Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 891

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Sport and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

891 The Influence of Physical Activity and Health Literacy on Depression Level of First and Second Turkish Generation Living in Germany

Authors: Ceren Akyüz, Ingo Froboese


Health literacy has gained importance with the further spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) worldwide and has been associated with health status in various chronic diseases. Many studies indicate that mental health can be improved by low- or moderate-intensity activity, and several studies have been proposed to explain the relationship between physical activity and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of physical activity, health literacy, and depression in first- and- second generation Turkish people in Germany. The research consists of 434 participants (255 females, 179 males; age 38.09 ± 13.73). 40.8 % of participants are married, and 59.2 % of participants are single. Education levels are mostly at university level (54.8 %), and graduate level is 18.9 %. While 24.9 % of the participants are second generation, 75.1 % of participants are first generation. All analyses were stratified on gender, marital status, education, generation and income status, and five age categories: 18–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, and 61–79, which were defined to account for age-specific trends while maintaining sufficient cell size for statistical analysis. A correlation of depression with physical activity and health literacy levels between first- and- second generation Turks in Germany was evaluated in order to find out whether there are significant differences between the two populations and demographic variables (gender, marital status, education, generation, income status) with carrying out questionnaires which are European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47), International Physical Activity Questionnaire ( IPAQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9).

Keywords: health literacy, turks in germany, migrants, depression, physical activity

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890 Physical Activity, Mental Health, and Body Composition in College Students after COVID-19 Lockdown

Authors: Manuela Caciula, Luis Torres, Simion Tomoiaga


Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), more commonly referred to as COVID-19, has wreaked havoc on all facets of higher education since its inception in late 2019. College students, in particular, significantly reduced their daily energy expenditure and increased the time spent sitting to listen to online classes and complete their studies from home. This change, in combination with the associated COVID-19 lockdown, presumably decreased physical activity levels, increased mental health symptoms, and led to the promotion of unhealthy eating habits. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the current self-reported physical activity levels, mental health symptoms, and body composition of college students after the COVID-19 lockdown in order to develop future interventions for the overall improvement of health. Methods: All participants completed pre-existing, well-validated surveys for both physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - long form) and mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Body composition was assessed in person with the use of an Inbody 570 device. Results: Sixty-one college students (M age = 22.26 ± 4.15, 32 females) reported moderate and high levels of physical activity (8693 median MET - minutes/ week), mental health symptom scores of 12.26 ± 6.47 (on a scale of 1 - 21+), body fat percentages of 32.24 ± 9.01% for females, and 17.44 ± 8.09 % for males, BMI values of 25.41 ± 4.91, and skeletal muscle mass values of 30.15 ± 7.50 lb. Forty-three (70.5%) of the college students assessed reported mental health symptom scores elevated beyond normal. A linear regression that predicts the dependent variable, body fat using mental health scores as an independent variable, produces significant results (F (1, 59) = 5.21, p = 0.026, adjusted R-squared = 0.065). Additionally, an ANOVA indicated a significant relationship between the mental health categories and body mass index (F (2, 58) = 3.206, p = 0.047). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study aimed to determine the current self-reported physical activity levels, mental health symptoms, and body composition of college students after the COVID-19 lockdown. The preliminary results showed that college students had moderate to high self-reported levels of physical activity, mental health symptom scores elevated beyond normal, and high body fat percentages, with a significant positive linear regression found between mental health symptom scores and body fat percentages. Also, there is a significant relationship between the mental health categories and body mass index. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 lockdown may have led to decreased physical activity levels, increased mental health symptoms, and unhealthy eating habits, which in turn led to changes in body composition. We are currently collecting additional samples to improve the power of our analysis and to explore potential correlations between physical activity, mental health, and body composition in college students. These results can be used to develop future interventions for the overall improvement of health in college students.

Keywords: physical activity, mental health, body composition, COVID-19

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889 Effect of Spirulina Supplementation on the Breath Profile of Healthy Volunteers After a Muscle Damaging Exercise Protocol

Authors: Katerina Mikedi, Anastasios Krokidas, Efthimios Moutafis, Tzortzis Nomikos, Magdalini Krokida


Intense physical exercise may induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage. The use of dietary supplements with antioxidant activity has been proposed as part of the strategy to enhance post-exercise recovery. In the current study, a well-known supplement for its antioxidant properties, Spirulina, was examined for its effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress. Breath analysis was used for monitoring oxidative stress status as an alternative approach to blood analysis which is invasive, unpleasant, and possesses limitations regarding sampling frequency and sample volume. Over the last decades, breath analysis has attracted great attention for disease diagnosis and oxidative stress monitoring. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover supplementation study, 13 healthy volunteers consumed either Spirulina Nigrita or maltodextrin (42mg/Kg body weight/day) for 15 days. A damaging eccentric protocol of the upper limbs was followed. Expired air was collected from volunteers at 6-time points; just before supplementation (baseline), prior to exercise, and 1h, 24h, 48h, and 72h after exercise. Samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with a thermal desorption unit. A variety of Volatile Organic Compounds, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, terpenes, and others, were identified in breath samples. Among others, the alveolar gradient of isoprene presented an increase of moderate significance 48 hours after exercise in the control group. On the other hand, isoprene didn’t show any significant difference before and after exercise in the Spirulina group. This preliminary finding implies a potential suppressing effect of spirulina on exercise-induced oxidative stress reflected on the exhaled isoprene levels.

Keywords: breath analysis, exercise-induced oxidative stress, food supplements, spirulina

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888 Data Science Inquiry to Manage Football Referees’ Careers

Authors: Iñaki Aliende, Tom Webb, Lorenzo Escot


There is a concern about the decrease in football referees globally. A study in Spain has analyzed the factors affecting a referee's career over the past 30 years through a survey of 758 referees. Results showed the impact of factors such as threats, education, initial vocation, and dependents on a referee's career. To improve the situation, the federation needs to provide better information, support young referees, monitor referees, and raise public awareness of violence toward referees. The study also formed a comprehensive model for federations to enhance their officiating policies by means of data-driven techniques that can serve other federations to improve referees' careers.

Keywords: data science, football referees, sport management, sport careers, survival analysis

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887 Effects of Sexual Activities in Male Athletes Performance

Authors: Andreas Aceranti, Simonetta Vernocchi, Marco Colorato, Massimo Briamo, Giovanni Abalsamo


Most of the benefits of sport come from related physical activity, however, there are secondary psychological positive effects. There are also obvious disadvantages, high tensions related to failure, injuries, eating disorders and burnout. Depressive symptoms and illnesses related to anxiety or stress can be preventable or even simply alleviated through regular activity and exercise. It has been shown that the practice of a sport brings physical benefits, but can also have psychological and spiritual benefits. Reduced performance in male individuals has been linked to sexual activity before competitions in the past. The long-standing debate about the impact of sexual activity on sports performance has been controversial in the mainstream media in recent decades. This salacious topic has generated extensive discussion, although its high-quality data has been limited. Literature has, so far, mainly included subjective assessments from surveys. However, such surveys can be skewed as these assessments are based on individual beliefs, perceptions, and memory. There has been a long discussion over the years but even there objective data has been lacking. One reason behind coaches' bans on sexual activity before sporting events may be the belief that abstinence increases frustration, which in turn is shifted into aggressive behavior toward competitors. However, this assumption is not always valid. In fact, depriving an athlete of a normal activity can cause feelings of guilt and loss of concentration. Sexual activity during training can promote relaxation and positively influence performance. The author concludes that, although there is a need for scientific research in this area, it seems that sexual intercourse does not decrease performance unless it is accompanied by late night socialization, loss of sleep or drinking. Although the effects of sexual engagement on aerobic and strength athletic performance have not been definitively established, most research seems to rule out a direct impact. In order to analyze, as much as possible without bias, whether sexual activity significantly affects an athletic performance or not, we sampled 5 amateur athletes, between 22 and 25 years old and all male. The study was based on the timing of 4 running races of 5 champions. We asked participants to respect guidelines to avoid sexual activity (sex or masturbation) 12 hours before 2 of the 4 competitions, and to practice before the remaining 2 races.In doing so, we were able to compare and analyze the impact of activity and abstinence on performance results. We have come to the conclusion that sexual behavior on athletic performance needs to be better understood, more randomized trials and high-quality controls are strongly needed but available information suggests that sexual activity the day before a race has no negative effects on performance.

Keywords: sex, masturbation, male performance, soccer

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886 Efficacy of Thrust On Basilar Spheno Synchondrosis in Boxers With Ocular Convergence Deficit. Comparison of Thrust and Therapeutic Exercise: Pilot Experimental Randomized Controlled Trial Study

Authors: Andreas Aceranti, Stefano Costa


The aim of this study was to demonstrate that manipulative treatment combined with therapeutic exercisetherapywas more effective than isolated therapeutic exercise in the short-term treatment of eye convergence disorders in boxers. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) pilot trial was performed at our physiotherapy practices. 30 adult subjects who practice the discipline of boxing were selected after an initial skimming defined by the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) test (results greater than or equal to 10) starting from the initial sample of 50 subjects; The 30 recruits were evaluated by an orthoptist using prisms to know the diopters of each eye and were divided into 2 groups (experimental group and control group). The members of the experimental group were subjected to manipulation of the lateral strain of sphenoid from the side contralateral to the eye that had fewer diopters and were subjected to a sequence of 3 ocular motor exercises immediately after manipulation. The control group, on the other hand, received only ocular motor treatment. A secondary outcome was also drawn up that demonstrated how changes in ocular motricity also affected cervical rotation. Analysis of the data showed that the experimental treatment was in the short term superior to the control group to astatistically significant extent both in terms of the prismatic delta of the right eye (0 OT median without manipulation and 10 OT median with manipulation) and that of the left eye (0 OT median without manipulation and 5 OT median with manipulation). Cervical rotation values also showed better values in the experimental group with a median of 4° in the right rotation without manipulation and 6° with thrust; the left rotation presented a median of 2° without manipulation and 7° with thrust. From the results that emerged, the treatment was effective. It would be desirable to increase the sample number and set up a timeline to see if the net improvements obtained in the short term will also be maintained in the medium to long term.

Keywords: boxing, basilar spheno synchondrosis, ocular convergence deficit, osteopathic treatment

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885 Effectiveness of a Sports Nutrition Intervention for High-School Athletes: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Michael Ryan, Rosemary E. Borgerding, Kimberly L. Oliver


The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a sports nutrition intervention on body composition in high-school athletes. The study aimed to improve the food and water intake of high-school athletes, evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and assess changes in body fat. Data were collected through observations, questionnaires, and interviews. Additionally, bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed to assess the body composition of athletes both before and after the intervention. Athletes (n=25) participated in researcher-monitored training sessions three times a week over the course of 12 weeks. During these sessions, in addition to completing their auxiliary sports training, participants were exposed to educational interventions aimed at improving their nutrition. These included discussions regarding current eating habits, nutritional guidelines for athletes, and individualized recommendations. Food was also made available to athletes for consumption before and after practice. Meals of balanced macronutrient composition were prepared and provided to athletes on four separate occasions throughout the intervention, either prior to or following a competitive event such as a tournament or game. A paired t-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the changes in body fat percentage. The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-intervention body fat percentage (p= .006). Cohen's d of 0.603 was calculated, indicating a moderate effect size. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that a sports nutrition intervention that combines food availability, explicit prescription, and education can be effective in improving the body composition of high-school athletes. However, it's worth noting that this study had a small sample size, and the conclusions cannot be generalized to a larger population. Further research is needed to assess the scalability of this study. This preliminary study demonstrated the feasibility of this type of nutritional intervention and laid the groundwork for a larger, more extensive study to be conducted in the future.

Keywords: bioelectrical impedance, body composition, high-school athletes, sports nutrition, sports pedagogy

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884 An Exploration of Saudi Women’s Experiences and Perceptions Towards Participation in Physical Activity in the United States

Authors: Ahmed H. Sumayli


Although the benefits of physical activity are well acknowledged, a high percentage of Saudi women getting adequate amounts of exercise remains low were also more likely to correlate with a higher incidence of obesity and overweight, which compromises their longevity and health behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible reasons underlying their generally inactive lifestyle and address the importance of promoting physical activity among Saudi women who come to study in the United States to work or pursue higher education or to accompany their spouses. A sample of 15 Saudi women (ages between 18 to 35 years old) who came to study in the United States agreed to participate in the interview. The participants of this study shared their lived experiences and the meaning of those experiences through in-depth, semi-structured interviews. All of the participants have signed an informed consent letter to be tape-recorded with their permission. Several findings were revealed from the study, and the results show that these subgroups of Saudi women who sojourn in the United States (i.e., studying, visiting, or being housewives) still remain essentially physically inactive. Additionally, the findings of this study showed that these women were strongly influenced by the processes of societal and cultural norms that reduce their opportunities for being actively engaged in the public sphere, which compromises their longevity and health behavior. Perhaps, one of the facts unknown to many people was due to persistent social stereotypes and conservative culture that Saudi women went through, which defined physical activity and sports in such a way as to be a male-dominated collective society that generally limited Saudi women’s engagements in physical activity and sports. Recommendations for future research were also suggested in this paper.

Keywords: Saudi women, physical activity and sports, U.S culture, gender role

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883 Digital Survey to Detect Factors That Determine Successful Implementation of Cooperative Learning in Physical Education

Authors: Carolin Schulze


Characterized by a positive interdependence of learners, cooperative learning (CL) is one possibility of successfully dealing with the increasing heterogeneity of students. Various positive effects of CL on the mental, physical and social health of students have already been documented. However, this structure is still rarely used in physical education (PE). Moreover, there is a lack of information about factors that determine the successful implementation of CL in PE. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to find out factors that determine the successful implementation of CL in PE using a digital questionnaire that was conducted from November to December 2022. In addition to socio-demographic data (age, gender, teaching experience, and education level), frequency of using CL, implementation strategies (theory-led, student-centred), and positive and negative effects of CL were measured. Furthermore, teachers were asked to rate the success of implementation on a 6-point rating scale (1-very successful to 6-not successful at all). For statistical analysis, multiple linear regression was performed, setting the success of implementation as the dependent variable. A total of 224 teachers (mean age=44.81±10.60 years; 58% male) took part in the current study. Overall, 39% of participants stated that they never use CL in their PE classes. Main reasons against the implementations of CL in PE were no time for preparation (74%) or for implementation (61%) and high heterogeneity of students (55%). When using CL, most of the reported difficulties are related to uncertainties about the correct procedure (54%) and the heterogeneous performance of students (54%). The most frequently mentioned positive effect was increased motivation of students (42%) followed by an improvement of psychological abilities (e.g. self-esteem, self-concept; 36%) and improved class cohesion (31%). Reported negative effects were unpredictability (29%), restlessness (24%), confusion (24%), and conflicts between students (17%). The successful use of CL is related to a theory-based preparation (e.g., heterogeneous formation of groups, use of rules and rituals) and a flexible implementation tailored to the needs and conditions of students (e.g., the possibility of individual work, omission of CL phases). Compared to teachers who solely implemented CL theory-led or student-adapted, teachers who switched from theory-led preparation to student-centred implementation of CL reported more successful implementation (t=5.312; p<.001). Neither frequency of using CL in PE nor the gender, age, the teaching experience, or the education level of the teacher showed a significant connection with the successful use of CL. Corresponding to the results of the current study, it is advisable that teachers gather enough knowledge about CL during their education and to point out the need to adapt the learning structure according to the diversity of their students. In order to analyse implementation strategies of teachers more deeply, qualitative methods and guided interviews with teachers are needed.

Keywords: diversity, educational technology, physical education, teaching styles

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882 The Acute Effects of Higher Versus Lower Load Duration and Intensity on Morphological and Mechanical Properties of the Healthy Achilles Tendon: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Authors: Eman Merza, Stephen Pearson, Glen Lichtwark, Peter Malliaras


The Achilles tendon (AT) exhibits volume changes related to fluid flow under acute load which may be linked to changes in stiffness. Fluid flow provides a mechanical signal for cellular activity and may be one mechanism that facilitates tendon adaptation. This study aimed to investigate whether isometric intervention involving a high level of load duration and intensity could maximize the immediate reduction in AT volume and stiffness compared to interventions involving a lower level of load duration and intensity. Sixteen healthy participants (12 males, 4 females; age= 24.4 ± 9.4 years; body mass= 70.9 ± 16.1 kg; height= 1.7 ± 0.1 m) performed three isometric interventions of varying levels of load duration (2 s and 8 s) and intensity (35% and 75% maximal voluntary isometric contraction) over a 3 week period. Freehand 3D ultrasound was used to measure free AT volume (at rest) and length (at 35%, 55%, and 75% of maximum plantarflexion force) pre- and post-interventions. The slope of the force-elongation curve over these force levels represented individual stiffness (N/mm). Large reductions in free AT volume and stiffness resulted in response to long-duration high-intensity loading whilst less reduction was produced with a lower load intensity. In contrast, no change in free AT volume and a small increase in AT stiffness occurred with lower load duration. These findings suggest that the applied load on the AT must be heavy and sustained for a long duration to maximize immediate volume reduction, which might be an acute response that enables optimal long-term tendon adaptation via mechanotransduction pathways.

Keywords: Achilles tendon, volume, stiffness, free tendon, 3d ultrasound

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881 Competence on Learning Delivery Modes and Performance of Physical Education Teachers in Senior High Schools in Davao

Authors: Juvanie C. Lapesigue


Worldwide school closures result from a significant public health crisis that has affected the nation and the entire world. It has affected students, educators, educational organizations globally, and many other aspects of society. Academic institutions worldwide teach students using diverse approaches of various learning delivery modes. This paper investigates the competence and performance of physical education teachers using various learning delivery modes, including Distance learning, Blended Learning, and Homeschooling during online distance education. To identify the Gap between their age generation using various learning delivery that affects teachers' preparation for distance learning and evaluates how these modalities impact teachers’ competence and performance in the case of a pandemic. The respondents were the Senior High School teachers of the Department of Education who taught in Davao City before and during the pandemic. Purposive sampling was utilized on 61 Senior High School Teachers in Davao City Philippines. The result indicated that teaching performance based on pedagogy and assessment has significantly affected teaching performance in teaching physical education, particularly those Non-PE teachers teaching physical education subjects. It should be supplied with enhancement training workshops to help them be more successful in preparation in terms of teaching pedagogy and assessment in the following norm. Hence, a proposed unique training design for non-P.E. Teachers has been created to improve the teachers’ performance in terms of pedagogy and assessment in teaching P.E subjects in various learning delivery modes in the next normal.

Keywords: distance learning, learning delivery modes, P.E teachers, senior high school, teaching competence, teaching performance

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880 An Empirical Study on the Effect of Physical Exercise and Outdoor Lighting on Pupils’ Eyesight

Authors: Zhang Jun Xiong


Objective: To explore the effect of physical exercise and outdoor lighting on the improvement of pupils' eyesight. Methods: A total of 208 first grade students in a primary school in Chengdu were enrolled in the study, 104 of whom were nearsighted and 104 had normal vision. They were randomly divided into indoor exercise group, outdoor exercise group, indoor control group and outdoor control group. Indoor and outdoor exercise groups performed moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercise three times a week, 60 minutes each time; The indoor and outdoor control groups had normal study and life during the experiment, without exercise intervention. The experiment lasted for one academic year, and the visual indicators of the subjects were tested before and after the experiment. Results: After the experiment, the visual fatigue index of the subjects with normal vision in the outdoor exercise group, indoor exercise group and outdoor control group decreased by 1.5 ± 2.89, 1.4 ± 3.05, 2.12 ± 2.66 respectively, and the diopter index decreased by 0.30D ± 0.09, 0.41D ± 0.16, 0.40D ± 0.19 respectively, while the visual fatigue score of the subjects with normal vision in the indoor control group increased by 2.3 ± 2.15, and the diopter decreased by 0.53D ± 0.22, There were significant differences in visual fatigue and diopter among the subjects with normal vision in each group (P<0.001). After the experiment, the visual fatigue index of the myopic subjects in the outdoor exercise group, indoor exercise group and outdoor control group decreased by 1.8 ± 1.95, 0.8 ± 1.81, 1.1 ± 1.85 respectively, and the diopter index decreased by 0.35D ± 0.21, 0.52D ± 0.24, 0.52D ± 0.15 respectively, while the visual fatigue score of the myopic subjects in the indoor control group increased by 1.3 ± 2.66, and the diopter decreased by 0.62D ± 0.29. There were significant differences between groups in visual fatigue and diopter (P<0.001). Conclusion: Both physical exercise and outdoor lighting can have a beneficial effect on children's vision, and the superposition effect of the two is better. It is suggested that outdoor physical exercise should be carried out more in primary school.

Keywords: physical exercise, outdoor lighting, pupil, vision, myopia

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879 Exploring Eating Disorders in Sport: Coaching Knowledge and the Effects of the Pandemic

Authors: Rebecca Quinlan


Background: The pandemic has caused a surge in eating disorders (ED). The prevalence of ED is higher in athletes than in the general population. It would therefore be expected that there will be a rise in ED among athletic populations. Coaches regularly work with athletes and should be in a position to identify signs of ED in their athletes. However, there is limited awareness of ED among coaches. Given the effects of the pandemic, it is crucial that coaches have the skills and knowledge to identify ED. This research will explore the effects of the pandemic on athletes, current knowledge of ED among coaches, and possible solutions for building back better from the pandemic. Methods: Freedom of Information requests were conducted, and a systematic review of the literature was undertaken regarding ED in sports and following the pandemic. Results: The systematic review of the literature showed that there had been a rise in ED in athletes due to the pandemic. Freedom of Information results revealed that ED is not covered in level 1 coaching courses. This lack of education has resulted in many coaches stating they feel unable to identify ED. Discussion: The increased prevalence of ED in athletes, coupled with the negative effects of the pandemic, highlight the need for action. Recommendations are provided, which include Level 1 coaching courses to include compulsory ED education, including signs and symptoms, what to do if an athlete has an ED, and resources/contacts. It is anticipated that the findings will be used to improve coaching knowledge of ED and support offered to athletes, with the overarching aim of building back better and faster from the pandemic.

Keywords: eating disorders, sport, athletes, pandemic

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878 Knee Pain Reduction: Holistic vs. Traditional

Authors: Renee Moten


Introduction: Knee pain becomes chronic because the therapy used focuses only on the symptoms of knee pain and not the causes of knee pain. Preventing knee injuries is not in the toolbox of the traditional practitioner. This research was done to show that we must reduce the inflammation (holistically), reduce the swelling and regain flexibility before considering any type of exercise. This method of performing the correct exercise stops the bowing of the knee, corrects the walking gait, and starts to relieve knee, hip, back, and shoulder pain. Method: The holistic method that is used to heal knees is called the Knee Pain Recipe. It’s a six step system that only uses alternative medicine methods to reduce, relieve and restore knee joint mobility. The system is low cost, with no hospital bills, no physical therapy, and no painkillers that can cause damage to the kidneys and liver. This method has been tested on 200 women with knee, back, hip, and shoulder pain. Results: All 200 women reduce their knee pain by 50%, some by as much as 90%. Learning about ankle and foot flexibility, along with understanding the kinetic chain, helps improve the walking gait, which takes the pressure off the knee, hip and back. The knee pain recipe also has helped to reduce the need for a cortisone injection, stem cell procedures, to take painkillers, and surgeries. What has also been noted in the research was that if the women's knees were too far gone, the Knee Pain Recipe helped prepare the women for knee replacement surgery. Conclusion: It is believed that the Knee Pain Recipe, when performed by men and women from around the world, will give them a holistic alternative to drugs, injections, and surgeries.

Keywords: knee, surgery, healing, holistic

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877 Ratings of European and South American Football Leagues Based on Glicko-2 with Modifications

Authors: Andrei Shelopugin, Alexander Sirotkin


One of the key problems of soccer analytics is to predict whether a player's performance changes after a transition from league to league. A possible solution is to assess the strength of the championship. In this article, the club ratings of the first and the second European and South American leagues were calculated. In order to calculate these ratings, the authors have designed the Glicko-2 rating system-based approach, which overcomes some Glicko-2 limitations. Particularly, the authors took into consideration the probability of the draw, the home-field advantage, and the property of teams to become stronger or weaker after the transition from league to league. Moreover, the authors have built a model for predicting the match outcomes based on the number of goals in the match. Metrics have shown that the Glicko-2-based approach is slightly more accurate than the widely used Poisson regression-based approach. In addition, Glicko-2-based ratings are far more interpretable and can find application in various analytics tasks, such as predicting soccer players' metrics for the next season or the detailed analysis of a player's performance in previous matches.

Keywords: Glicko-2, rating systems, sports analytics, machine learning

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876 Impact of Hooliganism on Sports

Authors: Ernest Boateng Nuako


This research is to find the effects of sports hooliganism on Ashanti school sports and find out some possible ways of amending or controlling them if we are to still experience them in our sporting fraternity. The researcher limited himself to the Ashanti region. The sample population was made up of officials, performances, and spectators drawn from four major second-cycle institutions and four basic schools in Ashanti. In all, 150 respondents were used, and all of them fell into the set of population, that is, performers, officials, and spectators. A structured questionnaire consisting of 29 statements where used to solicit views and opinions from the respondents on the effects of sports hooliganism in Ashanti school sports. Microsoft Office Excel tool (MS Excel) was used to analyze the response of the respondents, and the results were expressed in percentages. The study is aimed at finding out the effect sports hooliganism has on school sports festivals in Ghana with the Ashanti region as a case study and identify possible controlling measures to curb down the fast-pace effect of hooliganism on Ashanti regional schools. The research seeks to assist sports officials to identify some effects of sports hooliganism in Ashanti regional schools. It is also there to help officials to identify the influence hooliganism has on sports. This research also serves as a guide to other researchers who want to go into researching sports in the region. This research revealed that sports hooliganism has, in diverse ways, affected school sports in the region. It was also evident from the research study that sanctions, the presence of security, and other employable remedies could be used in controlling this unfortunate incident during our school sports competitions.

Keywords: officiating officials, school sports, hooliganism, spectators, performer

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875 eSports Athlete Adaptiveness Inventory: The Development of a Scale for the eSports World

Authors: Mie Lange Lund, Bo Sayyad Bach, Anders Wieghorst


Background and Aims: eSports have been rapidly growing in the past few decades, but despite this, psychological research on the topic has been neglected. One of the most important skills to master as an eSports athlete is adaptiveness because the eSports world is fast-paced and constantly developing. The aim of this project is, therefore, to contribute towards more research in the area by creating an adaptiveness inventory specifically for eSports athletes. Methods: Preliminary exploratory interviews will be conducted to gain an understanding of the construct in question. Afterwards, scale development will be carried out following a step-by-step guide to capture the latent variable and degree of adaptiveness. Statistical analyses will be performed in SPSS, including exploratory factor analysis and estimation of Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega. Results: The development process is currently ongoing. Results will be presented at the conference. Conclusions: The process of this scale development will lead to more knowledge of the construct’s appropriateness and utility in the field of eSports. Depending on the results, the scale may also be used as a tool in the future to facilitate the coaching of teams and players more efficiently and accurately.

Keywords: eSport, gaming, adaptiveness, scale development

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874 Muslim Women’s Motivation for Physical Activity

Authors: Nargess Fasihmardanloo


The aim of this study was to comparatively study the motivations of women to physical activity in Iran and selected Arab countries Based on individual, social and Islamic components. The present study was a descriptive comparative study that was performed by field method. The statistical population of the study included female athletes in Iran and Arab countries. A total of 184 people from Iran and 179 people from Arab countries (Iraq, UAE, and Jordan) were selected through available sampling as a research sample. The research tool included a questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed and its reliability in a pilot study was 0.95 through Cronbach's alpha. The questionnaire was translated into Persian in Iran and translated into Arabic for the selected countries and was provided to the participants electronically and through cyberspace. Finally, 363 questionnaires were collected. Manova multivariate analysis of variance using spss22 software was used to analyze the data. Findings showed that between Iranian women athletes and women athletes in selected Arab countries in the components of intrapersonal motivation (p = 0.009 and f = 6.978), interpersonal motivation (p = 0.050 and f = 3.875), There is a significant difference between social motives (p = 0.001 and f = 27.619) and Islamic motives (p = 0.001 and f = 11.339). And this difference is significant at the level of p <0.01 and p <0.05. In other words, in the component of intrapersonal motivations, the average of this component in Iranian female athletes (M = 59.77) was higher than female athletes in selected Arab countries (M = 55.53). In the interpersonal motivations component, the average of this component in Iranian female athletes (M = 26.87) was lower than in female athletes in selected Arab countries (M = 28.62). In the component of social motivations, the average of this component in Iranian female athletes (M = 33.08) was lower than female athletes in selected Arab countries (M = 39.64). In the component of Islamic motives, the average of this component in Iranian female athletes (M = 21.55) was higher than female athletes in selected Arab countries (M = 19.04).

Keywords: athletes, motivation, women, Islamic

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873 Effect of Recreational Soccer on Health Indices and Diseases Prevention

Authors: Avinash Kharel


Recreational soccer (RS) as a medium of small-sided soccer game (SSG) has an immense positive effect on physical health, mental health and wellbeing. The RS has reflected both acute responses and long-term effects of training on sedentary, trained and clinical population on any age, gender or health status. The enjoyable mode of training elicits greater adherence by optimising intrinsic motivation while offering health benefits that match those achieved by treadmill and cycle ergometer programmes both as continuous and interval forms of training. Additionally, recreational soccer is effective and efficient regimens with highlighted social, motivational and competitive components overcoming the barriers such as cost-efficiency, time-efficiency, assess to facilities and intrinsic motivation. Further, it can be applied as an effective broad-spectrum non-pharmacological treatment of lifestyle diseases producing a positive physiological response in healthy subjects, patients and elderly people regardless of age, gender or training experience.

Keywords: recreational soccer, health benefits, diseases prevention, physiology

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872 Predicting National Football League (NFL) Match with Score-Based System

Authors: Marcho Setiawan Handok, Samuel S. Lemma, Abdoulaye Fofana, Naseef Mansoor


This paper is proposing a method to predict the outcome of the National Football League match with data from 2019 to 2022 and compare it with other popular models. The model uses open-source statistical data of each team, such as passing yards, rushing yards, fumbles lost, and scoring. Each statistical data has offensive and defensive. For instance, a data set of anticipated values for a specific matchup is created by comparing the offensive passing yards obtained by one team to the defensive passing yards given by the opposition. We evaluated the model’s performance by contrasting its result with those of established prediction algorithms. This research is using a neural network to predict the score of a National Football League match and then predict the winner of the game.

Keywords: game prediction, NFL, football, artificial neural network

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871 Intersection of Sports and Society

Authors: Josh Felton


There’s a common misconception that sports is an escape from the reality of life, and that it is what disconnects us from the agendas of tomorrow. While this may be true for a select few, there’s more to sports than just competition and banter. The bearing and impact society has on the sports we know and love has always existed and is greater than ever. However, to many in the national media, it is almost seen as a taboo subject. Whether one realizes it or not, sports and society intersect at every turn and it’s not a coincidence. In collaboration with the Woodrow Wilson Fellowship at Johns Hopkins University, a video and podcast series titled Intersection of sports and society (ISS), dedicated to studying some of the most polarizing and some of the least recognized issues in the world of sports that have a powerful social bearing on every demographic will debut in the Summer of 2023. Issues like race, gender, and sexuality, as well as how they have been challenged and addressed historically in the sports realm will be discussed to a great extent in the series. With the collaboration of many authors, researchers, and former athletes, the podcast will be a platform for them to not only share their discoveries but to have an extensive dialogue on the impact their work and current events have had on the issues. Set to be released in the summer of 2023, the series will have a list of great researchers and authors, headlined by New York Times writer and best-selling author Jonathan Abrams, who in 2017, published a book titled Boys Among Men: How the Prep-to-Pro Generation Redefined the NBA and Sparked a Basketball Revolution. His expertise on the matters of the high school and collegiate sports will be reflected in a very important conversation on the evolution of the high school-to-professional route, the historic exploitation of black student athletes by the NCAA, and how the new rules allowing for greater freedom of choice for young athletes has benefitted minority athletes coming from impoverished backgrounds. This episode is just a preview of a list of important topics that to the author’s best knowledge aren't typically discussed by the national media. Many more topics include women’s sports representation, the struggle for achieving fair minority representation in NFL coaching and front office positions, the story of race and baseball within the Boston Red Sox organization, and what the rise of the black quarterback means for America. Many people fail to realize how the sports we all know and love have any social bearing on them and the athletes who play them. The hope with this project is to shed light on the social relevance that exists in the realm of sports, where we have for years failed to see and acknowledge a connection between sports and society.

Keywords: sports, society, race, gender

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870 Abdominal Exercises Can Modify Abdominal Function in Postpartum Women: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing Curl-up to Drawing-in Combined With Diaphragmatic Aspiration

Authors: Yollande Sènan Djivoh, Dominique de Jaeger


Background: Abdominal exercises are commonly practised nowadays. Specific techniques of abdominal muscles strengthening like hypopressive exercises have recently emerged and their practice is encouraged against the practice of Curl-up especially in postpartum. The acute and the training effects of these exercises did not allow to advise one exercise to the detriment of another. However, physiotherapists remain reluctant to perform Curl-up with postpartum women because of its potential harmful effect on the pelvic floor. Design: This study was a randomized control trial registered under the number PACTR202110679363984. Objective: to observe the training effect of two experimental protocols (Curl-up versus Drawing-in+Diaphragmatic aspiration) on the abdominal wall (interrecti distance, rectus and transversus abdominis thickness, abdominal strength) in Beninese postpartum women. Pelvic floor function (tone, endurance, urinary incontinence) will be assessed to evaluate potential side effects of exercises on the pelvic floor. Method: Postpartum women diagnosed with diastasis recti were randomly assigned to one of three groups (Curl-up, Drawingin+Diaphragmatic aspiration and control). Abdominal and pelvic floor parameters were assessed before and at the end of the 6-week protocol. The interrecti distance and the abdominal muscles thickness were assessed by ultrasound and abdominal strength by dynamometer. Pelvic floor tone and strength were assessed with Biofeedback and urinary incontinence was quantified by pad test. To compare the results between the three groups and the two measurements, a two-way Anova test with repeated measures was used (p<0.05). When interaction was significant, a posthoc using Student t test, with Bonferroni correction, was used to compare the three groups regarding the difference (end value minus initial value). To complete these results, a paired Student t test was used to compare in each group the initial and end values. Results: Fifty-eight women participated in this study, divided in three groups with similar characteristics regarding their age (29±5 years), parity (2±1 children), BMI (26±4 kg/m2 ), time since the last birth (10±2 weeks), weight of their baby at birth (330±50 grams). Time effect and interaction were significant (p<0.001) for all abdominal parameters. Experimental groups improved more than control group. Curl-up group improved more (p=0.001) than Drawing-in+Diaphragmatic aspiration group regarding the interrecti distance (9.3±4.2 mm versus 6.6±4.6 mm) and abdominal strength (20.4±16.4 Newton versus 11.4±12.8 Newton). Drawingin+Diaphragmatic aspiration group improved (0.8±0.7 mm) more than Curl-up group (0.5±0.7 mm) regarding the transversus abdominis thickness (p=0.001). Only Curl-up group improved (p<0.001) the rectus abdominis thickness (1.5±1.2 mm). For pelvic floor parameters, both experimental groups improved (p=0.01) except for tone which improved (p=0.03) only in Drawing-in+Diaphragmatic aspiration group from 19.9±4.1 cmH2O to 22.2±4.5 cmH2O. Conclusion: Curl-up was more efficient to improve abdominal function than Drawingin+Diaphragmatic aspiration. However, these exercises are complementary. None of them degraded the pelvic floor, but Drawing-in+Diaphragmatic aspiration improved further the pelvic floor function. Clinical implications: Curl-up, Drawing-in and Diaphragmatic aspiration can be used for the management of abdominal function in postpartum women. Exercises must be chosen considering the specific needs of each woman’s abdominal and pelvic floor function.

Keywords: curl-up, drawing-in, diaphragmatic aspiration, hypopressive exercise, postpartum women

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869 Impact of an Exercise Program on Physical Fitness of a Candidate to Naval Academy: A Case Study

Authors: Ricardo Chaves, Carlos Vasconcelos


Candidates to join the Naval Academy have to take a set of physical tests, which is crucial for a high level of physical fitness. Thus, the planning of physical exercises for candidates to the Naval School must take into account the improvement of their physical fitness. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a 6-month exercise program to improve the physical fitness of an individual who will apply for the Naval Academy. This was a non-experimental pre-post-evaluation study. The patient was male, had 18 years old, and a body mass index of 21.1 kg.m². The patient participated in a 6-month aerobic and strength exercise program (3 sessions per week, 75 minutes duration each session). Physical fitness tests were performed according to the physical fitness requirements for entry into the Naval academy (muscle strength [maximum number of lifts and maximum number of sit-ups for 1 minute]; aerobic fitness [2.4 km run and 200 m swimming test]) before (baseline) and after the exercise intervention (6 months). Regarding muscle strength, in the abdominal test, the improvements between the pre-test (39 abdominals.) and post-test (61 abdominals) were 56.4%. For elevations, there was an increase in its number by 150% between the pre-test (4 elevations) and post-test (10 elevations). With regard to aerobic fitness, in the 2.4 km race, there was an evolution of 32.0% between the pre-test (16.46 min.) and the post-test (12.42 min.). For the 200-meter swimming test, there was a negative variation of 2% between the pre-test (2.25 min.) and post-test (2.28 min). A 6-month aerobic and strength exercise program leads to a positive evolution in the muscular strength of the patient. Regarding aerobic fitness, opposite results were found, with a positive evolution in the 2.4 km running test and a negative evolution in the swimming test. In future exercise programs for the improvement of the physical fitness of candidates for the Naval Academy, more emphasis has to be done on specific swimming training.

Keywords: case study, exercise program, Naval Academy, physical fitness

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868 Motivational Factors for the Practice of Exercise in a Sample of Portuguese Fitness Center Users

Authors: N. Sena, C. Vasconcelos


Portugal has a lower rate of people who exercise. Fitness centers are a widely recognized context for the performance of an exercise. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the motivational factors for the practice of exercise in a sample of Portuguese fitness center users. The sample consists of 34 users (23 men and 11 women), aged between 16 and 60 years old (24.7 ± 11,5 years old). The instrument used for data collection was the Motivation Questionnaire for Exercise (version translated and validated into Portuguese), consisting of forty-nine items grouped into ten motivational factors. Responses to the Exercise Motivation Questionnaire are given on a 6-point Likert scale (0="not at all true for me" to 5="completely true for me"). With regard to the results, it is possible to verify that the motivational factors considered most relevant by the sample of our study were “Well-being” (4.44 ± 0.28), followed by “Health” (4.29 ± 0.57) and “Stress Management” (4.06 ± 0.54). The factors “Affiliation” (3.11 ± 0.49) “Personal Appreciation” (2.26 ± 0.59) and “Medical History” (1.71 ± 0.74) were considered by the respondents to be the least important factors for performing the exercise. The conclusion of this study is that in the sample of this study, the factors that most motivated the practice of exercise were “Well-being”, “Health” and “Stress Management”. In the opposite direction, the factors that least motivated the individuals in this sample to practice exercise were “Affiliation”, “Personal Appreciation” and “Medical History”.

Keywords: exercise, fitness center users, motivational factors, Portugal

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867 Simultaneous Bilateral Patella Tendon Rupture: A Systematic Review

Authors: André Rui Coelho Fernandes, Mariana Rufino, Divakar Hamal, Amr Sousa, Emma Fossett, Kamalpreet Cheema


Aim: A single patella tendon rupture is relatively uncommon, but a simultaneous bilateral event is a rare occurrence and has been scarcely reviewed in the literature. This review was carried out to analyse the existing literature on this event, with the aim of proposing a standardised approach to the diagnosis and management of this injury. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Three independent reviewers conducted searches in PubMed, OvidSP for Medline and Embase, as well as Cochrane Library using the same search strategy. From a total of 183 studies, 45 were included, i.e. 90 patellas. Results: 46 patellas had a Type 1 Rupture equating to 51%, with Type 3 being the least common, with only 7 patellas sustaining this injury. The mean Insall-Salvio ratio for each knee was 1.62 (R) and 1.60 (L) Direct Primary Repair was the most common surgical technique compared to Tendon Reconstruction, with End to End and Transosseous techniques split almost equally. Brace immobilisation was preferred over cast, with a mean start to weight-bearing of 3.23 weeks post-op. Conclusions: Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare injury that should be considered in patients with knee extensor mechanism disruption. The key limitation of this study was the low number of patients encompassed by the eligible literature. There is space for a higher level of evidence study, specifically regarding surgical treatment choice and methods, as well as post-operative management, which could potentially improve the outcomes in the management of this injury.

Keywords: trauma and orthopaedic surgery, bilateral patella, tendon rupture, trauma

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866 Effect of Cold Therapy on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Strength of the Quadriceps Femoris after High-Intensity Eccentric Training

Authors: Beboucha Wahib, Belkadi Adel


Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate how a cold bandage applied over the quadriceps femoris muscle immediately after exercise affects muscle strength, knee joint mobility, and perceived exercise pain 48 hours after exercise. Method: Nineteen people were recruited for the study. At baseline, thigh circumference, perceived exercise pain, and quadriceps femoris flexibility were assessed using Ely's test. In an isokinetic exercise machine, maximum and average torque was measured at 60°/s and 180°/s. Subjects underwent a strength training protocol containing concentric and eccentric movements. The left quadriceps was then cold-bandaged for 60 min. Forty-eight hours later, all measurements were repeated. Muscle flexibility, thigh circumference, muscle strength, and pain were used as assessment measures. Results showed significantly less perceived exercise pain in the treated leg than in the untreated leg during active knee extension. There was a significant increase in mean torque for the untreated leg at 180°/s. No significant difference was found in knee joint mobility, perceived exercise pain at Ely's test, or difference in maximum torque and total work done. Conclusion: Cold packs applied over the quadriceps femoris immediately after high-intensity exercise can possibly alleviate perceived exercise pain but do not reduce the related functional impairments. Against previous literature and the discrepancy therein, further research is necessary to determine the effects of cold therapy on exercise pain.

Keywords: cold bandage, delayed onset muscle soreness, cold therapy

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865 A Comparative Study of Sports Competitive Anxiety Level among Male and Female Collegiate Level Athletes of Ponda City

Authors: Hari Om Kashyap, Rohit Gurudas Maulingkar


The aim of the study was to compare sports competition anxiety levels between male and female college athletes of Ponda City. A total number of 50 athletes were selected as a subject for this research, where 25 male athletes and 25 female athletes of age between 18 to 22 years were selected. The purposive method was used for the selection of samples from Ponda city. Sports Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT) by R. Martin, 1990, was used for data collection. For comparing Sports Competitive Anxiety between male and female college athletes independent “t” test was applied at a 0.05 level of significance. The result of the study indicates that the p-value is .013178, and the result is significant at p<.05, which means there was a significant difference found in sports competitive anxiety between male athletes and female athletes who are taking part in various intercollegiate sports competitions.

Keywords: competitive anxiety, athlete, male, female

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864 Differentials of Motor Fitness Components among the School Children of Rural and Urban Areas of the Jammu Region

Authors: Sukhdev Singh, Baljinder Singh Bal, Amandeep Singh, Kanchan Thappa


A nation's future almost certainly rests on the future of its children, and a nation's wellbeing can be greatly improved by providing for the right upbringing of its children. Participating in physical education and sports programmes is crucial for reaching one's full potential. As we are all aware, sports have recently become incredibly popular on a global scale. Sports are continually becoming more and more popular, and this positive trend is probably going to last for some time to come. Motor abilities will provide more accurate information on the developmental process of children. Motor fitness is a component of physical fitness that includes strength, speed, flexibility, and agility, and is related to enhanced performance and the development of motor skills. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the differences in child growth between urban and rural environments. Differences in student growth, body dimensions, body composition, and fitness levels due to urban and rural environmental disparities have come into focus in recent years. The main aim of this study is to know the differentials of motor fitness components among the school children of rural and urban areas of the Jammu region. Material and Methods: In total, sixty male subjects (mean ± SD; age, 16.475 ± 1.0124 yrs.; height, 172.8 ± 2.0153 cm; Weight, 59.75 ± 3.628 kg) from the Jammu region took part in the study. A minimum sample size of 40 subjects was obtained and was derived from Rural (N1=20) and Urban (N2=20) school-going children. Statistical Applications: The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 was used for all analyses. The differences in the mean of each group for the selected variable were tested for the significance of difference by an independent samples t-test. For testing the hypotheses, the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Results revealed that there were significant differences of leg explosive strength (p=0.0040*), dynamic balance (p=0.0056*), and Agility (p=0.0176*) among the School Children of the rural and urban areas of the Jammu region. However, Results further revealed that there were not significant differences of cardio respiratory endurance (p=0.8612), speed (p=0.2231), Low Back/Hamstring Flexibility (p=0.6478), and Two Hand Coordination. (p= 0.0953) among the School Children of the rural and urban areas of the Jammu region. Conclusion: The results of study showed that there is significance difference between Rural and Urban School children of the Jammu region with regards to a variable," leg explosive strength, dynamic balance, Agility” and the there is no significance difference between Rural and Urban School children of the Jammu region with regards variable “cardio-respiratory endurance, speed, Low Back/Hamstring Flexibility, Two Hand Coordination”.

Keywords: motor fitness, rural areas, school children, urban areas

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863 Golf Industry in China: An Examination in the Reason behind Its Underdevelopment

Authors: Haoqiang Zhang


Golf is usually defined as “a sport for the wealthy” in China. With relatively few people playing golf and having only two professional golf players nationwide, China is lagging in adopting golf as a sport. The current research used a literature review to examine the political and educational reasons behind this phenomenon. In addition, the current study compared the sports education system between U.S. and China and showed its significant role in adopting sports like golf. Lastly, the current research proposed hypothetical solutions from the educational and societal perspective on how to make China adopt golf as a global sport.

Keywords: golf education, golf in China, sports economics, sports education

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862 The Association between Athletic Staff and Athlete Perceptions on Help-Seeking

Authors: Hannah French Levy


Student-athletes have the tendency to utilize campus mental health resources less often than other students on campus, as well as have an overall less positive perception of help-seeking. Research has also demonstrated the stigma associated with help-seeking and perceived beliefs that mental health services may not be useful. In addition, perceived limited availability and access to services are also barriers to help-seeking within this population, contributing to less utilization of mental health services. Further, athletic staff, including head coaches, assistant/specialty coaches, weight room/strength and conditioning coaches, physical therapists, team physicians, athletic trainers, athletic administrators, nutritionists, and student-athlete development staff, are likely to spend a great deal of time with student-athletes and have the potential to influence the culture surrounding mental health and athletics. The proposed study will examine the relationship between student-athlete perceptions of help-seeking and mental health awareness and athletic staff perceptions within their respective institutions. This study will also examine perceived barriers and facilitators that exist for both student-athletes and athletic staff members toward their respective willingness to utilize mental health services. To examine these factors, student-athletes and athletic staff members at participating National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions will complete an online Qualtrics survey assessing their beliefs related to stigma and help-seeking within their institutions. There will be two separate Qualtrics surveys, one for student-athletes and one for athletic staff. If the hypotheses are supported, results will demonstrate how the collegiate institutional culture within athletics may influence student-athletes' willingness to utilize and trust mental health services. Such results will highlight how institutional-based interventions might be tailored to support the needs and mental health, specifically of student-athletes. Overall, this study will seek to create an understanding of how the institutional culture surrounding mental health within their athletics department may moderate help-seeking behaviors and perceptions for both student-athletes and affiliated staff members.

Keywords: coach influence, perceptions of mental health help-seeking, stigma, student-athletes

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