bing Yu ,
Xingshi He

**Abstract:**

In this paper, Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm, a new promising evolutionary algorithm, is proposed to train Radial Basis Function (RBF) network related to automatic configuration of network architecture. Classification tasks on data sets: Iris, Wine, New-thyroid, and Glass are conducted to measure the performance of neural networks. Compared with a standard RBF training algorithm in Matlab neural network toolbox, DE achieves more rational architecture for RBF networks. The resulting networks hence obtain strong generalization abilities.

**Keywords:**
differential evolution,
neural network,
Rbf function