Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: vague reliability

41 Distributed Generator Placement for Loss Reduction and Improvement in Reliability

Authors: Priyanka Paliwal, N.P. Patidar

Abstract:

Distributed Power generation has gained a lot of attention in recent times due to constraints associated with conventional power generation and new advancements in DG technologies .The need to operate the power system economically and with optimum levels of reliability has further led to an increase in interest in Distributed Generation. However it is important to place Distributed Generator on an optimum location so that the purpose of loss minimization and voltage regulation is dully served on the feeder. This paper investigates the impact of DG units installation on electric losses, reliability and voltage profile of distribution networks. In this paper, our aim would be to find optimal distributed generation allocation for loss reduction subjected to constraint of voltage regulation in distribution network. The system is further analyzed for increased levels of Reliability. Distributed Generator offers the additional advantage of increase in reliability levels as suggested by the improvements in various reliability indices such as SAIDI, CAIDI and AENS. Comparative studies are performed and related results are addressed. An analytical technique is used in order to find the optimal location of Distributed Generator. The suggested technique is programmed under MATLAB software. The results clearly indicate that DG can reduce the electrical line loss while simultaneously improving the reliability of the system.

Keywords: AENS, CAIDI, Distributed Generation, lossreduction, Reliability, SAIDI

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2815
40 Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints of Offshore Platforms in Malaysia

Authors: Nelson J. Cossa, Narayanan S. Potty, Mohd Shahir Liew, Arazi B. Idrus

Abstract:

The oil and gas industry has moved towards Load and Resistance Factor Design through API RP2A - LRFD and the recently published international standard, ISO-19902, for design of fixed steel offshore structures. The ISO 19902 is intended to provide a harmonized design practice that offers a balanced structural fitness for the purpose, economy and safety. As part of an ongoing work, the reliability analysis of tubular joints of the jacket structure has been carried out to calibrate the load and resistance factors for the design of offshore platforms in Malaysia, as proposed in the ISO. Probabilistic models have been established for the load effects (wave, wind and current) and the tubular joints strengths. In this study the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), coded in MATLAB Software has been employed to evaluate the reliability index of the typical joints, designed using API RP2A - WSD and ISO 19902.

Keywords: FORM, Reliability Analysis, Tubular Joints

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3186
39 Average Current Estimation Technique for Reliability Analysis of Multiple Semiconductor Interconnects

Authors: Ki-Young Kim, Jae-Ho Lim, Deok-Min Kim, Seok-Yoon Kim

Abstract:

Average current analysis checking the impact of current flow is very important to guarantee the reliability of semiconductor systems. As semiconductor process technologies improve, the coupling capacitance often become bigger than self capacitances. In this paper, we propose an analytic technique for analyzing average current on interconnects in multi-conductor structures. The proposed technique has shown to yield the acceptable errors compared to HSPICE results while providing computational efficiency.

Keywords: current moment, interconnect modeling, reliability analysis, worst-case switching

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1120
38 System Reliability by Prediction of Generator Output and Losses in a Competitive Energy Market

Authors: Perumal Nallagownden, Ravindra N. Mukerjee, Syafrudin Masri

Abstract:

In a competitive energy market, system reliability should be maintained at all times. Power system operation being of online in nature, the energy balance requirements must be satisfied to ensure reliable operation the system. To achieve this, information regarding the expected status of the system, the scheduled transactions and the relevant inputs necessary to make either a transaction contract or a transmission contract operational, have to be made available in real time. The real time procedure proposed, facilitates this. This paper proposes a quadratic curve learning procedure, which enables a generator-s contribution to the retailer demand, power loss of transaction in a line at the retail end and its associated losses for an oncoming operating scenario to be predicted. Matlab program was used to test in on a 24-bus IEE Reliability Test System, and the results are found to be acceptable.

Keywords: Deregulation, learning coefficients, reliability, prediction, competitive energy market.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1229
37 Bayesian Belief Networks for Test Driven Development

Authors: Vijayalakshmy Periaswamy S., Kevin McDaid

Abstract:

Testing accounts for the major percentage of technical contribution in the software development process. Typically, it consumes more than 50 percent of the total cost of developing a piece of software. The selection of software tests is a very important activity within this process to ensure the software reliability requirements are met. Generally tests are run to achieve maximum coverage of the software code and very little attention is given to the achieved reliability of the software. Using an existing methodology, this paper describes how to use Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to select unit tests based on their contribution to the reliability of the module under consideration. In particular the work examines how the approach can enhance test-first development by assessing the quality of test suites resulting from this development methodology and providing insight into additional tests that can significantly reduce the achieved reliability. In this way the method can produce an optimal selection of inputs and the order in which the tests are executed to maximize the software reliability. To illustrate this approach, a belief network is constructed for a modern software system incorporating the expert opinion, expressed through probabilities of the relative quality of the elements of the software, and the potential effectiveness of the software tests. The steps involved in constructing the Bayesian Network are explained as is a method to allow for the test suite resulting from test-driven development.

Keywords: Software testing, Test Driven Development, Bayesian Belief Networks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1571
36 A Study on a Discrete Event Simulation Model for Availability Analysis of Weapon Systems

Authors: Hye Lyeong Kim, Sang Yeong Choi

Abstract:

This paper discusses a discrete event simulation model for the availability analysis of weapon systems. This model incorporates missions, operational tasks and system reliability structures to analyze the availability of a weapon system. The proposed simulation model consists of 5 modules: Simulation Engine, Maintenance Organizations, System, its Mission Profile and RBD which are based on missions and operational tasks. Simulation Engine executes three kinds of discrete events in chronological order. The events are mission events generated by Mission Profile, failure events generated by System, and maintenance events executed by Maintenance Organization. Finally, this paper shows the case study of a system's availability analysis and mission reliability using the simulation model.

Keywords: MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure), MTTR (Mean Time To Repair), Availability, Reliability, RBD (Reliability Block Diagram)

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2063
35 A Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Methods for Determining the Required Amount of Spinning Reserve

Authors: A. Ehsani, A. Karimizadeh, H. Fallahi, A. Jalali

Abstract:

In an electric power system, spinning reserve requirements can be determined by using deterministic and/or probabilistic measures. Although deterministic methods are usual in many systems, application of probabilistic methods becomes increasingly important in the new environment of the electric power utility industry. This is because of the increased uncertainty associated with competition. In this paper 1) a new probabilistic method is presented which considers the reliability of transmission system in a simplified manner and 2) deterministic and probabilistic methods are compared. The studied methods are applied to the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS).

Keywords: Reliability, Spinning Reserve, Risk, Transmission, Unit Commitment.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1728
34 An Extension of the Kratzel Function and Associated Inverse Gaussian Probability Distribution Occurring in Reliability Theory

Authors: R. K. Saxena, Ravi Saxena

Abstract:

In view of their importance and usefulness in reliability theory and probability distributions, several generalizations of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function are investigated in recent years. This has motivated the authors to introduce and study a new generalization of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function associated with a product of a Bessel function of the third kind )(zKQ and a Z - Fox-Wright generalized hyper geometric function introduced in this paper. The introduced function turns out to be a unified gamma-type function. Its incomplete forms are also discussed. Several properties of this gamma-type function are obtained. By means of this generalized function, we introduce a generalization of inverse Gaussian distribution, which is useful in reliability analysis, diffusion processes, and radio techniques etc. The inverse Gaussian distribution thus introduced also provides a generalization of the Krtzel function. Some basic statistical functions associated with this probability density function, such as moments, the Mellin transform, the moment generating function, the hazard rate function, and the mean residue life function are also obtained.KeywordsFox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

Keywords: Fox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1428
33 The Development and Examination of a Teaching Commitment Scale for Elementary School Health and Physical Education Teachers

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Wei-Ting Hsu, Chang-Pang Lin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to develop and examine a Teaching Commitment Scale of Health and Physical Education (TCS-HPE) for Taiwanese elementary school teachers. First of all, based on teaching commitment related theory and literatures to develop a original scale with 40 items, later both stratified random sampling and cluster sampling were used to sample participants. During the first stage, 300 teachers were sampled and 251 valid scales (83.7%) returned. Later, the data was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis to obtain 74.30% of total variance for the construct validity. The Cronbach-s alpha coefficient of sum scale reliability was 0.94, and subscale coefficients were between 0.80 and 0.96. In the second stage, 400 teachers were sampled and 318 valid scales (79.5%) returned. Finally, this study used confirmatory factor analysis to test validity and reliability of TCS-HPE. The result showed that the fit indexes reached acceptable criteria(¤ç2 (246 ) =557.64 , p<.05, RMSEA= 0.03, GFI = 0.96, AGFI = 0.95, NFI = 0.91, CFI = 0.98, RMR = 0.04, SRMR = 0.03). In conclusion, TCS-HPE has four dimensions with 24 items, including teaching identification, teaching involvement, teaching objectives and tendency towards work continuation. It is an acceptable measurement instrument with reliability and validity.

Keywords: Attitude, belief, construct validity, teachers' professional development.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2058
32 Self-Sensing versus Reference Air Gaps

Authors: Alexander Schulz, Ingrid Rottensteiner, Manfred Neumann, Michael Wehse, Johann Wassermann

Abstract:

Self-sensing estimates the air gap within an electro magnetic path by analyzing the bearing coil current and/or voltage waveform. The self-sensing concept presented in this paper has been developed within the research project “Active Magnetic Bearings with Supreme Reliability" and is used for position sensor fault detection. Within this new concept gap calculation is carried out by an alldigital analysis of the digitized coil current and voltage waveform. For analysis those time periods within the PWM period are used, which give the best results. Additionally, the concept allows the digital compensation of nonlinearities, for example magnetic saturation, without degrading signal quality. This increases the accuracy and robustness of the air gap estimation and additionally reduces phase delays. Beneath an overview about the developed concept first measurement results are presented which show the potential of this all-digital self-sensing concept.

Keywords: digital signal analysis, active magnetic bearing, reliability, fault detection.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1192
31 Efficient Tools for Managing Uncertainties in Design and Operation of Engineering Structures

Authors: J. Menčík

Abstract:

Actual load, material characteristics and other quantities often differ from the design values. This can cause worse function, shorter life or failure of a civil engineering structure, a machine, vehicle or another appliance. The paper shows main causes of the uncertainties and deviations and presents a systematic approach and efficient tools for their elimination or mitigation of consequences. Emphasis is put on the design stage, which is most important for reliability ensuring. Principles of robust design and important tools are explained, including FMEA, sensitivity analysis and probabilistic simulation methods. The lifetime prediction of long-life objects can be improved by long-term monitoring of the load response and damage accumulation in operation. The condition evaluation of engineering structures, such as bridges, is often based on visual inspection and verbal description. Here, methods based on fuzzy logic can reduce the subjective influences.

Keywords: Design, fuzzy methods, Monte Carlo, reliability, robust design, sensitivity analysis, simulation, uncertainties.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1587
30 Probabilistic Electrical Power Generation Modeling Using Decimal to Binary Conversion

Authors: Ahmed S. Al-Abdulwahab

Abstract:

Generation system reliability assessment is an important task which can be performed using deterministic or probabilistic techniques. The probabilistic approaches have significant advantages over the deterministic methods. However, more complicated modeling is required by the probabilistic approaches. Power generation model is a basic requirement for this assessment. One form of the generation models is the well known capacity outage probability table (COPT). Different analytical techniques have been used to construct the COPT. These approaches require considerable mathematical modeling of the generating units. The unit-s models are combined to build the COPT which will add more burdens on the process of creating the COPT. Decimal to Binary Conversion (DBC) technique is widely and commonly applied in electronic systems and computing This paper proposes a novel utilization of the DBC to create the COPT without engaging in analytical modeling or time consuming simulations. The simple binary representation , “0 " and “1 " is used to model the states o f generating units. The proposed technique is proven to be an effective approach to build the generation model.

Keywords: Decimal to Binary, generation, reliability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1792
29 Development and Initial Validation of the Social Competency Inventory for Tertiary Level Faculty Members

Authors: Glenn M. Calaguas, Carmela S. Dizon

Abstract:

This study aimed to develop and initially validate an instrument that measures social competency among tertiary level faculty members. A review of extant literature on social competence was done. The review of extant literature led to the writing of the items in the initial instrument which was evaluated by 11 Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The SMEs were either educators or psychologists. The results of the evaluations done by the SMEs served as bases for the creation of the pre-try-out instrument used in the first trial-run. Insights from the first trial-run participants led to the development of the main try-out instrument used in the final test administration. One Hundred Forty-one participants from five private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the National Capital Region (NCR) and five private HEIs in Central Luzon in the Philippines participated in the final test administration. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated using Cronbach-s Coefficient Alpha formula and had a Cronbach-s Alpha of 0.92. On the other hand, Factor Analysis was used to evaluate the validity of the instrument and six factors were identified. The development of the final instrument was based on the results of the evaluation of the instrument-s reliability and validity. For purposes of recognition, the instrument was named “Social Competency Inventory for Tertiary Level Faculty Members (SCI-TLFM)."

Keywords: development, initial validation, social competency, tertiary level faculty members

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1912
28 Italians- Social and Emotional Loneliness: The Results of Five Studies

Authors: Vanda Lucia Zammuner

Abstract:

Subjective loneliness describes people who feel a disagreeable or unacceptable lack of meaningful social relationships, both at the quantitative and qualitative level. The studies to be presented tested an Italian 18-items self-report loneliness measure, that included items adapted from scales previously developed, namely a short version of the UCLA (Russell, Peplau and Cutrona, 1980), and the 11-items Loneliness scale by De Jong-Gierveld & Kamphuis (JGLS; 1985). The studies aimed at testing the developed scale and at verifying whether loneliness is better conceptualized as a unidimensional (so-called 'general loneliness') or a bidimensional construct, namely comprising the distinct facets of social and emotional loneliness. The loneliness questionnaire included 2 singleitem criterion measures of sad mood, and social contact, and asked participants to supply information on a number of socio-demographic variables. Factorial analyses of responses obtained in two preliminary studies, with 59 and 143 Italian participants respectively, showed good factor loadings and subscale reliability and confirmed that perceived loneliness has clearly two components, a social and an emotional one, the latter measured by two subscales, a 7-item 'general' loneliness subscale derived from UCLA, and a 6–item 'emotional' scale included in the JGLS. Results further showed that type and amount of loneliness are related, negatively, to frequency of social contacts, and, positively, to sad mood. In a third study data were obtained from a nation-wide sample of 9.097 Italian subjects, 12 to about 70 year-olds, who filled the test on-line, on the Italian web site of a large-audience magazine, Focus. The results again confirmed the reliability of the component subscales, namely social, emotional, and 'general' loneliness, and showed that they were highly correlated with each other, especially the latter two. Loneliness scores were significantly predicted by sex, age, education level, sad mood and social contact, and, less so, by other variables – e.g., geographical area and profession. The scale validity was confirmed by the results of a fourth study, with elderly men and women (N 105) living at home or in residential care units. The three subscales were significantly related, among others, to depression, and to various measures of the extension of, and satisfaction with, social contacts with relatives and friends. Finally, a fifth study with 315 career-starters showed that social and emotional loneliness correlate with life satisfaction, and with measures of emotional intelligence. Altogether the results showed a good validity and reliability in the tested samples of the entire scale, and of its components.

Keywords: Emotional loneliness, social loneliness, scale development and testing, life span and cultural differences.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2449
27 Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake

Authors: O. Solovyov, S. Eryomenko, V. Kobrin, V. Chmovzh

Abstract:

The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.

Keywords: Unmanned aircraft, vortex wake, aerodynamic characteristics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1505
26 Investigate the Relation between the Correctness and the Number of Versions of Fault Tolerant Software System

Authors: Pham Ba Quang, Nguyen Tien Dat, Huynh Quyet Thang

Abstract:

In this paper, we generalize several techniques in developing Fault Tolerant Software. We introduce property “Correctness" in evaluating N-version Systems and compare it to some commonly used properties such as reliability or availability. We also find out the relation between this property and the number of versions of system. Our experiments to verify the correctness and the applicability of the relation are also presented.

Keywords: Correctness, Fault Tolerant Software, N-versionSystems

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1015
25 Design and Development of Automatic Leveling and Equalizing Hoist Device for Spacecraft

Authors: Fu Hao, Sun Gang, Tang Laiying, Cui Junfeng

Abstract:

To solve the quick and accurate level-adjusting problem in the process of spacecraft precise mating, automatic leveling and equalizing hoist device for spacecraft is developed. Based on lifting point adjustment by utilizing XY-workbench, the leveling and equalizing controller by a self-adaptive control algorithm is proposed. By simulation analysis and lifting test using engineering prototype, validity and reliability of the hoist device is verified, which can meet the precision mating requirements of practical applications for spacecraft.

Keywords: automatic leveling and equalizing, hoist device, lifting point adjustment, self-adaptive control

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1738
24 Comparison Analysis of the Wald-s and the Bayes Type Sequential Methods for Testing Hypotheses

Authors: K. J. Kachiashvili

Abstract:

The Comparison analysis of the Wald-s and Bayestype sequential methods for testing hypotheses is offered. The merits of the new sequential test are: universality which consists in optimality (with given criteria) and uniformity of decision-making regions for any number of hypotheses; simplicity, convenience and uniformity of the algorithms of their realization; reliability of the obtained results and an opportunity of providing the errors probabilities of desirable values. There are given the Computation results of concrete examples which confirm the above-stated characteristics of the new method and characterize the considered methods in regard to each other.

Keywords: Errors of types I and II, likelihood ratio, the Bayes Type Sequential test, the Wald's sequential test, averaged number of observations.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1465
23 A Review of Survey Methodology Employedin IT Outsourcing

Authors: B. Terzioglu, E.S.K. Chan

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on methodological aspects of the information technology outsourcing (ITO) surveys, in an attempt to improve the data quality and reporting in survey research. It is based on a review of thirty articles on ITO surveys and focuses on two commonly explored dimensions of ITO, namely what are outsourced and why should there be ITO. This study highlights weaknesses in ITO surveys including lack of a clear definition of population, lack of information regarding the sampling method used, not citing the response rate, no information pertaining to pilot testing of survey instrument and absence of information on internal validity in the use or reporting of surveys. This study represents an attempt with a limited scope to point to shortfalls in the use survey methodology in ITO, and thus raise awareness among researchers in enhancing the reliability of survey findings.

Keywords: ITO, information technology outsourcing, survey methodology

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1620
22 Modelling the Occurrence of Defects and Change Requests during User Acceptance Testing

Authors: Kevin McDaid, Simon P. Wilson

Abstract:

Software developed for a specific customer under contract typically undergoes a period of testing by the customer before acceptance. This is known as user acceptance testing and the process can reveal both defects in the system and requests for changes to the product. This paper uses nonhomogeneous Poisson processes to model a real user acceptance data set from a recently developed system. In particular a split Poisson process is shown to provide an excellent fit to the data. The paper explains how this model can be used to aid the allocation of resources through the accurate prediction of occurrences both during the acceptance testing phase and before this activity begins.

Keywords: User acceptance testing. Software reliability growth modelling. Split Poisson process. Bayesian methods.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2069
21 A Dynamic Programming Model for Maintenance of Electric Distribution System

Authors: Juha Korpijärvi, Jari Kortelainen

Abstract:

The paper presents dynamic programming based model as a planning tool for the maintenance of electric power systems. Every distribution component has an exponential age depending reliability function to model the fault risk. In the moment of time when the fault costs exceed the investment costs of the new component the reinvestment of the component should be made. However, in some cases the overhauling of the old component may be more economical than the reinvestment. The comparison between overhauling and reinvestment is made by optimisation process. The goal of the optimisation process is to find the cost minimising maintenance program for electric power distribution system.

Keywords: Dynamic programming, Electric distribution system, Maintenance

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1762
20 Baseline Performance of Notebook Computer under Various Environmental and Usage Conditions for Prognostics

Authors: Sachin Kumar, Michael Pecht

Abstract:

A study was conducted to formally characterize notebook computer performance under various environmental and usage conditions. Software was developed to collect data from the operating system of the computer. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance parameters- variations, trends, and correlations, as well as the extreme value they can attain in various usage and environmental conditions. An automated software script was written to simulate user activity. The variability of each performance parameter was addressed by establishing the empirical relationship between performance parameters. These equations were presented as baseline estimates for performance parameters, which can be used to detect system deviations from normal operation and for prognostic assessment. The effect of environmental factors, including different power sources, ambient temperatures, humidity, and usage, on performance parameters of notebooks was studied.

Keywords: Health monitoring, Electronic prognostics, Reliability, Usage monitoring, Notebook computer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2018
19 Simulation Study of DFIG Wind Turbine under Grid Fault

Authors: N. Zerzouri, H. Labar, S. Kechida

Abstract:

During recent years wind turbine technology has undergone rapid developments. Growth in size and the optimization of wind turbines has enabled wind energy to become increasingly competitive with conventional energy sources. As a result today-s wind turbines participate actively in the power production of several countries around the world. These developments raise a number of challenges to be dealt with now and in the future. The penetration of wind energy in the grid raises questions about the compatibility of the wind turbine power production with the grid. In particular, the contribution to grid stability, power quality and behavior during fault situations plays therefore as important a role as the reliability. In the present work, we addressed two fault situations that have shown their influence on the generator and the behavior of the wind over the defects which are briefly discussed based on simulation results.

Keywords: Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), Wind energy, grid fault

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2110
18 Establish a Methodology for Testing and Optimizing GPRS Performance Case Study: Libya GSM

Authors: Mohamed Aburkhiss, Ibrahim Aref

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to establish a methodology for testing and optimizing GPRS performance over Libya GSM network as well as to propose a suitable optimization technique to improve performance. Some measurements of download, upload, throughput, round-trip time, reliability, handover, security enhancement and packet loss over a GPRS access network were carried out. Measured values are compared to the theoretical values that could be calculated beforehand. This data should be processed and delivered by the server across the wireless network to the client. The client on the fly takes those pieces of the data and process immediately. Also, we illustrate the results by describing the main parameters that affect the quality of service. Finally, Libya-s two mobile operators, Libyana Mobile Phone and Al-Madar al- Jadeed Company are selected as a case study to validate our methodology.

Keywords: GPRS, performance, optimization, GSM

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1964
17 Effect of FES Cycling Training on Spasticity in Spinal Cord Injured Subjects

Authors: Werner Reichenfelser, Harald Hackl, Josef Hufgard, Karin Gstaltner, Margit Gfoehler

Abstract:

Training with Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has both physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord injured subjects. Commonly used methods for quantification of spasticity have shown controversial reliability. In this study we propose a method for quick determination of spasticity in spinal cord injured subjects on a cycling and measurement system. 23 patients did training sessions on an instrumented mobile FES cycle three times a week over two months as part of their clinical rehabilitation program. Spasticity (MAS) and the legs resistance to the pedaling motion were assessed before and after the FES training and measurements were done on the subjects ability to pedal with our without motor assistance. Measurements with test persons with incomplete spastic paraplegia have shown that spasticity is decreased after a 30 min cycling training with functional electrical stimulation (FES).

Keywords: Spasticity, paraplegia, spinal cord injury, functional electrical stimulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1840
16 Robust On-Body Communications using Creeping Wave: Methodology and Analysis

Authors: M. Ali, K. Masood

Abstract:

In this paper methodology to exploit creeping wave for body area network BAN communication reliability are described. Creeping wave propagation effects are visualized & analyzed. During this work Dipole, IA antennas various antennas were redesigned using existing designs and their propagation characteristics were verified for optimum performance when used on BANs. These antennas were then applied on body shapes-including rectangular, spherical and cylindrical so that all the effects of actual human body can be taken nearly into account. Parametric simulation scheme was devised so that on Body channel characterization can be visualized at front, curved and back region. In the next phase multiple inputs multiple output MIMO scheme was introduced where virtual antennas were used in order to diminish the effects of antennas on the propagation of waves. Results were, extracted and analyzed at different heights. Finally based on comparative measurement and analysis it was concluded that on body propagation can be exploited to gain spatial diversity.

Keywords: BAN, Creeping Wave, MIMO, WIAs.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1446
15 The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) with Turkish Sample: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

Authors: Oznur Korukcu, Kamile Kukulu, Mehmet Z. Firat

Abstract:

The propose of this study is to investigate the factor structures of the W-DEQ, originally developed on UK and Swedish women, were confirmed in Turkish samples, and to obtain a new modified factor structure appropriate to Turkish culture. Statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed using SPSS© for Windows version 13.0 and the SAS statistical software Version 9.1. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of W-DEQ were performed in the study. Factor analysis yielded four factors related to hope, fear, lack of positive anticipation and riskiness. The alpha estimates of the total W-DEQ score were somewhat higher, being 0.92 for the parous and 0.90 for the nulliparous sample. These are well above the accepted limit of 0.70 and indicate excellent levels of internal reliability, thus showing that the questions were appropriate to the Turkish culture and useful scale for the evaluation of fear of childbirth in Turkish pregnants.

Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, cross-cultural research, exploratory factor analysis, fear of childbirth.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4737
14 Computational Studies of Binding Energies and Structures of Methylamine on Functionalized Activated Carbon Surfaces

Authors: R. C. J. Mphahlele, K. Bolton, H. Kasaini

Abstract:

Empirical force fields and density functional theory (DFT) was used to study the binding energies and structures of methylamine on the surface of activated carbons (ACs). This is a first step in studying the adsorption of alkyl amines on the surface of functionalized ACs. The force fields used were Dreiding (DFF), Universal (UFF) and Compass (CFF) models. The generalized gradient approximation with Perdew Wang 91 (PW91) functional was used for DFT calculations. In addition to obtaining the aminecarboxylic acid adsorption energies, the results were used to establish reliability of the empirical models for these systems. CFF predicted a binding energy of -9.227 (kcal/mol) which agreed with PW91 at - 13.17 (kcal/mol), compared to DFF 0 (kcal/mol) and UFF -0.72 (kcal/mol). However, the CFF binding energies for the amine to ester and ketone disagreed with PW91 results. The structures obtained from all models agreed with PW91 results.

Keywords: Activated Carbons, Binding energy, DFT, Force fields.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1686
13 Reciprocating Compressor Optimum Design and Manufacturing with Respect to Performance, Reliability and Cost

Authors: A. Almasi

Abstract:

Reciprocating compressors are flexible to handle wide capacity and condition swings, offer a very efficient method of compressing almost any gas mixture in wide range of pressure, can generate high head independent of density, and have numerous applications and wide power ratings. These make them vital component in various units of industrial plants. In this paper optimum reciprocating compressor configuration regarding interstage pressures, low suction pressure, non-lubricated cylinder, speed of machine, capacity control system, compressor valve, lubrication system, piston rod coating, cylinder liner material, barring device, pressure drops, rod load, pin reversal, discharge temperature, cylinder coolant system, performance, flow, coupling, special tools, condition monitoring (including vibration, thermal and rod drop monitoring), commercial points, delivery and acoustic conditions are presented.

Keywords: Design, optimum, reciprocating compressor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 9456
12 Numerical Modeling of Gas Turbine Engines

Authors: A. Pashayev, D. Askerov, C. Ardil, R. Sadiqov

Abstract:

In contrast to existing methods which do not take into account multiconnectivity in a broad sense of this term, we develop mathematical models and highly effective combination (BIEM and FDM) numerical methods of calculation of stationary and quasi-stationary temperature field of a profile part of a blade with convective cooling (from the point of view of realization on PC). The theoretical substantiation of these methods is proved by appropriate theorems. For it, converging quadrature processes have been developed and the estimations of errors in the terms of A.Ziqmound continuity modules have been received. For visualization of profiles are used: the method of the least squares with automatic conjecture, device spline, smooth replenishment and neural nets. Boundary conditions of heat exchange are determined from the solution of the corresponding integral equations and empirical relationships. The reliability of designed methods is proved by calculation and experimental investigations heat and hydraulic characteristics of the gas turbine first stage nozzle blade.

Keywords: Multiconnected systems, method of the boundary integrated equations, splines, neural networks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1404