Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 984

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Sport and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

984 Evaluating the Economic Impact of Community Sports Facilities on Residents in Ghana

Authors: Samuel Richard Marcourt


The economic impact of community sports facilities can be examined through various dimensions, such as job creation, tourism, local business development, and property values. The aim of the study is to evaluate the economic impacts of community sports facilities on residents who lived within 500m radii of 4 Astro Turf soccer facilities in Ghana. The results of the study were based on the responses from in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 purposively selected participants aged between 25 and 55 years. Participants’ responses revealed that community sports facilities create direct and indirect benefits for residents. Further, the direct benefits include job creation and employment among residents in the locality. Again, the promotion of local entrepreneurship and small business development, as well promotion of tourism, were indirect benefits. Consequently, the study provides useful data for stakeholders, including The Ministry of Sports, Ghana Football Association (GFA), and Government and non-governmental organizations, to construct more community sports facilities to assist in reducing the level of unemployment in Ghanaian communities.

Keywords: economic impact, community sports facilities, Astro turf, residents

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983 Physical Education Researches and Sports Science Effect on Children's Behavior

Authors: Kirolos Latif Ghaly Sawires


The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a physical education program on student learning by combining the teaching of personal and social responsibility (TPSR) with a physical education model and TPSR with a traditional teaching model, these learning outcomes involving self-learning. -Study. athletic performance, enthusiasm for sport, group cohesion, sense of responsibility and game performance. The participants were 3 secondary school physical education teachers and 6 physical education classes, 133 participants with students from the experimental group with 75 students and the control group with 58 students, and each teacher taught the experimental group and the control group for 16 weeks. The research methods used surveys, interviews and focus group meetings. Research instruments included the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire, Sports Enthusiasm Scale, Group Cohesion Scale, Sports Self-Efficacy Scale, and Game Performance Assessment Tool. Multivariate analyzes of covariance and repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine differences in student learning outcomes between combining the TPSR with a physical education model and the TPSR with a traditional teaching model. The research findings are as follows: 1) The TPSR sports education model can improve students' learning outcomes, including sports self-efficacy, game performance, sports enthusiasm, team cohesion, group awareness and responsibility. 2) A traditional teaching model with TPSR could improve student learning outcomes, including sports self-efficacy, responsibility, and game performance. 3) The sports education model with TPSR could improve learning outcomes more than the traditional teaching model with TPSR, including sports self-efficacy, sports enthusiasm, responsibility and game performance. 4) Based on qualitative data on teachers' and students' learning experience, the physical education model with TPSR significantly improves learning motivation, group interaction and sense of play. The results suggest that physical education with TPSR could further improve learning outcomes in the physical education program.On the other hand, the hybrid model curriculum projects TPSR - Physical Education and TPSR - Traditional Education are good curriculum projects for moral character education that can be used in school physics.

Keywords: approach competencies, physical, education, teachers employment, graduate, physical education and sport sciences, SWOT analysis character education, sport season, game performance, sport competence

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982 Investigating Changes in Hip and Knee Joints Position in Girls with Patellofemoral Syndrome

Authors: Taraneh Ashrafi Motlagh, Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo


Background and Aim: Increased fatigue causes injuries; the purpose of this article was to investigate the angular displacement of the hip and knee joints in girls with patellofemoral syndrome. Materials and Methods: Thirty girls with an average age (age 28.73±1.83, height 168.49±5.59, weight 63.73±12.73) participated in this study in two groups of 15, experimental and control. The jet evaluation test was taken from the subjects' knee and thigh angle, and then these tests were repeated with the application of different inclines of the treadmill; the tests were examined in a neutral position and in a positive and negative slope of 5 degrees. The mean and standard deviation were used to describe the data, and the Shapirovik test was used for the normalization of the data to compare and examine the variables in the two research groups using an independent t-test and repeated analysis of variance at a significance level of 0.05. Conclusion: In general, according to the current studies of people with patellofemoral syndrome, running on steep inclines, as well as running on a treadmill and making the incline angle of the treadmill within the limit of minus 5% to plus 5%, does not affect the improvement of this condition, and it is not recommended. And according to the research, girls with patellofemoral syndrome should be placed on the treadmill at an inclined angle to run.

Keywords: patellofemoral syndrome, angular displacement of the knee, angular displacement of the thigh

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981 A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Equestrian and Basketball Exercises in Children with Autism

Authors: LI Shuping, Shu Huaping, Yi Chaofan, Tao Jiang


Equestrian practice is often considered having a unique effect on improving symptoms in children with autism. This study evaluated and measured the changes in daily behavior, morphological, physical function, and fitness indexes of two group children with autism by means of 12 weeks of equestrian and basketball exercises. 19 clinically diagnosed children with moderate/mild autism were randomly divided into equestrian group (9 children, age=10.11±1.90y) and basketball group (10 children, age=10.70±2.16y). Both the equestrian and basketball groups practiced twice a week for 45 to 60 minutes each time. Three scales, the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) were used to assess their human behavior and psychology. Four morphological, seven physical function and fitness indicators were measured to evaluate the effects of the two exercises on the children’s body. The evaluations were taken by every four weeks ( pre-exercise, the 4th week, the 8th week and 12th week (post exercise). The result showed that the total scores of ABC, CARS and CABS, the dimension scores of ABC on the somatic motor, language and life self-care obtained after exercise were significantly lower than those obtained before 12 week exercises in both groups. The ABC feeling dimension scores of equestrian group and ABC communication dimension score of basketball group were significantly lower,and The upper arm circumference, sitting forward flexion, 40 second sit-up, 15s lateral jump, vital capacity, and single foot standing of both groups were significantly higher than that of before exercise.. The BMI of equestrian group was significantly reduced. The handgrip strength of basketball group was significantly increased. In conclusion, both types of exercises could improve daily behavior, morphological, physical function, and fitness indexes of the children with autism. However, the behavioral psychological scores, body morphology and function indicators and time points were different in the middle and back of the two interventions.But the indicators and the timing of the improvement were different. To the group of equestrian, the improvement of the flexibility occurred at week 4, the improvement of the sensory perception, control and use their own body, and promote the development of core strength endurance, coordination and cardiopulmonary function occurred at week 8,and the improvement of core strength endurance, coordination and cardiopulmonary function occurred at week 12. To the group of basketball, the improvement of the hand strength, balance, flexibility and cardiopulmonary function occurred at week 4, the improvement of the self-care ability and language expression ability, and core strength endurance and coordination occurred at week 8, the improvement of the control and use of their own body and social interaction ability occurred at week 12. In comparison of the exercise effects, the equestrian exercise improved the physical control and application ability appeared earlier than that of basketball group. Basketball exercise improved the language expression ability, self-care ability, balance ability and cardiopulmonary function of autistic children appeared earlier than that of equestrian group.

Keywords: intervention, children with autism, equestrain, basketball

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980 Associated Factors of Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia and Double Burden Hypertension-Hypercholesterolemia in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure: Hospital Based Study

Authors: Pierre Mintom, William Djeukeu Asongni, Michelle Moni, William Dakam, Christine Fernande Nyangono Biyegue.


Background: In order to prevent congestive heart failure, control of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia is necessary because those risk factors frequently occur in combination. Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and double burden HTA-Hypercholesterolemia in patients with congestive heart failure. Methodology: A database of 98 patients suffering from congestive heart failure was used. The latter were recruited from August 15, 2017, to March 5, 2018, in the Cardiology department of Deido District Hospital of Douala. This database provides information on sociodemographic parameters, biochemical examinations, characteristics of heart failure and food consumption. ESC/ESH and NCEP-ATPIII definitions were used to define Hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥200mg/dl), Hypertension (SBP≥140mmHg and/or DBP≥90mmHg). Double burden hypertension-hypercholesterolemia was defined as follows: total cholesterol (CT)≥200mg/dl, SBP≥140mmHg and DBP≥90mmHg. Results: The prevalence of hypertension (HTA), hypercholesterolemia (hyperchol) and double burden HTA-Hyperchol were 61.2%, 66.3% and 45.9%, respectively. No sociodemographic factor was associated with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and double burden, but Male gender was significantly associated (p<0.05) with hypercholesterolemia. HypoHDLemia significantly increased hypercholesterolemia and the double burden by 19.664 times (p=0.001) and 14.968 times (p=0.021), respectively. Regarding dietary habits, the consumption of rice, peanuts and derivatives and cottonseed oil respectively significantly (p<0.05) exposed to the occurrence of hypertension. The consumption of tomatoes, green bananas, corn and derivatives, peanuts and derivatives and cottonseed oil significantly exposed (p<0.05) to the occurrence of hypercholesterolemia. The consumption of palm oil and cottonseed oil exposed the occurrence of the double burden of hypertension-hypercholesterolemia. Consumption of eggs protects against hypercholesterolemia, and consumption of peanuts and tomatoes protects against the double burden. Conclusion: hypercholesterolemia associated with hypertension appears as a complicating factor of congestive heart failure. Key risk factors are mainly diet-based, suggesting the importance of nutritional education for patients. New management protocols emphasizing diet should be considered.

Keywords: risk factors, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, congestive heart failure

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979 The Legal Position of the Sporting Directors in Saudi Football Clubs

Authors: Ammar Alrefaei


Sporting directors in football clubs plays a prominent and important role in managing and controlling many issues related to the affairs of professional players. In view of this great importance of the role of the sporting directors, the Saudi regulation of the professional players and their transfers took over the organization and control of many aspects related to the conditions that must be met by the sporting director and the obligations that fall on his responsibility with the sport club or the Saudi Football Association. However, this regulation does not avoid ambiguity at times and shortcomings at other times in many places, as some of the texts contained in regulation raise many questions, some of which point out to the need to find more comprehensive and accurate treatment than those in the current regulations, accordingly this study comes to shed light on the aspects related to the sporting directors in sport clubs and the development of provisions.

Keywords: professional contract, sporting directors, professional player, labor law

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978 Paediatric Motor Difficulties and Internalising Problems: An Integrative Review on the Environmental Stress Hypothesis

Authors: Noah Erskine, Jaime Barratt, John Cairney


The current study aims to provide an in-depth analysis and extension of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis (ESH) framework, focusing on the complex interplay between poor motor skills and internalising problems like anxiety and depression. Using an integrative research review methodology, this study synthesizes findings from 38 articles, both empirical and theoretical, building upon the foundational work of the model. The hypothesis posits that poor motor skills serve as a primary stressor, leading to internalising problems through various secondary stressors. A rigorous comparison of data was conducted, considering study design, findings, and methodologies - while giving special attention to variables such as age, sex, and comorbidities. The study also enhances the ESH framework by introducing resource buffers, including optimism and familial support, as additional influencing factors. This multi-level approach yields a more nuanced and comprehensive ESH framework, highlighting the need for future studies to consider intersectional variables and how they may vary across various life stages.

Keywords: motor coordination, mental health, developmental coordination disorders, paediatric comorbidities, obesity, peer problems

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977 Examining Gender Bias in the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3): A Differential Item Functioning Analysis in NCAA Sports

Authors: Rachel M. Edelstein, John D. Van Horn, Karen M. Schmidt, Sydney N. Cushing


As a consequence of sports-related concussions, female athletes have been documented as reporting more symptoms than their male counterparts, in addition to incurring longer periods of recovery. However, the role of sex and its potential influence on symptom reporting and recovery outcomes in concussion management has not been completely explored. The present aims to investigate the relationship between female concussion symptom severity and the presence of assessment bias. The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3), collected by the NCAA and DoD CARE Consortium, was quantified at five different time points post-concussion. N= 1,258 NCAA athletes, n= 473 female (soccer, rugby, lacrosse, ice hockey) and n=785 male athletes (football, rugby, lacrosse, ice hockey). A polytomous Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded Response Model (GRM) was used to assess the relationship between sex and symptom reporting. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and Differential Group Functioning (DGF) were used to examine potential group-level bias. Interactions for DIF were utilized to explore the impact of sex on symptom reporting among NCAA male and female athletes throughout and after their concussion recovery. DIF was significantly detected after B-H corrections displayed in limited items; however, one symptom, “Pressure in Head” (-0.29, p=0.04 vs -0.20, p =0.04), was statistically significant at both < 6 hours and 24-48 hours. Thus, implies that at < 6 hours, males were 29% less likely to indicate “Pressure in the Head” compared to female athletes and 20% less likely at 24-48 hours. Overall, the DGF suggested significant group differences, suggesting that male athletes might be at a higher risk for returning to play prematurely (logits = -0.38, p < 0.001). However, after analyzing the SCAT 3, a clinically relevant trend was discovered. Twelve out of the twenty-two symptoms suggest higher difficulty in female athletes within three or more of the five-time points. These symptoms include Balance Problems, Blurry Vision, Confusion, Dizziness, Don’t Feel Right, Feel in Fog, Feel Slow Down, Low Energy, Neck Pain, Sensitivity to Light, Sensitivity to Noise, Trouble Falling Asleep. Despite a lack of statistical significance, this tendency is contrary to current literature stating that males may be unclear on symptoms, but females may be more honest in reporting symptoms. Further research, which includes possible modifying socioecological factors, is needed to determine whether females may consistently experience more symptoms and require longer recovery times or if, parsimoniously, males tend to present their symptoms and readiness for play differently than females. Such research will help to improve the validity of current assumptions concerning male as compared to female head injuries and optimize individualized treatments for sports-related head injuries.

Keywords: female athlete, sports-related concussion, item response theory, concussion assessment

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976 Exercise program’s Effectiveness on Hepatic Fat Mobilization among Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Patients

Authors: Taher Eid Shaaban Ahmed Mousa


Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of multiple liver disorders, which strongly linked to a poor lifestyle. This study aiming to elucidate the exercise program’s effectiveness on hepatic fat mobilization among nonalcoholic fatty liver patients. Subjects: A purposive sample of 150 adult male & female patients. Setting: National institute of liver out patient's clinics of Menoufia University. Tools: three tools I: An interviewing structured questionnaire, II: International Physical Activity Questionnaire, III: compliance assessment sheet. Results: There was statistically significant difference pre and post exercise program regarding total body weight, physical activity level and compliance that prevent new fat development with resolution of existing one. Conclusion: regular exercise is the best implemented approach as an initial step for the prevention, treatment and management of NAFLD. Recommendation: It is highly important to unravel the mechanism and dose by which each exercise specifically resolve various stages of liver diseases.

Keywords: exercise program, hebatic fat mobilization, nonalcoholic fatty liver patients, sport science

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975 Examining the Relationship between Preferred Leadership Style and Motivation of Female Volleyball Players in Ethiopian Primer League Clubs

Authors: Meseret Mulugeta, Alemmebrat Kiflu, Belaynehchikle


The purpose of the present study was to examine the preferred leadership style and motivation of premier league volleyball players. The sample encompassed 46 female premier league volleyball players whose ages ranged between 15 and 35 years. The data were collected using standardized questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to 46 female players from five volleyball clubs in the Premier League. To evaluate the motivational level of the players, the Sports Motivation Scale (SMS-6) was used. The leadership scale for sport was used to evaluate leadership. Descriptive statistics and the person correlation coefficient (P <0.05) were used to validate the relationship between leadership style and motivation. The result showed that there is a meaningful and significant relationship between leadership style and motivation. Concerning preferred coaching styles, the most preferred style was training and instruction, with a mean score of 4.10, and the least preferred style was autocratic, with a mean score of 3.37. The result of the Pearson correlation coefficient showed that the correlation between motivation types and leadership styles showed that motivation was significantly and positively correlated with all independent variables except autocratic leadership style, which is negatively correlated with motivation. This study’s nobility is to provide evidence for the most effective coaching to practice the training and instruction behaviour and social support behaviour leadership styles and refrain from using the autocratic leadership style.

Keywords: autocratic, training and instruction, motivation, leadership style

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974 The Influence of Group Heuristics on Corporate Social Responsibility Messages Designed to Reduce Illegal Consumption

Authors: Kate Whitman, Zahra Murad, Joe Cox


Corporate social responsibility projects are suggested to motivate consumers to reciprocate good corporate deeds with their custom. When the projects benefit the ingroup vs the outgroup, such as locals rather than foreigners, the effect on reciprocity is suggested to be more powerful. This may be explained by group heuristics, a theory which indicates that favours to the ingroup (but not outgroup) are expected to be reciprocated, resulting in ingroup favouritism. The heuristic is theorised to explain prosocial behaviours towards the ingroup. The aim of this study is to test whether group heuristics similarly explain a reduction in antisocial behaviours towards the ingroup, measured by illegal consumption which harms a group that consumers identify with. In order to test corporate social responsibility messages, a population of interested consumers is required, so sport fans are recruited. A pre-registered experiment (N = 600) tests the influence of a focused “team” benefiting message vs a broader “sport” benefiting message on change in illegal intentions. The influence of group (team) identity and trait reciprocity on message efficacy are tested as measures of group heuristics. Results suggest that the “team” treatment significantly reduces illegal consumption intentions. The “sport” treatment interacted with the team identification measure, increasing illegal consumption intentions for low team identification individuals. The results suggest that corporate social responsibility may be effective in reducing illegal consumption, if the messages are delivered directly from brands to consumers with brand identification. Messages delivered on the behalf of an industry may have an undesirable effect.

Keywords: live sports, piracy, counterfeiting, corporate social responsibility, group heuristics, ingroup bias, team identification

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973 Predicting Next Offensive Play Types to Maximize the Defense’s Chances of Success in The National Football League

Authors: Christopher Paul Schoborg, Morgan C. Wang


In the realm of the National Football League (NFL), substantial dedication of time and effort is invested by both players and coaches in meticulously analyzing the game footage of their opponents. The primary aim is to anticipate the actions of the opposing team. Defensive players and coaches are especially focused on deciphering their adversaries' intentions to effectively counter their strategies. Acquiring insights into the specific play type and its intended direction on the field would confer a significant competitive advantage. This study establishes pre-snap information as the cornerstone for predicting both the play type (e.g., deep pass, short pass, or run) and its spatial trajectory (right, left, or center). The dataset for this research spans the regular NFL season data for all 32 teams from 2013 to 2022. This dataset is acquired using the nflreadr package, which conveniently extracts play-by-play data from NFL games and imports it into the R environment as structured datasets. In this study, we employ a recently developed machine learning algorithm, XGBoost. The final predictive model achieves an impressive lift of 2.61. This signifies that the presented model is 2.61 times more effective than random guessing—a significant improvement. Such a model has the potential to markedly enhance defensive coaches' ability to formulate game plans and adequately prepare their players, thus mitigating the opposing offense's yardage and point gains.

Keywords: XGBoost, play prediction, lift, NFL, sports analytics

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972 Symmetry of Performance across Lower Limb Tests between the Dominant and Non-Dominant Legs

Authors: Ghulam Hussain, Herrington Lee, Comfort Paul, Jones Richard


Background: To determine the functional limitations of the lower limbs or readiness to return to sport, most rehabilitation programs use some form of testing; however, it is still unknown what the pass criteria is. This study aims to investigate the differences between the dominant and non-dominant leg performances across several lower limb tasks, which are hop tests, two-dimensional (2D) frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) tests, and isokinetic muscle tests. This study also provides the reference values for the limb symmetry index (LSI) for the hop and isokinetic muscle strength tests. Twenty recreationally active participants were recruited, 11 males and 9 females (age 23.65±2.79 years; height 169.9±3.74 cm; and body mass 74.72±5.81 kg. All tests were undertaken on the dominant and non-dominant legs. These tests are (1) Hop tests, which include horizontal hop for distance and crossover hop tests, (2) Frontal plane projection angle (FPPA): 2D capturing from two different tasks, which are forward hop landing and squatting, and (3) Isokinetic muscle strength tests: four different muscles were tested: quadriceps, hamstring, ankle plantar flexor, and hip extensor muscles. The main outcome measurements were, for the (1) hop tests: maximum distance was taken when undertaking single/crossover hop for distance using a standard tape measure, (2) for the FPPA: the knee valgus angle was measured from the maximum knee flexion position using a single 2D camera, and (3) for the isokinetic muscle strength tests: three different variables were measured: peak torque, peak torque to body weight, and the total work to body weight. All the muscle strength tests have been applied in both concentric and eccentric muscle actions at a speed of 60°/sec. This study revealed no differences between the dominant and non-dominant leg performance, and 85% of LSI was achieved by the majority of the subjects in both hop and isokinetic muscle tests, and; therefore, one leg’s hop performance can define the other.

Keywords: 2D FPPA, hop tests, isokinetic testing, LSI

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971 Jungle Justice on Emotional Health Challenges among Lagosians

Authors: Aaron Akinloye


This research examined the influence of jungle justice as it affects the emotional health challenges among residents in Lagos metropolitan city. Descriptive survey research design was used along with the questionnaire as research instrument. Population for the study comprised residents in Yaba and Shomolu Communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Accidental sampling technique was used to sample 300 Residents. Self-developed questionnaire was used to obtain data on the variables under investigation. Research instrument was validated following the face, content, and construct validation of the instrument. Thereafter, the reliability coefficient yielded 0.84. It is therefore concluded and recommended that; there is a significant influence of jungle justice on trauma among residents- df (298) t= 2.33, p< 0.05; there is a significant influence of jungle justice on pressure among residents- df (298) t= 2.16, p< 0.05: there is a significant influence of jungle justice on fear among residents- df (298) t= 2.20, p< 0.05; there is a significant influence of jungle justice on depression among residents- df (298) t= 2.14, p< 0.05. Recommendations were made that; there should be deliberate effort to implement comprehensive awareness campaigns to educate the residents on the detrimental effects of jungle justice on individuals and the community members as a whole; there should be an improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of the existing law enforcement agencies in Lagos metropolitan city; development and implementation of support systems for victims of jungle justice, which include trauma, counselling, mental health services, and rehabilitation programmes; there should be proper review and revision of the legal framework to address the issue of jungle justice effectively.

Keywords: jungle justice, emotional health, depression, fear

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970 Empath vs Narcissist Among University Sports Persons

Authors: Jaskarn Singh Sidhu


The present study investigated the relationship of Empathy and Narcissism among university sports persons. Sample-The sample of the study consists of a total of 248 sportspersons and non-sports persons. Tools- To evaluate empathy, a 16-scale questionnaire was used and to evaluate narcissism, NPI-16 questionnaire was used. Statically-Two-Way Analysis of Variance used to analyse the data collected to establish the relationship. Results- In empathy male champion players shows more empathy than female counterparts the results also reveals that non champion females showed more empathy than non-champion male sports persons. In totality champion shows more empathy than non- champions. Results of Narcissism revealed that male champion sports persons were high on Narcissism scale then female counterparts. Non -champion males also indicate high narcissism then non champion female sports persons indicating female were less self -oriented then male sports persons. Conclusion- From the results it was concluded that no significant difference exists among sports persons in empathy and narcissism with reference to gender and sports performance.

Keywords: champion, narcissism, empathy, non champion players

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969 The Level of Administrative Creativity and Its Obstacles From the Point of View of Workers in Youth Centers in Jordan

Authors: Basheer Ahmad Al-Alwan


This study aimed to assess the extent of administrative creativity and identify its barriers from the perspective of employees working in youth centers in Jordan. The sample comprised 156 individuals employed in youth centers within the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Data collection involved the utilization of two measures: the administrative creativity scale and the obstacles to administrative work scale. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted. The findings revealed a high level of administrative creativity, as indicated by a mean score of 3.82 and a standard deviation of 0.51. Furthermore, statistically significant gender-based differences in administrative creativity were observed, favoring males, with a mean score of 3.32 for males compared to 2.91 for females. The results also demonstrated statistically significant differences in the level of administrative creativity based on experience, with the highest mean score observed for individuals with 5 to less than 10 years of experience. Regarding the obstacles to administrative creativity, the findings revealed an average level, with a mean score of 2.86 and a standard deviation of 0.791. Based on these results, the study recommends the promotion of a culture of creativity among employees and the provision of a broader scope of authority to foster an environment conducive to administrative creativity. Additionally, it suggests offering training courses encompassing the annual plan for these centers and minimizing obstacles that hinder the creative process among employees in Jordanian youth centers.

Keywords: administrative creativity, obstacles, workers in youth centers, Jordan

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968 The Effects of Training Load on Some Selected Fitness Variables in the Case of U-17 Female Volleyball Project Players, Central Ethiopia

Authors: Behailu Shigute Habtemariam


The aim of the study was to examine the effects of training load on some selected fitness performance variables of volleyball players in the case of U-17 female volleyball project players in the central Ethiopia region. Methods: In this study, quasi-experimental design was used. For the purpose of this study, twenty-three volleyball players were used as a subject from the two projects. The data collected through fitness performance assessment were analyzed and interpreted into a meaningful idea using manually as well as with computer in order to compare physical fitness variables and changes observed among participants. Those are taking part in the effects of training load on some selected physical fitness variables. The collected data were analyzed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Science version (SPSS V 20). The independent t-test was used to show the mean differences between the groups, and the paired T-test was used to compare the mean differences of the pre and post-training within each group. The level of significance will be set at Alfa 0.05. Results: The results are displayed using tables and figures. A significant difference was found in the mean differences of pre-test values (19.7 cm) and post-test values (37.5 cm) of the Durame city project on the flexibility test (MD =17.8 cm, P = 0.00). On the other hand, there was a significant difference in the mean difference of pre-test values of (18 cm) and post-test values (26.3 cm) of the Hosana city project on the flexibility test ( MD = 8.3 cm, P = 0.00). Conclusion: According to the results of the present studies, there were significant improvements from pre to post-test at Durame City and Hosana City projects on agility, flexibility, power, and speed fitness tests. On the other hand, a significant difference was not found before beginning the exercise between the two projects; however, a significant difference was found after 12 weeks of training.

Keywords: overload, performance, training, volleyball

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967 Parkinson’s Disease Hand-Eye Coordination and Dexterity Evaluation System

Authors: Wann-Yun Shieh, Chin-Man Wang, Ya-Cheng Shieh


This study aims to develop an objective scoring system to evaluate hand-eye coordination and hand dexterity for Parkinson’s disease. This system contains three boards, and each of them is implemented with the sensors to sense a user’s finger operations. The operations include the peg test, the block test, and the blind block test. A user has to use the vision, hearing, and tactile abilities to finish these operations, and the board will record the results automatically. These results can help the physicians to evaluate a user’s reaction, coordination, dexterity function. The results will be collected to a cloud database for further analysis and statistics. A researcher can use this system to obtain systematic, graphic reports for an individual or a group of users. Particularly, a deep learning model is developed to learn the features of the data from different users. This model will help the physicians to assess the Parkinson’s disease symptoms by a more intellective algorithm.

Keywords: deep learning, hand-eye coordination, reaction, hand dexterity

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966 Sex Difference of the Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Arrest/Death in Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors: Lingxia Li, Frédéric Schnell, Shuzhe Ding, Solène Le Douairon Lahaye


Background: The risk of sudden cardiac arret/death (SCA/D) in athletes is controversial. There is a lack of meta-analyses assessing the sex differences in the risk of SCA/D in competitive athletes. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate sex differences in the incidence of SCA/D in competitive athletes using meta-analyses. Methods: The systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (registration ID: CRD42023432022) and was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, SPORT Discus and Cochrane Library were searched up to July 2023. To avoid systematic bias in data pooling, only studies with data for both sexes were included. Results: From the 18 included studies, 2028 cases of SCA/D were observed (males 1821 (89.79%), females 207 (10.21%)). The age ranges from the adolescents (<26 years) to the elderly (>45 years). The incidence in male athletes was 1.32/100,000 AY (95% CI: [0.90, 1.93]) and in females was 0.26/100,000 AY (95% CI: [0.16, 0.43]), the incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 6.43 (95% CI: [4.22, 9.79]). The subgroup synthesis showed a higher incidence in males than in females in both age groups <25 years and ≤35 years, the IRR was 5.86 (95% CI: [4.69, 7.32]) and 5.79 (95% CI: [4.73, 7.09]), respectively. When considering the events, the IRR was 6.73 (95%CI: [3.06, 14.78]) among studies involving both SCA/D events and 7.16 (95% CI: [4.93, 10.40]) among studies including only cases of SCD. The available clinical evidence showed that cardiac events were most frequently seen in long-distance running races (26, 35.1%), marathon (16, 21.6%) and soccer (10, 13.5%). Coronary artery disease (14, 18.9%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (8, 10.8%), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (7, 9.5%) are the most common causes of SCA/D in competitive athletes. Conclusion: The meta-analysis provides evidence of sex differences in the incidence of SCA/D in competitive athletes. The incidence of SCA/D in male athletes was 6 to 7 times higher than in females. Identifying the reasons for this difference may have implications for targeted the prevention of fatal evets in athletes.

Keywords: incidence, sudden cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death, sex difference, athletes

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965 Evaluating Cognition and Movement Coordination of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities through Ball Games

Authors: Wann-Yun Shieh, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng, Yan-Ying Ju, Yu-Chun Yu, Ya-Cheng Shieh


Adolescents who have intellectual disabilities often demonstrate maladaptive behaviors in their daily activities due to either physical abnormalities or neurological disorders. These adolescents commonly struggle with their cognition and movement coordination when it comes to executing tasks such as throwing or catching objects smoothly, quickly, and gracefully, in contrast to their typically developing peers. Simply measuring movement time and distance doesn't provide a comprehensive view of their performance challenges. In this study, a ball-playing approach was proposed to assess the cognition and movement coordination of adolescents with intellectual disabilities using a smart ball equipped with an embedded inertial sensor. Four distinct ball games were specifically designed for this smart ball: two focusing on lower limb activities (dribbling along a straight line and navigating a zigzag path) and two centered around upper limb tasks (picking up and throwing and catching the ball). The cognition and movement coordination of 25 adolescents with intellectual disabilities (average age 18.36 ± 2.46 years) with that of 25 typically developing adolescents (average age 18.36 ± 0.49 years) were compared in these four tests. The results clearly revealed significant differences in the cognition and movement coordination between the adolescents with intellectual disabilities and the typically developing adolescents. These differences encompassed aspects such as movement speed, hand-eye coordination, and control over objects across all the tests conducted.

Keywords: cognition, intellectual disabilities, movement coordination, smart ball

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964 Didactics for Enhancing Balance in Adolescents: Core and Centering

Authors: A. Fogliata, L. Martiniello, A. Ambretti


Introduction: The significance of balance and stability in physical education among adolescents is well-established. This study aims to assess the efficacy of Centering (CENT), which employs intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in line with the Synchrony Method, in optimizing balance and reducing perceived stress. Materials and Methods: A 6-week intervention was conducted on a sample of adolescents, divided into a control group and an experimental group that incorporated CENT into their physical education program. The Stork Balance Test and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to measure changes. Results: Findings revealed a significant enhancement in the balance of both the dominant and non-dominant limbs in the experimental group compared to the control group. Moreover, the PSS test indicated a reduction in perceived stress within the experimental group. Conclusion: Integrating the centering technique into physical education programs can lead to substantial improvements in adolescents' balance and stability, in addition to a reduction in perceived stress levels. These findings suggest the need for further research on broader populations to solidify these pivotal outcomes.

Keywords: adolescents, physical education, balance, centering, intra-abdominal pressure

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963 Nigerian Football System: Examining Micro-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: Iorwase Derek Kaka’an, Peter Smolianov, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg, Charles Gabriel Iortimah


This study examines the current state of football in Nigeria to identify the country's practices, which could be useful internationally, and to determine areas for improvement. Over 200 sources of literature on sport delivery systems in successful sports nations were analyzed to construct a globally applicable model of elite football integrated with mass participation, comprising of the following three levels: macro (socio-economic, cultural, legislative, and organizational), meso (infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sports programs) and micro level (operations, processes, and methodologies for the development of individual athletes). The model has received scholarly validation and has shown to be a framework for program analysis that is not culturally bound. It has recently been utilized for further understanding such sports systems as US rugby, tennis, soccer, swimming, and volleyball, as well as Dutch and Russian swimming. A questionnaire was developed using the above-mentioned model. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts including academicians, executives from sports governing bodies, football coaches, and administrators. To identify best practices and determine areas for improvement of football in Nigeria, 116 coaches completed the questionnaire. Useful exemplars and possible improvements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 Nigerian football administrators and experts. Finally, a content analysis of the Nigeria Football Federation's website and organizational documentation was conducted. This paper focuses on the micro level of Nigerian football delivery, particularly talent search and development as well as advanced athlete preparation and support. Results suggested that Nigeria could share such progressive practices as the provision of football programs in all schools and full-time coaches paid by governments based on the level of coach education. Nigerian football administrators and coaches could provide better football services affordable for all, where success in mass and elite sports is guided by science focused on athletes' needs. Better implemented could be international best practices such as lifelong guidelines for health and excellence of everyone and integration of fitness tests into player development and ranking as done in best Dutch, English, French, Russian, Spanish, and other European clubs; integration of educational and competitive events for elite and developing athletes as well as fans as done at the 2018 World Cup Russia; and academies with multi-stage athlete nurturing as done by Ajax in Africa as well as Barcelona FC and other top clubs expanding across the world. The methodical integration of these practices into the balanced development of mass and elite football will help contribute to international sports success as well as national health, education, crime control, and social harmony in Nigeria.

Keywords: football, high performance, mass participation, Nigeria, sport development

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962 Well-being at Work in the Sports Sector: Systematic Review and Perspectives

Authors: Ouazoul Abdeloauhd, Jemjami Nadia


The concept of well-being at work is one of today's significant challenges in maintaining quality of life and managing psycho-social risks at work. Indeed, work in the sports sector has evolved, and this exponential evolution, marked by increasing demands and psychological, physical, and social challenges, which sometimes exceed the resources of sports actors, influences their sense of well-being at work. Well-being and burnout as antagonists provide information on the quality of working life in sports. The Basic aim of this literature review is to analyze the scientific corpus dealing with the subject of well-being at work in the sports sector while exploring the link between sports burnout and well-being. The results reveal the richness of the conceptual approaches and the difficulties of implementing them. Prospects for future research have, therefore, been put forward.

Keywords: well-being, burnout, quality of life, psycho-social risk, work on sports sector

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961 Well-being at Work in the Sports Sector: Systematic Review and Perspectives

Authors: Ouazoul Abdelouahd, Jemjami Nadia


The concept of well-being at work is one of today's significant challenges in maintaining quality of life and managing psycho-social risks at work. Indeed, work in the sports sector has evolved, and this exponential evolution, marked by increasing demands and psychological, physical, and social challenges, which sometimes exceed the resources of sports actors, influences their sense of well-being at work. Well-being and burnout as antagonists provide information on the quality of working life in sports. The Basic aim of this literature review is to analyze the scientific corpus dealing with the subject of well-being at work in the sports sector while exploring the link between sports burnout and well-being. The results reveal the richness of the conceptual approaches and the difficulties of implementing them. Prospects for future research have, therefore, been put forward.

Keywords: Well-being, quality of life, Burnout, ; psycho-social risk, Sports sector

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960 The Role of Physical Activities in Improving the Psychological State, Reducing Stress and Anxiety Resulting from the Corona (Covid-19) Pandemic

Authors: Saidia Houari


The current coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is a special and unusual reality. It can affect people physically, but also psychologically. Indeed, in such a context, many people will experience reactions of stress, anxiety and depression, and Sports is known to be a great in improving the effectiveness of the nervous system and mental health. Professor Ango Frubuze“many studies proved that sports play an important role in fighting psychological tension and some other psychological problems, such as depression and sleep difficulties, but on condition of practicing them properly,choosing the kind that generates comfort and happiness for man “ .The sports university professor in the German city of Cologne added that the effort exerted during the exercise works on restoring balance to the stress hormones like cortisol.The case report provides an insight into the COVID-19 current situation and represents a picture of the current state of mental health and an overview of novel coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreaks in some countries of the world. Some procedures taken to combat the coronavirus. We proposed the practice of physical activities during the quarantine period, and we showed their importance and their positive effects.

Keywords: COVID-19, psycholiqical impacts, stress, physical activities

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959 A Proposed Training Program for the Development of the Kindergarten Teacher According To Her Contemporary Professionàĺ Needs

Authors: Abdulhakim Ali Mosleh Alzubidy


The study's aim was to establish a proposed training program for kindergarten teachers according to their modern professional demands so that they could effectively teach children through movement education and play. The sample, which consisted of (46) teachers and administrators selected at random from the Ibb governorate, represented the study population of kindergarten teachers and administrators. The researcher developed three survey forms as a tool for data collection, and the forms were used with the research sample. The researcher used the descriptive method due to its applicability and the nature of the study, and he also used the appropriate statistical treatment of the data, which is to extract the percentage and the percentage of agreement. The study came to the following conclusions: ● The proposed program is of great importance in preparing the kindergarten teacher in an appropriate manner that keeps pace with modern developments in this field. ● The field of movement education is a necessity for the kindergarten teacher, through which she will be able to prepare the child physically and kinetically and teach him effectively the principles of reading, writing, and numerical and arithmetic concepts.

Keywords: training program, professional needs, kindergarten, kindergarten teacher

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958 Discursively Constructed Agency During the Coaching Conversation

Authors: Ilo Sari, Puutio Risto


Context: This scientific text focuses on the discursive construction of agency during coaching conversations. It emphasizes that agency is not only a change in one's perception of their own actions but also how they perceive and define themselves as agents. The study analyzes the interaction in a single one-to-one coaching conversation to understand the construction of agency. Research Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the kind of agency that is discursively constructed in coaching conversations. It seeks to understand how agency is negotiated and shaped through language use during these conversations. Methodology: The study adopts a qualitative approach, utilizing discourse analysis as the primary methodology. The researchers transcribe and analyze the entire coaching conversation, focusing on the points where negotiation about the client's agency takes place. The analysis draws on the tools and techniques of discourse analysis to understand the construction of agency in the conversation. Findings: The analysis reveals that the construction of agency in coaching conversations involves nuanced and multi-leveled discussions. The clients' speech reflects movement in inner speech, considerations about relationships with others, and abstract reflections as well as references to their own life history. Negotiation about agency is found to be an essential part of coaching practice, with the goal being included in the conversation through dialogue between the client and the coach. Theoretical Importance: This study contributes to the understanding of how agency is constructed through language in coaching conversations. It highlights the importance of negotiation about agency in achieving coaching goals. The findings expand our knowledge of the complexities of professional agency and open avenues for further research in work-life coaching and other interaction practices. Data Collection and Analysis Procedures: The researchers transcribed and familiarized themselves with the coaching conversation by repeatedly listening to the audio and reading the transcription. Selected points where negotiation about agency occurred were then analyzed using discourse analysis techniques. The analysis aimed to present a coherent and material-based story for the reader, depicting the nature of coaching conversations in professional practice..Questions Addressed: The main research question addressed in this study is: What kind of agency is discursively constructed in a coaching conversation? Additionally, the study explores how agency is negotiated between the client and the coach, and how different forms of agency are manifest and discussed throughout the conversation. Conclusion: The analysis reveals that coaching conversations are spaces where agency is discursively constructed through negotiation and dialogue between the client and the coach. The findings emphasize the importance of negotiation about agency in achieving coaching goals. The study contributes to our understanding of the complexities of professional agency and opens avenues for further research in work-life coaching and other interaction practices. The discussion also highlights the similarities and differences between different work-life interaction practices.

Keywords: coaching, agency, discursive, conversation, worklife, casestudy

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957 Collaboration between Dietician and Occupational Therapist, Promotes Independent Functional Eating in Tube Weaning Process of Mechanical Ventilated Patients

Authors: Inbal Zuriely, Yonit Weiss, Hilla Zaharoni, Hadas Lewkowicz, Tatiana Vander, Tarif Bader


early active movement, along with adjusting optimal nutrition, prevents aggravation of muscle degeneracy and functional decline. Eating is a basic activity of daily life, which reflects the patient's independence. When eating and feeding are experienced successfully, they lead to a sense of pleasure and satisfaction. However, when they are experienced as a difficulty, they might evoke feelings of helplessness and frustration. This stresses the essential process of gradual weaning off the enteral feeding tube. the work describes the collaboration of a dietitian, determining the nutritional needs of patients undergoing enteral tube weaning as part of the rehabilitation process, with the suited treatment of an occupational therapist. Occupational therapy intervention regarding eating capabilities focuses on improving the required motor and cognitive components, along with environmental adjustments and aids, imparting eating strategies and training to patients and their families. The project was conducted in the long-term, ventilated patients’ department at the Herzfeld Rehabilitation Geriatric Medical Center on patients undergoing enteral tube weaning with the staff’s assistance. Establishing continuous collaboration between the dietician and the occupational therapist, starting from the beginning of the feeding-tube weaning process: 1.The dietician updates the occupational therapist about the start of the process and the approved diet. 2.The occupational therapist performs cognitive, motor, and functional assessments and treatments regarding the patient’s eating capabilities and recommends the required adjustments for independent eating according to the FIM (Functional Independence Measure) scale. 3.The occupational therapist closely follows up on the patient’s degree of independence in eating and provides a repeated update to the dietician. 4.The dietician accordingly guides the ward staff on whether and how to feed the patient or allow independent eating. The project aimed to promote patients toward independent feeding, which leads to a sense of empowerment, enjoyment of the eating experience, and progress of functional ability, along with performing active movements that will motivate mobilization. From the beginning of 2022, 26 patients participated in the project. 79% of all patients who started the weaning process from tube feeding achieved different levels of independence in feeding (independence levels ranged from supervision (FIM-5) to complete independence (FIM-7). The integration of occupational therapy and dietary treatment is based on a patient-centered approach while considering the patient’s personal needs, preferences, and goals. This interdisciplinary partnership is essential for meeting the complex needs of prolonged mechanically ventilated patients and promotes independent functioning and quality of life.

Keywords: dietary, mechanical ventilation, occupational therapy, tube feeding weaning

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956 Discuss the Relationship Between Floor Movement and the Mental and Physical Health - Case Study on Movement Flow

Authors: Joyce Chieh Hsin Lo


In the forthcoming paper, we aim to comprehensively investigate the relation between floor movement and the health condition. We embark on an extensive exploration of the innovative Movement Flow system, a contemporary paradigm that is reshaping the landscape of physical fitness and well-being. Our primary aim is to dissect the profound potential of this groundbreaking approach, not only as a means to enhance our physical fitness but also as a transformative tool for nurturing mental health. Within the scope of this comprehensive analysis, we will delve into the multifaceted aspects of Movement Flow, highlighting its versatility and adaptability to various individuals' needs and objectives.

Keywords: prehab, floor movement, proprioception, movement flow

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955 Demonstration of Risk Factors Associated with Male Athlete Triad in Young Elite Athlete from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Saleem


Background: Inattentive food choices and engagement in excessive physical activities by male athletes can potentially lead to adverse health consequences. Objective: The aim was to ascertain the occurrence of risk factors associated with the Male Athlete Triad among young elite athletes in Pakistan. Methodology: In 2018, a cross-sectional study based on questionnaires was conducted at the Pakistan Sports Board. The study aimed to explore the risk factors related to the Male Athlete Triad in young elite athletes who were part of national training camps in major metropolitan areas. The study included proficient male elite athletes aged 18 to 25 years, capable of understanding the English questionnaire. The athletes completed a survey encompassing aspects like demographic information, educational background, Body Mass Index (BMI), sports involvement, and hours of participation. Additionally, they filled out the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) and questionnaires assessing risks of amenorrhea and low bone mineral density. The prevalence of risk factors for each of the three components was individually evaluated. The collected data underwent analysis using SPSS-20, with descriptive statistics being applied. Results: The study comprised a sample of 90 elite athletes (mean age: 23.57 ± 2.37 years, mean BMI: 21.97 ± 1.90) engaged in various sports. The EAT-26 results indicated that 50% of athletes were at risk of developing an eating disorder. Moreover, 83.3% exhibited disordered eating behaviors that necessitated referral. Risks for amenorrhea were observed in 15% of the participants, and regarding low bone mineral density, notable risks were absent except for the consumption of caffeinated beverages, which was noted in 51.7% of participants. Conclusion: The study identified a significant prevalence of disordered eating risk among male elite athletes in Pakistan. However, the risks associated with amenorrhea and low bone mineral density were not a major concern in this particular group.

Keywords: 1. health and physical education risk factors male athlete associated with the male athlete traid in young elite athlete from pakistan., 2. sports sciences pakistan, 3. risk factors sports sciences pakistan, 4. triad and young elite athlete from pakistan

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