Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: finite elements

49 Analytical Solution of the Boundary Value Problem of Delaminated Doubly-Curved Composite Shells

Authors: András Szekrényes

Abstract:

Delamination is one of the major failure modes in laminated composite structures. Delamination tips are mostly captured by spatial numerical models in order to predict crack growth. This paper presents some mechanical models of delaminated composite shells based on shallow shell theories. The mechanical fields are based on a third-order displacement field in terms of the through-thickness coordinate of the laminated shell. The undelaminated and delaminated parts are captured by separate models and the continuity and boundary conditions are also formulated in a general way providing a large size boundary value problem. The system of differential equations is solved by the state space method for an elliptic delaminated shell having simply supported edges. The comparison of the proposed and a numerical model indicates that the primary indicator of the model is the deflection, the secondary is the widthwise distribution of the energy release rate. The model is promising and suitable to determine accurately the J-integral distribution along the delamination front. Based on the proposed model it is also possible to develop finite elements which are able to replace the computationally expensive spatial models of delaminated structures.

Keywords: J-integral, Lévy method, third-order shell theory, state space solution.

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48 Evaluation of Settlement of Coastal Embankments Using Finite Elements Method

Authors: Sina Fadaie, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini

Abstract:

Coastal embankments play an important role in coastal structures by reducing the effect of the wave forces and controlling the movement of sediments. Many coastal areas are underlain by weak and compressible soils. Estimation of during construction settlement of coastal embankments is highly important in design and safety control of embankments and appurtenant structures. Accordingly, selecting and establishing of an appropriate model with a reasonable level of complication is one of the challenges for engineers. Although there are advanced models in the literature regarding design of embankments, there is not enough information on the prediction of their associated settlement, particularly in coastal areas having considerable soft soils. Marine engineering study in Iran is important due to the existence of two important coastal areas located in the northern and southern parts of the country. In the present study, the validity of Terzaghi’s consolidation theory has been investigated. In addition, the settlement of these coastal embankments during construction is predicted by using special methods in PLAXIS software by the help of appropriate boundary conditions and soil layers. The results indicate that, for the existing soil condition at the site, some parameters are important to be considered in analysis. Consequently, a model is introduced to estimate the settlement of the embankments in such geotechnical conditions.

Keywords: Consolidation, coastal embankments, settlement, numerical methods, finite elements method.

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47 Design and Performance Analysis of a Hydro-Power Rim-Driven Superconducting Synchronous Generator

Authors: A. Hassannia, S. Ramezani

Abstract:

The technology of superconductivity has developed in many power system devices such as transmission cable, transformer, current limiter, motor and generator. Superconducting wires can carry high density current without loss, which is the capability that is used to design the compact, lightweight and more efficient electrical machines. Superconducting motors have found applications in marine and air propulsion systems as well as superconducting generators are considered in low power hydraulic and wind generators. This paper presents a rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator for hydraulic power plant. The rim-driven concept improves the performance of hydro turbine. Furthermore, high magnetic field that is produced by superconducting windings allows replacing the rotor core. As a consequent, the volume and weight of the machine is decreased significantly. In this paper, a 1 MW coreless rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator is designed. Main performance characteristics of the proposed machine are then evaluated using finite elements method and compared to an ordinary similar size synchronous generator.

Keywords: Coreless machine, electrical machine design, hydraulic generator, rim-driven machine, superconducting generator.

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46 FRP Bars Spacing Effect on Numerical Thermal Deformations in Concrete Beams under High Temperatures

Authors: A. Zaidi, F. Khelifi, R. Masmoudi, M. Bouhicha

Abstract:

5

In order to eradicate the degradation of reinforced concrete structures due to the steel corrosion, professionals in constructions suggest using fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for their excellent properties. Nevertheless, high temperatures may affect the bond between FRP bar and concrete, and consequently the serviceability of FRP-reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a nonlinear numerical investigation using ADINA software to investigate the effect of the spacing between glass FRP (GFRP) bars embedded in concrete on circumferential thermal deformations and the distribution of radial thermal cracks in reinforced concrete beams submitted to high temperature variations up to 60 °C for asymmetrical problems. The thermal deformations predicted from nonlinear finite elements model, at the FRP bar/concrete interface and at the external surface of concrete cover, were established as a function of the ratio of concrete cover thickness to FRP bar diameter (c/db) and the ratio of spacing between FRP bars in concrete to FRP bar diameter (e/db). Numerical results show that the circumferential thermal deformations at the external surface of concrete cover are linear until cracking thermal load varied from 32 to 55 °C corresponding to the ratio of e/db varied from 1.3 to 2.3, respectively. However, for ratios e/db >2.3 and c/db >1.6, the thermal deformations at the external surface of concrete cover exhibit linear behavior without any cracks observed on the specified surface. The numerical results are compared to those obtained from analytical models validated by experimental tests.

Keywords: Concrete beam, FRP bars, spacing effect, thermal deformation.

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45 3D Numerical Investigation of Asphalt Pavements Behaviour Using Infinite Elements

Authors: K. Sandjak, B. Tiliouine

Abstract:

This article presents the main results of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical investigation of asphalt pavement structures behaviour using a coupled Finite Element-Mapped Infinite Element (FE-MIE) model. The validation and numerical performance of this model are assessed by confronting critical pavement responses with Burmister’s solution and FEM simulation results for multi-layered elastic structures. The coupled model is then efficiently utilised to perform 3-D simulations of a typical asphalt pavement structure in order to investigate the impact of two tire configurations (conventional dual and new generation wide-base tires) on critical pavement response parameters. The numerical results obtained show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the coupled (FE-MIE) model. In addition, the simulation results indicate that, compared with conventional dual tire assembly, single wide base tire caused slightly greater fatigue asphalt cracking and subgrade rutting potentials and can thus be utilised in view of its potential to provide numerous mechanical, economic, and environmental benefits.

Keywords: Infinite elements, 3-D numerical investigation, asphalt pavements, dual and wide base tires.

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44 Orthosis and Finite Elements: A Study for Development of New Designs through Additive Manufacturing

Authors: M. Volpini, D. Alves, A. Horta, M. Borges, P. Reis

Abstract:

The gait pattern in people that present motor limitations foment the demand for auxiliary locomotion devices. These artifacts for movement assistance vary according to its shape, size and functional features, following the clinical applications desired. Among the ortheses of lower limbs, the ankle-foot orthesis aims to improve the ability to walk in people with different neuromuscular limitations, although they do not always answer patients' expectations for their aesthetic and functional characteristics. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of using new design in additive manufacturer to reproduce the shape and functional features of a ankle-foot orthesis in an efficient and modern way. Therefore, this work presents a study about the performance of the mechanical forces through the analysis of finite elements in an ankle-foot orthesis. It will be demonstrated a study of distribution of the stress on the orthopedic device in orthostatism and during the movement in the course of patient's walk.

Keywords: Additive manufacture, new designs, orthoses, finite elements.

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43 Study on Sharp V-Notch Problem under Dynamic Loading Condition Using Symplectic Analytical Singular Element

Authors: Xiaofei Hu, Zhiyu Cai, Weian Yao

Abstract:

V-notch problem under dynamic loading condition is considered in this paper. In the time domain, the precise time domain expanding algorithm is employed, in which a self-adaptive technique is carried out to improve computing accuracy. By expanding variables in each time interval, the recursive finite element formulas are derived. In the space domain, a Symplectic Analytical Singular Element (SASE) for V-notch problem is constructed addressing the stress singularity of the notch tip. Combining with the conventional finite elements, the proposed SASE can be used to solve the dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) in a simple way. Numerical results show that the proposed SASE for V-notch problem subjected to dynamic loading condition is effective and efficient.

Keywords: V-notch, dynamic stress intensity factor, finite element method, precise time domain expanding algorithm.

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42 Pressure Angle and Profile Shift Factor Effects on the Natural Frequency of Spur Tooth Design

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan

Abstract:

In this paper, an (irregular) case relating to base circle, root circle, and pressure angle has been discussed and a computer programme has been developed to simulate and plot spur gear tooth profile, including involute and trochoid curves based on the formulation of rack cutter using different values of pressure angle and profile shift factor and it gave the values of all important geometric parameters. The results showed the flexibility of this approach and versatility of the programme to draw many different cases of spur gear teeth of any module, pressure angle, profile shift factor, number of teeth and rack cutter tip radius. The procedure developed can be extended to produce finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms also. Finite elements model of these irregular cases have been built using above programme, and modal analysis has been done using ANSYS software, and natural frequencies of these selected cases have been obtained and discussed.

Keywords: involute, trochoid, pressure angle, profile shift factor, natural frequency

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41 Magnetic End Leakage Flux in a Spoke Type Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

Authors: Petter Eklund, Jonathan Sjölund, Sandra Eriksson, Mats Leijon

Abstract:

The spoke type rotor can be used to obtain magnetic flux concentration in permanent magnet machines. This allows the air gap magnetic flux density to exceed the remanent flux density of the permanent magnets but gives problems with leakage fluxes in the magnetic circuit. The end leakage flux of one spoke type permanent magnet rotor design is studied through measurements and finite element simulations. The measurements are performed in the end regions of a 12 kW prototype generator for a vertical axis wind turbine. The simulations are made using three dimensional finite elements to calculate the magnetic field distribution in the end regions of the machine. Also two dimensional finite element simulations are performed and the impact of the two dimensional approximation is studied. It is found that the magnetic leakage flux in the end regions of the machine is equal to about 20% of the flux in the permanent magnets. The overestimation of the performance by the two dimensional approximation is quantified and a curve-fitted expression for its behavior is suggested.

Keywords: End effects, end leakage flux, permanent magnet machine, spoke type rotor.

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40 Variational Evolutionary Splines for Solving a Model of Temporomandibular Disorders

Authors: Alberto Hananel

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to modelize the occlusion of a person with temporomandibular disorders as an evolutionary equation and approach its solution by the construction and characterizing of discrete variational splines. To formulate the problem, certain boundary conditions have been considered. After showing the existence and the uniqueness of the solution of such a problem, a convergence result of a discrete variational evolutionary spline is shown. A stress analysis of the occlusion of a human jaw with temporomandibular disorders by finite elements is carried out in FreeFem++ in order to prove the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: Approximation, evolutionary PDE, finite element method, temporomandibular disorders, variational spline.

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39 Numerical Modelling of Dry Stone Masonry Structures Based on Finite-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ž. Nikolić, H. Smoljanović, N. Živaljić

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical model based on finite-discrete element method for analysis of the structural response of dry stone masonry structures under static and dynamic loads. More precisely, each discrete stone block is discretized by finite elements. Material non-linearity including fracture and fragmentation of discrete elements as well as cyclic behavior during dynamic load are considered through contact elements which are implemented within a finite element mesh. The application of the model was conducted on several examples of these structures. The performed analysis shows high accuracy of the numerical results in comparison with the experimental ones and demonstrates the potential of the finite-discrete element method for modelling of the response of dry stone masonry structures.

Keywords: Finite-discrete element method, dry stone masonry structures, static load, dynamic load.

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38 Vibration and Parametric Instability Analysis of Delaminated Composite Beams

Authors: A. Szekrényes

Abstract:

This paper revisits the free vibration problem of delaminated composite beams. It is shown that during the vibration of composite beams the delaminated parts are subjected to the parametric excitation. This can lead to the dynamic buckling during the motion of the structure. The equation of motion includes time-dependent stiffness and so it leads to a system of Mathieu-Hill differential equations. The free vibration analysis of beams is carried out in the usual way by using beam finite elements. The dynamic buckling problem is investigated locally, and the critical buckling forces are determined by the modified harmonic balance method by using an imposed time function of the motion. The stability diagrams are created, and the numerical predictions are compared to experimental results. The most important findings are the critical amplitudes at which delamination buckling takes place, the stability diagrams representing the instability of the system, and the realistic mode shape prediction in contrast with the unrealistic results of models available in the literature.

Keywords: Delamination, free vibration, parametric excitation, sweep excitation.

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37 Influence of Kinematic, Physical and Mechanical Structure Parameters on Aeroelastic GTU Shaft Vibrations in Magnetic Bearings

Authors: Evgeniia V. Mekhonoshina, Vladimir Ya. Modorskii, Vasilii Yu. Petrov

Abstract:

At present, vibrations of rotors of gas transmittal unit evade sustainable forecasting. This paper describes elastic oscillation modes in resilient supports and rotor impellers modeled during computational experiments with regard to interference in the system of gas-dynamic flow and compressor rotor. Verification of aeroelastic approach was done on model problem of interaction between supersonic jet in shock tube with deformed plate. ANSYS 15.0 engineering analysis system was used as a modeling tool of numerical simulation in this paper. Finite volume method for gas dynamics and finite elements method for assessment of the strain stress state (SSS) components were used as research methods. Rotation speed and material’s elasticity modulus varied during calculations, and SSS components and gas-dynamic parameters in the dynamic system of gas-dynamic flow and compressor rotor were evaluated. The analysis of time dependence demonstrated that gas-dynamic parameters near the rotor blades oscillate at 200 Hz, and SSS parameters at the upper blade edge oscillate four times higher, i.e. with blade frequency. It has been detected that vibration amplitudes correction in the test points at magnetic bearings by aeroelasticity may correspond up to 50%, and about -π/4 for phases.

Keywords: Centrifugal compressor, aeroelasticity, interdisciplinary calculation, oscillation phase displacement, vibration, nonstationarity.

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36 Formulating the Stochastic Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of Plates with Variable Elastic Modulus

Authors: Mojtaba Aghamiri Esfahani, Mohammad Karkon, Seyed Majid Hosseini Nezhad, Reza Hosseini-Ara

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of a plate on free vibration response is investigated. For this purpose, the elastic modulus of the plate is modeled as stochastic variable with normal distribution. Moreover, the distance autocorrelation function is used for stochastic field. Then, by applying the finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic finite element relations are extracted. Finally, with a numerical test, the effect of uncertainty in the elastic modulus on free vibration response of a plate is studied. The results show that the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of the plate cannot play an important role on the free vibration response.

Keywords: Stochastic finite elements, plate bending, free vibration, Monte Carlo, Neumann expansion method.

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35 3D Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Human Inner Ear by Means of Finite Elements Method

Authors: C. Castro-Egler, A. Durán-Escalante, A. García-González

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to generate a finite element model of the human auditory inner ear system. The geometric model has been realized using 2D images from a virtual model of temporal bones. A point cloud has been gotten manually from those images to construct a whole mesh with hexahedral elements. The main difference with the predecessor models is the spiral shape of the cochlea with its three scales completely defined: scala tympani, scala media and scala vestibuli; which are separate by basilar membrane and Reissner membrane. To validate this model, numerical simulations have been realised with two models: an isolated inner ear and a whole model of human auditory system. Ideal conditions of displacement are applied over the oval window in the isolated Inner Ear model. The whole model is made up of the outer auditory channel, the tympani, the ossicular chain, and the inner ear. The boundary condition for the whole model is 1Pa over the auditory channel entrance. The numerical simulations by FEM have been done using a harmonic analysis with a frequency range between 100-10.000 Hz with an interval of 100Hz. The following results have been carried out: basilar membrane displacement; the scala media pressure according to the cochlea length and the transfer function of the middle ear normalized with the pressure in the tympanic membrane. The basilar membrane displacements and the pressure in the scala media make it possible to validate the response in frequency of the basilar membrane.

Keywords: Finite elements method, human auditory system model, numerical analysis, 3D modelling cochlea.

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34 Effect of Mechanical Loading on the Delamination of Stratified Composite in Mode I

Authors: H. Achache, Y. Madani, A. Benzerdjeb

Abstract:

The present study is based on the three-dimensional digital analysis by the finite elements method of the mechanical loading effect on the delamination of unidirectional and multidirectional stratified composites. The aim of this work is the determination of the release energy rate G in mode I and the Von Mises equivalent constraint distribution along the damaged area under the influence of several parameters such as the applied load and the delamination size. The results obtained in this study show that the unidirectional composite laminates have better mechanical resistance one the loading line than the multidirectional composite laminates.

Keywords: Delamination, release energy rate, stratified composite, finite element method and ply.

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33 Behavior of the Masonry Infill in Structures Subjected to the Horizontal Loads

Authors: Nawel Mezigheche, Abdelhacine Gouasmia, Allaeddine Athmani, Mouloud Merzoud

Abstract:

Masonry infill walls are inevitable in the selfsupporting structures, but their contribution in the resistance to earthquake loads is generally neglected in the structural analyses. The principal aim of this work through a numerical study of masonry infill walls behavior in structures subjected to horizontal load is to propose by finite elements numerical modeling, a more reliable approach, faster and close to reality. In this study, 3D Finite Element Analysis was developed to study the behavior of masonry infill walls in structures subjected to horizontal load; the finite element software being used was ABAQUS, it is observed that more rigidity of the masonry filling is significant, more the structure is rigid, we can so conclude that the filling brings an additional rigidity to the structure not to be neglected; it is also observed that when the framework is subjected to horizontal loads, the framework separates from the filling on the level of the tended diagonal.

Keywords: Finite element, Masonry infill walls, Rigidity of the masonry, Tended diagonal.

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32 Influence of Hygro-Chemo-Mechanical Degradation on Performance of Concrete Gravity Dam

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Mandal, Damodar Maity

Abstract:

The degradation of concrete due to various hygrochemo- mechanical actions is inevitable for the structures particularly built to store water. Therefore, it is essential to determine the material properties of dam-like structures due to ageing to predict the behavior of such structures after a certain age. The degraded material properties are calculated by introducing isotropic degradation index. The predicted material properties are used to study the behavior of aged dam at different ages. The dam is modeled by finite elements and displacement and is considered as an unknown variable. The parametric study reveals that the displacement is quite larger for comparatively lower design life of the structure because the degradation of elastic properties depends on the design life of the dam. The stresses in dam cam be unexpectedly large at any age with in the design life. The outcomes of the present study indicate the importance of the consideration ageing effect of concrete exposed to water for the safe design of dam throughout its life time.

Keywords: Hygro-chemo-mechanical, isotropic degradation, finite element method, Koyna earthquake.

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31 Optimization of Assembly and Welding of Complex 3D Structures on the Base of Modeling with Use of Finite Elements Method

Authors: M. N. Zelenin, V. S. Mikhailov, R. P. Zhivotovsky

Abstract:

It is known that residual welding deformations give negative effect to processability and operational quality of welded structures, complicating their assembly and reducing strength. Therefore, selection of optimal technology, ensuring minimum welding deformations, is one of the main goals in developing a technology for manufacturing of welded structures. Through years, JSC SSTC has been developing a theory for estimation of welding deformations and practical activities for reducing and compensating such deformations during welding process. During long time a methodology was used, based on analytic dependence. This methodology allowed defining volumetric changes of metal due to welding heating and subsequent cooling. However, dependences for definition of structures deformations, arising as a result of volumetric changes of metal in the weld area, allowed performing calculations only for simple structures, such as units, flat sections and sections with small curvature. In case of complex 3D structures, estimations on the base of analytic dependences gave significant errors. To eliminate this shortage, it was suggested to use finite elements method for resolving of deformation problem. Here, one shall first calculate volumes of longitudinal and transversal shortenings of welding joints using method of analytic dependences and further, with obtained shortenings, calculate forces, which action is equivalent to the action of active welding stresses. Further, a finiteelements model of the structure is developed and equivalent forces are added to this model. Having results of calculations, an optimal sequence of assembly and welding is selected and special measures to reduce and compensate welding deformations are developed and taken.

Keywords: Finite elements method, modeling, expected welding deformations, welding, assembling.

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30 A Comparative Study between Displacement and Strain Based Formulated Finite Elements Applied to the Analysis of Thin Shell Structures

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Oussama Temami, Abdallah Zatar, Sifeddine Abderrahmani

Abstract:

The analysis and design of thin shell structures is a topic of interest in a variety of engineering applications. In structural mechanics problems the analyst seeks to determine the distribution of stresses throughout the structure to be designed. It is also necessary to calculate the displacements of certain points of the structure to ensure that specified allowable values are not exceeded. In this paper a comparative study between displacement and strain based finite elements applied to the analysis of some thin shell structures is presented. The results obtained from some examples show the efficiency and the performance of the strain based approach compared to the well known displacement formulation.

Keywords: Displacement formulation, Finite elements, Strain based approach, Shell structures.

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29 Efficiency of the Strain Based Approach Formulation for Plate Bending Analysis

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Sifeddine Abderrahmani, Toufik Maalem, Oussama Temami

Abstract:

In recent years many finite elements have been developed for plate bending analysis. The formulated elements are based on the strain based approach. This approach leads to the representation of the displacements by higher order polynomial terms without the need for the introduction of additional internal and unnecessary degrees of freedom. Good convergence can also be obtained when the results are compared with those obtained from the corresponding displacement based elements, having the same total number of degrees of freedom. Furthermore, the plate bending elements are free from any shear locking since they converge to the Kirchhoff solution for thin plates contrarily for the corresponding displacement based elements. In this paper the efficiency of the strain based approach compared to well known displacement formulation is presented. The results obtained by a new formulated plate bending element based on the strain approach and Kirchhoff theory are compared with some others elements. The good convergence of the new formulated element is confirmed.

Keywords: Displacement fields, finite elements, plate bending, Kirchhoff theory, strain based approach.

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28 Material Failure Process Simulation by Improve Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities

Authors: Juárez-Luna Gelacio, Ayala Gustavo, Retama-Velasco Jaime

Abstract:

This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface.

To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.

Keywords: Variational formulation, strong discontinuity, embedded discontinuities, strain localization.

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27 Reduction of Rotor-Bearing-Support Finite Element Model through Substructuring

Authors: Abdur Rosyid, Mohamed El-Madany, Mohanad Alata

Abstract:

Due to simplicity and low cost, rotordynamic system is often modeled by using lumped parameters. Recently, finite elements have been used to model rotordynamic system as it offers higher accuracy. However, it involves high degrees of freedom. In some applications such as control design, this requires higher cost. For this reason, various model reduction methods have been proposed. This work demonstrates the quality of model reduction of rotor-bearing-support system through substructuring. The quality of the model reduction is evaluated by comparing some first natural frequencies, modal damping ratio, critical speeds, and response of both the full system and the reduced system. The simulation shows that the substructuring is proven adequate to reduce finite element rotor model in the frequency range of interest as long as the number and the location of master nodes are determined appropriately. However, the reduction is less accurate in an unstable or nearly-unstable system.

Keywords: Finite element model, rotordynamic system, model reduction, substructuring.

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26 Dynamic Analysis of Reduced Order Large Rotating Vibro-Impact Systems

Authors: Miroslav Byrtus

Abstract:

Large rotating systems, especially gear drives and gearboxes, occur as parts of many mechanical devices transmitting the torque with relatively small loss of power. With the increased demand for high speed machinery, mathematical modeling and dynamic analysis of gear drives gained importance. Mathematical description of such mechanical systems is a complex task evolving for several decades. In gear drive dynamic models, which include flexible shafts, bearings and gearing and use the finite elements, nonlinear effects due to gear mesh and bearings are usually ignored, for such models have large number of degrees of freedom (DOF) and it is computationally expensive to analyze nonlinear systems with large number of DOF. Therefore, these models are not suitable for simulation of nonlinear behavior with amplitude jumps in frequency response. The contribution uses a methodology of nonlinear large rotating system modeling which is based on degrees of freedom (DOF) number reduction using modal synthesis method (MSM). The MSM enables significant DOF number reduction while keeping the nonlinear behavior of the system in a specific frequency range. Further, the MSM with DOF number reduction is suitable for including detail models of nonlinear couplings (mainly gear and bearing couplings) into the complete gear drive models. Since each subsystem is modeled separately using different FEM systems, it is advantageous to parameterize models of subsystems and to use the parameterization for optimization of chosen design parameters. Final complex model of gear drive is assembled in MATLAB and MATLAB tools are used for dynamical analysis of the nonlinear system. The contribution is further focused on developing of a methodology for investigation of behavior of the system by Nonlinear Normal Modes with combination of the MSM using numerical continuation method. The proposed methodology will be tested using a two-stage gearbox including its housing.

Keywords: Vibro-impact system, rotating system, gear drive, modal synthesis method, numerical continuation method, periodic solution.

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25 Fixture Layout Optimization Using Element Strain Energy and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Zeshan Ahmad, Matteo Zoppi, Rezia Molfino

Abstract:

The stiffness of the workpiece is very important to reduce the errors in manufacturing process. The high stiffness of the workpiece can be achieved by optimal positioning of fixture elements in the fixture. The minimization of the sum of the nodal deflection normal to the surface is used as objective function in previous research. The deflection in other direction has been neglected. The 3-2-1 fixturing principle is not valid for metal sheets due to its flexible nature. We propose a new fixture layout optimization method N-3-2-1 for metal sheets that uses the strain energy of the finite elements. This method combines the genetic algorithm and finite element analysis. The objective function in this method is to minimize the sum of all the element strain energy. By using the concept of element strain energy, the deformations in all the directions have been considered. Strain energy and stiffness are inversely proportional to each other. So, lower the value of strain energy, higher will be the stiffness. Two different kinds of case studies are presented. The case studies are solved for both objective functions; element strain energy and nodal deflection. The result are compared to verify the propose method.

Keywords: Fixture layout, optimization, fixturing element, genetic algorithm.

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24 Mathematical Modeling of Elastically Creeping State of Arbitrarily Orientated Cavities in the Transversally Isotropic Massif

Authors: N. Azhikhanov, T. Turimbetov, Zh. Masanov, N. Zhunisov

Abstract:

It can be determined in preference between representative mechanical and mathematical model of elasticcreeping deformation of transversally isotropic array with doubly periodic system of tilted slots, and offer of the finite elements calculation scheme, and inspection of the states of two diagonal arbitrary profile cavities of deep inception, and in setting up the tense and dislocation fields distribution nature in computing processes.

Keywords: Mathematical model, tunnel, transversally isotropic, finite elements.

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23 Maximum Norm Analysis of a Nonmatching Grids Method for Nonlinear Elliptic Boundary Value Problem −Δu = f(u)

Authors: Abida Harbi

Abstract:

We provide a maximum norm analysis of a finite element Schwarz alternating method for a nonlinear elliptic boundary value problem of the form -Δu = f(u), on two overlapping sub domains with non matching grids. We consider a domain which is the union of two overlapping sub domains where each sub domain has its own independently generated grid. The two meshes being mutually independent on the overlap region, a triangle belonging to one triangulation does not necessarily belong to the other one. Under a Lipschitz assumption on the nonlinearity, we establish, on each sub domain, an optimal L∞ error estimate between the discrete Schwarz sequence and the exact solution of the boundary value problem.

Keywords: Error estimates, Finite elements, Nonlinear PDEs, Schwarz method.

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22 Finite Element Analysis for Damped Vibration Properties of Panels Laminated Porous Media

Authors: Y. Kurosawa, T. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A numerical method is proposed to calculate damping properties for sound-proof structures involving elastic body, viscoelastic body, and porous media. For elastic and viscoelastic body displacement is modeled using conventional finite elements including complex modulus of elasticity. Both effective density and bulk modulus have complex quantities to represent damped sound fields in the porous media. Particle displacement in the porous media is discretised using finite element method. Displacement vectors as common unknown variables are solved under coupled condition between elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous media. Further, explicit expressions of modal loss factor for the mixed structures are derived using asymptotic method. Eigenvalue analysis and frequency responded were calculated for automotive test panel laminated viscoelastic and porous structures using this technique, the results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: Damping, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, Computer Aided Engineering.

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21 Finite Element Prediction of Multi-Size Particulate Flow through Two-Dimensional Pump Casing

Authors: K. V. Pagalthivarthi, R. J. Visintainer

Abstract:

Two-dimensional Eulerian (volume-averaged) continuity and momentum equations governing multi-size slurry flow through pump casings are solved by applying a penalty finite element formulation. The computational strategy validated for multi-phase flow through rectangular channels is adapted to the present study.   The flow fields of the carrier, mixture and each solids species, and the concentration field of each species are determined sequentially in an iterative manner. The eddy viscosity field computed using Spalart-Allmaras model for the pure carrier phase is modified for the presence of particles. Streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin formulation is used for all the momentum equations for the carrier, mixture and each solids species and the concentration field for each species. After ensuring mesh-independence of solutions, results of multi-size particulate flow simulation are presented to bring out the effect of bulk flow rate, average inlet concentration, and inlet particle size distribution. Mono-size computations using (1) the concentration-weighted mean diameter of the slurry and (2) the D50 size of the slurry are also presented for comparison with multi-size results.

Keywords: Eulerian-Eulerian model, Multi-size particulate flow, Penalty finite elements, Pump casing, Spalart-Allmaras.

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20 Evaluation of Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Thin Shells by Flat Shell Finite Elements

Authors: Djamel Boutagouga, Kamel Djeghaba

Abstract:

The choice of finite element to use in order to predict nonlinear static or dynamic response of complex structures becomes an important factor. Then, the main goal of this research work is to focus a study on the effect of the in-plane rotational degrees of freedom in linear and geometrically non linear static and dynamic analysis of thin shell structures by flat shell finite elements. In this purpose: First, simple triangular and quadrilateral flat shell finite elements are implemented in an incremental formulation based on the updated lagrangian corotational description for geometrically nonlinear analysis. The triangular element is a combination of DKT and CST elements, while the quadrilateral is a combination of DKQ and the bilinear quadrilateral membrane element. In both elements, the sixth degree of freedom is handled via introducing fictitious stiffness. Secondly, in the same code, the sixth degrees of freedom in these elements is handled differently where the in-plane rotational d.o.f is considered as an effective d.o.f in the in-plane filed interpolation. Our goal is to compare resulting shell elements. Third, the analysis is enlarged to dynamic linear analysis by direct integration using Newmark-s implicit method. Finally, the linear dynamic analysis is extended to geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis where Newmark-s method is used to integrate equations of motion and the Newton-Raphson method is employed for iterating within each time step increment until equilibrium is achieved. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the interpolation of the in-plane rotational d.o.f. and present deficiencies of using fictitious stiffness in dynamic linear and nonlinear analysis.

Keywords: Flat shell, dynamic analysis, nonlinear, Newmark, drilling rotation.

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