Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Satyendra Nath Mandal

43 Roll of Membership functions in Fuzzy Logic for Prediction of Shoot Length of Mustard Plant Based on Residual Analysis

Authors: Satyendra Nath Mandal, J. Pal Choudhury, Dilip De, S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri

Abstract:

The selection for plantation of a particular type of mustard plant depending on its productivity (pod yield) at the stage of maturity. The growth of mustard plant dependent on some parameters of that plant, these are shoot length, number of leaves, number of roots and roots length etc. As the plant is growing, some leaves may be fall down and some new leaves may come, so it can not gives the idea to develop the relationship with the seeds weight at mature stage of that plant. It is not possible to find the number of roots and root length of mustard plant at growing stage that will be harmful of this plant as roots goes deeper to deeper inside the land. Only the value of shoot length which increases in course of time can be measured at different time instances. Weather parameters are maximum and minimum humidity, rain fall, maximum and minimum temperature may effect the growth of the plant. The parameters of pollution, water, soil, distance and crop management may be dominant factors of growth of plant and its productivity. Considering all parameters, the growth of the plant is very uncertain, fuzzy environment can be considered for the prediction of shoot length at maturity of the plant. Fuzzification plays a greater role for fuzzification of data, which is based on certain membership functions. Here an effort has been made to fuzzify the original data based on gaussian function, triangular function, s-function, Trapezoidal and L –function. After that all fuzzified data are defuzzified to get normal form. Finally the error analysis (calculation of forecasting error and average error) indicates the membership function appropriate for fuzzification of data and use to predict the shoot length at maturity. The result is also verified using residual (Absolute Residual, Maximum of Absolute Residual, Mean Absolute Residual, Mean of Mean Absolute Residual, Median of Absolute Residual and Standard Deviation) analysis.

Keywords: Fuzzification, defuzzification, gaussian function, triangular function, trapezoidal function, s-function, , membership function, residual analysis.

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42 A Frame Work for the Development of a Suitable Method to Find Shoot Length at Maturity of Mustard Plant Using Soft Computing Model

Authors: Satyendra Nath Mandal, J. Pal Choudhury, Dilip De, S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri

Abstract:

The production of a plant can be measured in terms of seeds. The generation of seeds plays a critical role in our social and daily life. The fruit production which generates seeds, depends on the various parameters of the plant, such as shoot length, leaf number, root length, root number, etc When the plant is growing, some leaves may be lost and some new leaves may appear. It is very difficult to use the number of leaves of the tree to calculate the growth of the plant.. It is also cumbersome to measure the number of roots and length of growth of root in several time instances continuously after certain initial period of time, because roots grow deeper and deeper under ground in course of time. On the contrary, the shoot length of the tree grows in course of time which can be measured in different time instances. So the growth of the plant can be measured using the data of shoot length which are measured at different time instances after plantation. The environmental parameters like temperature, rain fall, humidity and pollution are also play some role in production of yield. The soil, crop and distance management are taken care to produce maximum amount of yields of plant. The data of the growth of shoot length of some mustard plant at the initial stage (7,14,21 & 28 days after plantation) is available from the statistical survey by a group of scientists under the supervision of Prof. Dilip De. In this paper, initial shoot length of Ken( one type of mustard plant) has been used as an initial data. The statistical models, the methods of fuzzy logic and neural network have been tested on this mustard plant and based on error analysis (calculation of average error) that model with minimum error has been selected and can be used for the assessment of shoot length at maturity. Finally, all these methods have been tested with other type of mustard plants and the particular soft computing model with the minimum error of all types has been selected for calculating the predicted data of growth of shoot length. The shoot length at the stage of maturity of all types of mustard plants has been calculated using the statistical method on the predicted data of shoot length.

Keywords: Fuzzy time series, neural network, forecasting error, average error.

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41 Swarm Intelligence based Optimal Linear Phase FIR High Pass Filter Design using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach

Authors: Sangeeta Mandal, Rajib Kar, Durbadal Mandal, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

Abstract:

In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital high pass finite impulse response (FIR) filter using Particle Swarm Optimization with Constriction Factor and Inertia Weight Approach (PSO-CFIWA) has been presented. In the design process, the filter length, pass band and stop band frequencies, feasible pass band and stop band ripple sizes are specified. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional gradient based optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. Given the filter specifications to be realized, the PSO-CFIWA algorithm generates a set of optimal filter coefficients and tries to meet the ideal frequency response characteristic. In this paper, for the given problem, the designs of the optimal FIR high pass filters of different orders have been performed. The simulation results have been compared to those obtained by the well accepted algorithms such as Parks and McClellan algorithm (PM), genetic algorithm (GA). The results justify that the proposed optimal filter design approach using PSOCFIWA outperforms PM and GA, not only in the accuracy of the designed filter but also in the convergence speed and solution quality.

Keywords: FIR Filter; PSO-CFIWA; PSO; Parks and McClellanAlgorithm, Evolutionary Optimization Technique; MagnitudeResponse; Convergence; High Pass Filter

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40 Estimation of the Mean of the Selected Population

Authors: Kalu Ram Meena, Aditi Kar Gangopadhyay, Satrajit Mandal

Abstract:

Two normal populations with different means and same variance are considered, where the variance is known. The population with the smaller sample mean is selected. Various estimators are constructed for the mean of the selected normal population. Finally, they are compared with respect to the bias and MSE risks by the mehod of Monte-Carlo simulation and their performances are analysed with the help of graphs.

Keywords: Estimation after selection, Brewster-Zidek technique.

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39 A Study on Intuitionistic Fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-Hemirings

Authors: S.K. Sardar, D. Mandal, R. Mukherjee

Abstract:

The notions of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideal and normal intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-hemiring are introduced and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. Cartesian product of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideals is also defined. Finally a characterization of intuitionistic fuzzy h-ideals in terms of fuzzy relations is obtained.

Keywords: Γ-hemiring, fuzzy h-ideal, normal, cartesian product.Mathematics Subject Classification[2000] :08A72, 16Y99

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38 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method

Authors: Satyendra Pratap Singh, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology using Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete observability of the power system. The objective of proposed algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs. In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better observability by proposed method.

Keywords: Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), Law of Motion, Law of Gravity, Observability, Phasor Measurement Unit.

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37 Characterizations of Γ-Semirings by Their Cubic Ideals

Authors: Debabrata Mandal

Abstract:

Cubic ideals, cubic bi-ideals and cubic quasi-ideals of a Γ-semiring are introduced and various properties of these ideals are investigated. Among all other results, some characterizations of regular Γ-semirings are achieved.

Keywords: Γ-semiring, cubic ideal, normal cubic ideal, cubic bi-ideal, cubic quasi-ideal, cartesian product, regular, intra-regular.

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36 Prime(Semiprime) Fuzzy h-ideal in Γ-hemiring

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sardar, Debabrata Mandal

Abstract:

The notions of prime(semiprime) fuzzy h-ideal(h-biideal, h-quasi-ideal) in Γ-hemiring are introduced and some of their characterizations are obtained by using "belongingness(∈)" and "quasi - coincidence(q)". Cartesian product of prime(semiprime) fuzzy h-ideals of Γ-hemirings are also investigated.

Keywords: Γ-hemiring, Fuzzy h-ideals, Prime fuzzy left h-ideal, Prime(semiprime) (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy left h-bi-ideal(h-ideal, h-quasiideal), Cartesian product

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35 Comparative Study of Intuitionistic and Generalized Neutrosophic Soft Sets

Authors: Debabrata Mandal

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to define several operations such as Intersection, Union, OR, AND operations of intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Maji and compare these with intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Said et al via examples. At the end of the paper, a new concept - extension is introduced, which can be used to refine our choices in case of decision making.

Keywords: AND, OR, Union, Intersection, Extension, Decision making.

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34 Intuitionistic Fuzzy Points in Semigroups

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sardar Manasi Mandal Samit Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. Y.B. Jun and S.Z. Song introduced the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy points. In this paper we find some relations between the intuitionistic fuzzy ideals of a semigroup S and the set of all intuitionistic fuzzy points of S.

Keywords: Semigroup, Regular(intra-regular) semigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy point, Intuitionistic fuzzy subsemigroup, Intuitionistic fuzzy ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy interior ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy semiprime ideal, Intuitionistic fuzzy prime ideal.

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33 Study of Eatable Aquatic Invertebrates in the River Dhansiri, Dimapur, Nagaland, India

Authors: Dilip Nath

Abstract:

A study has been conducted on the available aquatic invertebrates in the river Dhansiri at Dimapur site. The study confirmed that the river body composed of aquatic macroinvertebrate community in two phyla viz., Arthropods and Molluscs. Total ten species have been identified from there as the source of alternative protein food for the common people. Not only the protein source they are also the component of aquatic food chain and indicators of aquatic ecosystem. Proper management and strategies to promote the edible invertebrates can be considered as the alternative protein and alternative income source for the common people for sustainable livelihood improvement.

Keywords: Dhansiri, Dimapur, invertebrates, livelihood improvement, protein

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32 High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Paver Blocks

Authors: Som Nath Sachdeva, Vanita Aggarwal, S. M. Gupta

Abstract:

Use of concrete paver blocks is becoming increasingly popular. They are used for paving of approaches, paths and parking areas including their application in pre-engineered buildings and pavements. This paper discusses the results of an experimental study conducted on Fly Ash Concrete with the aim to report its suitability for concrete paver blocks. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash, 20% to 40%, on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied are M-30, M-35, M-40 and M-50. It is observed that all the fly ash based mixes are able to achieve the required compressive and flexural strengths. In comparison to control mixes, the compressive and flexural strengths of the fly ash based mixes are found to be slightly less at 7-days and 28 days and a little more at 90 days.

Keywords: Compressive strength, flexural strength, high volume fly ash concrete, paver blocks.

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31 Detection of Power Quality Disturbances using Wavelet Transform

Authors: Sudipta Nath, Arindam Dey, Abhijit Chakrabarti

Abstract:

This paper presents features that characterize power quality disturbances from recorded voltage waveforms using wavelet transform. The discrete wavelet transform has been used to detect and analyze power quality disturbances. The disturbances of interest include sag, swell, outage and transient. A power system network has been simulated by Electromagnetic Transients Program. Voltage waveforms at strategic points have been obtained for analysis, which includes different power quality disturbances. Then wavelet has been chosen to perform feature extraction. The outputs of the feature extraction are the wavelet coefficients representing the power quality disturbance signal. Wavelet coefficients at different levels reveal the time localizing information about the variation of the signal.

Keywords: Power quality, detection of disturbance, wavelet transform, multiresolution signal decomposition.

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30 Audio Watermarking Using Spectral Modifications

Authors: Jyotsna Singh, Parul Garg, Alok Nath De

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a non-blind technique of adding the watermark to the Fourier spectral components of audio signal in a way such that the modified amplitude does not exceed the maximum amplitude spread (MAS). This MAS is due to individual Discrete fourier transform (DFT) coefficients in that particular frame, which is derived from the Energy Spreading function given by Schroeder. Using this technique one can store double the information within a given frame length i.e. overriding the watermark on the host of equal length with least perceptual distortion. The watermark is uniformly floating on the DFT components of original signal. This helps in detecting any intentional manipulations done on the watermarked audio. Also, the scheme is found robust to various signal processing attacks like presence of multiple watermarks, Additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) and mp3 compression.

Keywords: Discrete Fourier Transform, Spreading Function, Watermark, Pseudo Noise Sequence, Spectral Masking Effect

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29 Development of Electric Performance Testing System for Ceramic Chips using PZT Actuator

Authors: Jin-Ho Bae, Yong-Tae Kim, S K Deb Nath, Seo-Ik Kang, Sung-Gaun Kim

Abstract:

Reno-pin contact test is a method that is controlled by DC motor used to characterize electronic chips. This method is used in electronic and telecommunication devices. A new electric performance testing system is developed in which the testing method is controlled by using Piezoelectric Transducer (PZT) instead of DC motor which reduces vibration and noise. The vertical displacement of the Reno-pin is very short in the Reno-pin contact testing system. Now using a flexible guide in the new Reno-pin contact system, the vertical movement of the Reno-pin is increased many times of the existing Reno-pin contact testing method using DC motor. Using the present electric performance testing system with a flexible hinge and PZT instead of DC motor, manufacturing of electronic chips are able to characterize chips with low cost and high speed.

Keywords: PZT Actuator, Chip test, Mechanical amplifier

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28 Effects of Synthetic Jet in Suppressing Cavity Oscillations

Authors: S. Sarkar, R. Mandal

Abstract:

The three-dimensional incompressible flow past a rectangular open cavity is investigated, where the aspect ratio of the cavity is considered as 4. The principle objective is to use large-eddy simulation to resolve and control the large-scale structures, which are largely responsible for flow oscillations in a cavity. The flow past an open cavity is very common in aerospace applications and can be a cause of acoustic source due to hydrodynamic instability of the shear layer and its interactions with the downstream edge. The unsteady Navier-stokes equations have been solved on a staggered mesh using a symmetry-preserving central difference scheme. Synthetic jet has been used as an active control to suppress the cavity oscillations in wake mode for a Reynolds number of ReD = 3360. The effect of synthetic jet has been studied by varying the jet amplitude and frequency, which is placed at the upstream wall of the cavity. The study indicates that there exits a frequency band, which is larger than a critical value, is effective in attenuating cavity oscillations when blowing ratio is more than 1.0.

Keywords: Cavity oscillation, Large Eddy Simulation, Synthetic Jet, Flow Control, Turbulence

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27 Thinned Elliptical Cylindrical Antenna Array Synthesis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Rajesh Bera, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti P. Ghoshal

Abstract:

This paper describes optimal thinning of an Elliptical  Cylindrical Array (ECA) of uniformly excited isotropic antennas  which can generate directive beam with minimum relative Side Lobe  Level (SLL). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method, which  represents a new approach for optimization problems in  electromagnetic, is used in the optimization process. The PSO is used  to determine the optimal set of ‘ON-OFF’ elements that provides a  radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction. Optimization is done  without prefixing the value of First Null Beam Width (FNBW). The  variation of SLL with element spacing of thinned array is also  reported. Simulation results show that the number of array elements  can be reduced by more than 50% of the total number of elements in  the array with a simultaneous reduction in SLL to less than -27dB.

 

Keywords: Thinned array, Particle Swarm Optimization, Elliptical Cylindrical Array, Side Lobe Label.

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26 Metal-Based Anticancer Agents: In vitro DNA Binding, Cleavage and Cytotoxicity

Authors: Mala Nath, Nagamani Kompelli, Partha Roy, Snehasish Das

Abstract:

Two new metal-based anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, [(Ph2Sn)2(HGuO)2(phen)Cl2] 1 and [(Ph3Sn)(HGuO)(phen)]- Cl.CH3OH.H2O 2, were designed, prepared and characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, ESI-Mass, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR) techniques. The proposed geometry of Sn(IV) in 1 and 2 is distorted octahedral and distorted trigonal-bipyramidal, respectively. Both 1 and 2 exhibit potential cytotoxicity in vitro against MCF-7, HepG-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) values of 1 (2.33 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.46 × 105 M-1) evaluated from UV-Visible absorption studies suggest non-classical electrostatic mode of interaction via phosphate backbone of DNA double helix. The Stern- Volmer quenching constant (Ksv) of 1 (9.74 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.9 × 106 M-1) determined by fluorescence studies suggests the groove binding and intercalation mode for 1 and 2, respectively. Effective cleavage of pBR322 DNA is induced by 1.Their interaction with DNA of cancer cells may account for potency.

Keywords: Anticancer agents, DNA binding studies, NMR spectroscopy, organotin.

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25 IIR Filter design with Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

Authors: Suman Kumar Saha, Rajib Kar, Durbadal Mandal, S. P. Ghoshal

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the application of craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) technique for designing the 8th order low pass Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. CRPSO, the much improved version of PSO, is a population based global heuristic search algorithm which finds near optimal solution in terms of a set of filter coefficients. Effectiveness of this algorithm is justified with a comparative study of some well established algorithms, namely, real coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Simulation results affirm that the proposed algorithm CRPSO, outperforms over its counterparts not only in terms of quality output i.e. sharpness at cut-off, pass band ripple, stop band ripple, and stop band attenuation but also in convergence speed with assured stability.

Keywords: IIR Filter, RGA, PSO, CRPSO, Evolutionary Optimization Techniques, Low Pass (LP) Filter, Magnitude Response, Pole-Zero Plot, Stability.

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24 A Discriminatory Rewarding Mechanism for Sybil Detection with Applications to Tor

Authors: Asim Kumar Pal, Debabrata Nath, Sumit Chakraborty

Abstract:

This paper presents an economic game for sybil detection in a distributed computing environment. Cost parameters reflecting impacts of different sybil attacks are introduced in the sybil detection game. The optimal strategies for this game in which both sybil and non-sybil identities are expected to participate are devised. A cost sharing economic mechanism called Discriminatory Rewarding Mechanism for Sybil Detection is proposed based on this game. A detective accepts a security deposit from each active agent, negotiates with the agents and offers rewards to the sybils if the latter disclose their identity. The basic objective of the detective is to determine the optimum reward amount for each sybil which will encourage the maximum possible number of sybils to reveal themselves. Maintaining privacy is an important issue for the mechanism since the participants involved in the negotiation are generally reluctant to share their private information. The mechanism has been applied to Tor by introducing a reputation scoring function.

Keywords: Game theory, Incentive mechanism, Reputation, Sybil Attack

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23 Influence of Hygro-Chemo-Mechanical Degradation on Performance of Concrete Gravity Dam

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Mandal, Damodar Maity

Abstract:

The degradation of concrete due to various hygrochemo- mechanical actions is inevitable for the structures particularly built to store water. Therefore, it is essential to determine the material properties of dam-like structures due to ageing to predict the behavior of such structures after a certain age. The degraded material properties are calculated by introducing isotropic degradation index. The predicted material properties are used to study the behavior of aged dam at different ages. The dam is modeled by finite elements and displacement and is considered as an unknown variable. The parametric study reveals that the displacement is quite larger for comparatively lower design life of the structure because the degradation of elastic properties depends on the design life of the dam. The stresses in dam cam be unexpectedly large at any age with in the design life. The outcomes of the present study indicate the importance of the consideration ageing effect of concrete exposed to water for the safe design of dam throughout its life time.

Keywords: Hygro-chemo-mechanical, isotropic degradation, finite element method, Koyna earthquake.

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22 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

Authors: Gopi Ram, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

Abstract:

A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords: Circular arrays, First null beam width, Side lobe level, FFA.

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21 Tool for Metadata Extraction and Content Packaging as Endorsed in OAIS Framework

Authors: Payal Abichandani, Rishi Prakash, Paras Nath Barwal, B. K. Murthy

Abstract:

Information generated from various computerization processes is a potential rich source of knowledge for its designated community. To pass this information from generation to generation without modifying the meaning is a challenging activity. To preserve and archive the data for future generations it’s very essential to prove the authenticity of the data. It can be achieved by extracting the metadata from the data which can prove the authenticity and create trust on the archived data. Subsequent challenge is the technology obsolescence. Metadata extraction and standardization can be effectively used to resolve and tackle this problem. Metadata can be categorized at two levels i.e. Technical and Domain level broadly. Technical metadata will provide the information that can be used to understand and interpret the data record, but only this level of metadata isn’t sufficient to create trustworthiness. We have developed a tool which will extract and standardize the technical as well as domain level metadata. This paper is about the different features of the tool and how we have developed this.  

Keywords: Digital Preservation, Metadata, OAIS, PDI, XML.

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20 Predictive Models for Compressive Strength of High Performance Fly Ash Cement Concrete for Pavements

Authors: S. M. Gupta, Vanita Aggarwal, Som Nath Sachdeva

Abstract:

The work reported through this paper is an experimental work conducted on High Performance Concrete (HPC) with super plasticizer with the aim to develop some models suitable for prediction of compressive strength of HPC mixes. In this study, the effect of varying proportions of fly ash (0% to 50% @ 10% increment) on compressive strength of high performance concrete has been evaluated. The mix designs studied were M30, M40 and M50 to compare the effect of fly ash addition on the properties of these concrete mixes. In all eighteen concrete mixes that have been designed, three were conventional concretes for three grades under discussion and fifteen were HPC with fly ash with varying percentages of fly ash. The concrete mix designing has been done in accordance with Indian standard recommended guidelines. All the concrete mixes have been studied in terms of compressive strength at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days, and 365 days. All the materials used have been kept same throughout the study to get a perfect comparison of values of results. The models for compressive strength prediction have been developed using Linear Regression method (LR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Leave-One-Out Validation (LOOV) methods.

Keywords: ANN, concrete mixes, compressive strength, fly ash, high performance concrete, linear regression, strength prediction models.

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19 Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha

Abstract:

This paper deals with the analytical investigation of thermal and thermohydraulic performance of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language is developed to estimate the outlet temperature of air for the evaluation of thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency by solving the governing equations numerically using relevant correlations for heat transfer coefficients. The results obtained from the mathematical model is compared with the available experimental results and it is found to be reasonably good. The results show that the double flow solar air heaters have higher efficiency than conventional solar air heater, although the double flow corrugated absorber is superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. It is also observed that the thermal efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate; however, thermohydraulic efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate up to a certain limit, attains the maximum value, then thereafter decreases sharply.

Keywords: Corrugated absorber, double flow, solar air heater, thermohydraulic efficiency.

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18 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

Authors: S. P. Sharma, Som Nath Saha

Abstract:

This paper presents the performance, based on exergy analysis of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater based on energy balance equations has been presented and the results obtained have been compared with that of a conventional flat-plate solar air heater. The double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater performs thermally better than the flat plate double flow and conventional flat-plate solar air heater under same operating conditions. However, the corrugated absorber leads to higher pressure drop thereby increasing pumping power. The results revealed that the energy and exergy efficiencies of double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater is much higher than conventional solar air heater with the concept involving of increase in heat transfer surface area and turbulence in air flow. The results indicate that the energy efficiency increases, however, exergy efficiency decreases with increase in mass flow rate.

Keywords: Corrugated absorber, double flow, exergy efficiency, solar air heater.

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17 Studies on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Simulated Heat Affected Zone in a Micro Alloyed Steel

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, S. K. Nath

Abstract:

Proper selection of welding parameters for getting excellent weld is a challenge. HAZ simulation helps in identifying suitable welding parameters like heating rate, cooling rate, peak temperature, and energy input. In this study, the influence of weld thermal cycle of heat affected zone (HAZ) is simulated for Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) using Gleeble ® 3800 thermomechanical simulator. A (Micro-alloyed) MA steel plate of thickness 18 mm having yield strength 450MPa is used for making test specimens. Determination of the mechanical properties of weld simulated specimens including Charpy V-notch toughness and hardness is performed. Peak temperatures of 1300°C, 1150°C, 1000°C, 900°C, 800°C, heat energy input of 22KJ/cm and preheat temperatures of 30°C have been used with Rykalin-3D simulation model. It is found that the impact toughness (75J) is the best for the simulated HAZ specimen at the peak temperature 900ºC. For parent steel, impact toughness value is 26.8J at -50°C in transverse direction.

Keywords: HAZ Simulation, Mechanical Properties, Peak Temperature, Ship hull steel, and Weldability.

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16 Effect of Na2O Content on Performance of Fly ash Geopolymers at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Kalyan Kr. Mandal, Suresh Thokchom, Mithun Roy

Abstract:

The present paper reports results of an experimental program conducted to study performance of fly ash based geopolymer pastes at elevated temperature. Three series of geopolymer pastes differing in Na2O content (8.5%, 10% and 11.5%) were manufactured by activating low calcium fly ash with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. The paste specimens were subjected to temperatures as high as 900oC and the behaviour at elevated temperatures were investigated on the basis of physical appearance, weight losses, residual strength, shrinkage measurements and sorptivity tests at different temperatures. Scanning electron microscopy along with EDX and XRD tests were also conducted to examine microstructure and mineralogical changes during the thermal exposure. Specimens which were initially grey turned reddish accompanied by appearance of small cracks as the temperature increased to 900oC. Loss of weight was more in specimens manufactured with highest Na2O content. Geopolymer paste specimen containing minimum Na2O performed better than those with higher Na2O content in terms of residual compressive strength.

Keywords: Compressive strength, EDX, Elevated temperature, Fly ash, Geopolymer, Scanning electron microscopy, XRD

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15 Development of a Water-Jet Assisted Underwater Laser Cutting Process

Authors: Suvradip Mullick, Yuvraj K. Madhukar, Subhranshu Roy, Ashish K. Nath

Abstract:

We present the development of a new underwater laser cutting process in which a water-jet has been used along with the laser beam to remove the molten material through kerf. The conventional underwater laser cutting usually utilizes a high pressure gas jet along with laser beam to create a dry condition in the cutting zone and also to eject out the molten material. This causes a lot of gas bubbles and turbulence in water, and produces aerosols and waste gas. This may cause contamination in the surrounding atmosphere while cutting radioactive components like burnt nuclear fuel. The water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting process produces much less turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere. Some amount of water vapor bubbles is formed at the laser-metal-water interface; however, they tend to condense as they rise up through the surrounding water. We present the design and development of a water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting head and the parametric study of the cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel sheets with a 2 kW CW fiber laser. The cutting performance is similar to that of the gas assist laser cutting; however, the process efficiency is reduced due to heat convection by water-jet and laser beam scattering by vapor. This process may be attractive for underwater cutting of nuclear reactor components.

Keywords: Laser, underwater cutting, water-jet.

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14 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal

Abstract:

The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with Plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and powai soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and Plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load –settlement curves have reported. It has been observed from test results that load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: Fly ash, Plastic recycled polymer, Factor of safety, Finite element method (FEM), Bishop’s simplified method.

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