Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 596

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Sport and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

596 The Biomechanical Assessment of Balance and Gait for Stroke Patients and the Implications in the Diagnosis and Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Alzahrani, G. Arnold, W. Wang


Background: Stroke commonly occurs in middle-aged and elderly populations, and the diagnosis of early stroke is still difficult. Patients who have suffered a stroke have different balance and gait patterns from healthy people. Advanced techniques of motion analysis have been routinely used in the clinical assessment of cerebral palsy. However, so far, little research has been done on the direct diagnosis of early stroke patients using motion analysis. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with stroke have different balance and gait from healthy people and which biomechanical parameters could be used to predict and diagnose potential patients who are at a potential risk to stroke. Methods: Thirteen patients with stroke were recruited as subjects whose gait and balance was analysed. Twenty normal subjects at the matched age participated in this study as a control group. All subjects’ gait and balance were collected using Vicon Nexus® to obtain the gait parameters, kinetic, and kinematic parameters of the hip, knee, and ankle joints in three planes of both limbs. Participants stood on force platforms to perform a single leg balance test. Then, they were asked to walk along a 10 m walkway at their comfortable speed. Participants performed 6 trials of single-leg balance for each side and 10 trials of walking. From the recorded trials, three good ones were analysed using the Vicon Plug-in-Gait model to obtain gait parameters, e.g., walking speed, cadence, stride length, and joint parameters, e.g., joint angle, force, moments, etc. Result: The temporal-spatial variables of Stroke subjects were compared with the healthy subjects; it was found that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the groups. The step length, speed, cadence were lower in stroke subjects as compared to the healthy groups. The stroke patients group showed significantly decreased in gait speed (mean and SD: 0.85 ± 0.33 m/s), cadence ( 96.71 ± 16.14 step/min), and step length (0.509 ± 017 m) in compared to healthy people group whereas the gait speed was 1.2 ± 0.11 m/s, cadence 112 ± 8.33 step/min, and step length 0.648 ± 0.43 m. Moreover, it was observed that patients with stroke have significant differences in the ankle, hip, and knee joints’ kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Also, the result showed that there was a significant difference between groups in the single-leg balance test, e.g., maintaining single-leg stance time in the stroke patients showed shorter duration (5.97 ± 6.36 s) in compared to healthy people group (14.36 ± 10.20 s). Conclusion: Our result showed that there are significantly differences between stroke patients and healthy subjects in the various aspects of gait analysis and balance test, as a consequences of these findings some of the biomechanical parameters such as joints kinematics, gait parameters, and single-leg stance balance test could be used in clinical practice to predict and diagnose potential patients who are at a high risk of further stroke.

Keywords: gait analysis, kinetics, kinematics, single-leg stance, Stroke

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595 Body Perception and Self-Esteem in Individuals Performing Bodybuilding Exercise Program

Authors: Yildiz Erdoganoglu, Unzile Tunc


The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of body, upper extremity, lower extremity endurance, and core functionality with body perception and self-esteem in individuals who applied for a bodybuilding exercise program. Forty volunteer male subjects who underwent bodybuilding exercises for one year or more were included in the study. After obtaining demographic information of the individuals, trunk endurance was evaluated by curl-up and modified Sorensen test, upper extremity endurance by push-up test, lower extremity endurance by repeated squat test, core functionalities by single-leg wall sitting and repeated single-leg squatting tests. body perception, body image perception scale, and self-esteem were evaluated with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The mean age of the individuals was 25.60 ± 4.70 years, mean exercise time was 22.47 ± 34.60 months. At the end of the study, body perception was low, and self-esteem was moderate. There was no significant relationship between abdominal endurance, back extensor endurance, upper extremity, and lower extremity endurance, core functionality, and body perception (p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant relationship between abdominal extensor, back extensor, upper extremity and lower extremity endurance, core functionality, and self-esteem (p > 0.05). The body, upper and lower extremity endurance, and core functionality of bodybuilders did not have any effect on body perception and self-esteem, suggesting that these individuals did not contribute positively to their efforts to improve their body perception and self- esteem.

Keywords: body endurance, body perception, core functionality, self esteem

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594 Hyun-Suk Lee, Kyle McCallum, Jawad Hashim, Larry Katz

Authors: Hyun-Suk Lee, Kyle McCallum, Jawad Hashim, Larry Katz


Learning to throw overhand is an important fundamental movement skill. The overhand throw is a very complex manipulative motor skill that requires considerable practice. Several years of instruction and practice trials are needed for children to learn and successfully execute an overhand throw pattern. Effective evaluation is a critical part of learning to throw. There are several tools for evaluating this skill. However, little research has been undertaken to determine which tool is more accurate and reliable. This study investigated the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of four existing overhand throwing protocols as originally designed: (1) an in-house scoring system developed by Sports Technology Research Lab (STRL) of the University of Calgary, (2) Physical Health and Education Canada, (3) New Hampshire Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, (4) Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). This would appear to be the first study to assess the reliability of different scoring systems against the same samples. Ten raters of various expertise were recruited to assessed five videos of students aged 7-12 using each of the four scoring systems. Raters were blinded to the origin of the scoring protocol. Assessment of the videos by the ten raters took place over two days with seven days in between to limit recall. There was no limit to the number of times that each video could be viewed. Videos were viewed in the same order as on the first assessment day. Raters were instructed to only score on what was witnessed, and not to infer from the movement pattern in each video clip. The intra-rater reliability for individual videos ranged from .62-.90. Each video was ranked from the highest reliability percent to lowest. Results indicated that intra-rater reliability was highest in the NHAHPERD-Baseline and PHE-Baseline assessment protocols (both .84) followed by the in-house scoring protocol (.82) and TGMD-2 (.80). Inter-rater reliability for individual videos ranged from .30-1.0. The inter-rater reliability was the highest on the PHE-Baseline assessment protocol (.75), followed by the NHAHPERD-Baseline assessment protocol (.75). The in-house scoring protocol and TGMD-2 received a score of .73 and .70 respectively. This research provides insight into the use of overhand throwing protocols in evaluating student performance. The results of this study highlight the great variability between the four scoring systems, despite there being very similar components. Future research should investigate the reasonings behind this variability, and also compare the reliability of each individual component to see if a more reliable protocol can be developed combining the best components of the other scoring systems.

Keywords: fundamental movement skills, learning, reliability, throwing protocols

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593 Machine Learning in Patent Law: How Genetic Breeding Algorithms Challenge Modern Patent Law Regimes

Authors: Stefan Papastefanou


Artificial intelligence (AI) is an interdisciplinary field of computer science with the aim of creating intelligent machine behavior. Early approaches to AI have been configured to operate in very constrained environments where the behavior of the AI system was previously determined by formal rules. Knowledge was presented as a set of rules that allowed the AI system to determine the results for specific problems; as a structure of if-else rules that could be traversed to find a solution to a particular problem or question. However, such rule-based systems typically have not been able to generalize beyond the knowledge provided. All over the world and especially in IT-heavy industries such as the United States, the European Union, Singapore, and China, machine learning has developed to be an immense asset, and its applications are becoming more and more significant. It has to be examined how such products of machine learning models can and should be protected by IP law and for the purpose of this paper patent law specifically, since it is the IP law regime closest to technical inventions and computing methods in technical applications. Genetic breeding models are currently less popular than recursive neural network method and deep learning, but this approach can be more easily described by referring to the evolution of natural organisms, and with increasing computational power; the genetic breeding method as a subset of the evolutionary algorithms models is expected to be regaining popularity. The research method focuses on patentability (according to the world’s most significant patent law regimes such as China, Singapore, the European Union, and the United States) of AI inventions and machine learning. Questions of the technical nature of the problem to be solved, the inventive step as such, and the question of the state of the art and the associated obviousness of the solution arise in the current patenting processes. Most importantly, and the key focus of this paper is the problem of patenting inventions that themselves are developed through machine learning. The inventor of a patent application must be a natural person or a group of persons according to the current legal situation in most patent law regimes. In order to be considered an 'inventor', a person must actually have developed part of the inventive concept. The mere application of machine learning or an AI algorithm to a particular problem should not be construed as the algorithm that contributes to a part of the inventive concept. However, when machine learning or the AI algorithm has contributed to a part of the inventive concept, there is currently a lack of clarity regarding the ownership of artificially created inventions. Since not only all European patent law regimes but also the Chinese and Singaporean patent law approaches include identical terms, this paper ultimately offers a comparative analysis of the most relevant patent law regimes.

Keywords: algorithms, inventor, genetic breeding models, machine learning, patentability

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592 Assessing the Effects of Sub-Concussive Head Impacts on Clinical Measures of Neurologic Function

Authors: Gianluca Del Rossi


Sub-concussive impacts occur frequently in collision sports such as American tackle football. Sub-concussive level impacts are defined as hits to the head that do not result in the clinical manifestation of concussion injury. Presently, there is limited information known about the short-term effects of repeated sub-concussive blows to the head. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if standard clinical measures could detect acute impairments in neurologic function resulting from the accumulation of sub-concussive impacts throughout a season of high school American tackle football. Simple reaction time using the ruler-drop test, and oculomotor performance using the King-Devick (KD) test, were assessed in 15 athletes prior to the start of the athletic season, then repeated each week of the season, and once following its completion. The mean reaction times and fastest KD scores that were recorded or calculated from each study participant and from each test session were analyzed to assess for change in reaction time and oculomotor performance over the course of the American tackle football season. Analyses of KD data revealed improvements in oculomotor performance from baseline measurements (i.e., decreased time), with most weekly comparisons to baseline being significantly different. Statistical tests performed on the mean reaction times obtained via the ruler-drop test throughout the season revealed statistically significant declines (i.e., increased time) between baseline and weeks 3, 4, 10, and 12 of the athletic season. The inconsistent and contrasting findings between KD data and reaction time demonstrate the need to identify more robust clinical measures to definitively assess if repeated sub-concussive impacts to the head are acutely detrimental to patients.

Keywords: head injury, mTBI and sport, subclinical head trauma, sub-concussive impacts

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591 Factors Contributing to Sports Injuries among Senior High Schools in Ghana

Authors: Mawuli M. Sedegah, Emmanuel O. Sarpong, Ernest Y. Acheampong


Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries. The study explores the risk factors influencing sports injuries and identify those sustained among high schools’ competitions in the Akuapem Municipality. Drawing on literature from sports injuries, 610 student-athletes were used to understand how they sustained various injuries during schools’ sports and games. Using a cross-sectional survey, the study reveals how wounds, knee injury, muscle cramps, and thigh injury are common injuries in the municipality. The physiological factor was rampant, resulting from the number of games played by student-athletes, which significantly influenced sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding injuries among them. Results recorded a low correlation accounting for 9% occurrence of sports injuries in the Akuapem Municipality. Further study can be done in the other districts to have a general approach to remedy some of these sports injuries.

Keywords: common injuries, physiological factors, sports injuries, student-athletes

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590 Bodybuilding, Gender and Age: A Qualitative Exploration of the Perspectives of Older Canadian Females

Authors: Amy Matharu


Existing literature on older athletes in competitive sports is often male-dominated and limited. This study explores how age and gender impact the experiences of older female bodybuilders in Canada using the social theories of deviance and intersectionality. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Canadian female bodybuilders over the age of 45. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analysed. This study was approached from a phenomenological perspective. The participants deviated from their perceived social norms of women their age. They exhibited deviance with their actions, such as prioritising themselves and following extreme dieting practices, and with their aesthetics, such as maintaining a muscular appearance. Participants received both positive and negative reactions from society resulting in both admiration and stigmatisation. These reactions varied based on the environment, audience, and context of the situation. Overall, the intersection of age and gender results in a unique position for older female bodybuilders within society and within the sport.

Keywords: age, bodybuilding, gender, females

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589 The Inherent Flaw in the NBA Playoff Structure

Authors: Larry Turkish


Introduction: The NBA is an example of mediocrity and this will be evident in the following paper. The study examines and evaluates the characteristics of the NBA champions. As divisions and playoff teams increase, there is an increase in the probability that the champion originates from the mediocre category. Since it’s inception in 1947, the league has been mediocre and continues to this day. Why does a professional league allow any team with a less than 50% winning percentage into the playoffs? As long as the finances flow into the league, owners will not change the current algorithm. The objective of this paper is to determine if the regular season has meaning in finding an NBA champion. Statistical Analysis: The data originates from the NBA website. The following variables are part of the statistical analysis: Rank, the rank of a team relative to other teams in the league based on the regular season win-loss record; Winning Percentage of a team based on the regular season; Divisions, the number of divisions within the league and Playoff Teams, the number of playoff teams relative to a particular season. The following statistical applications are applied to the data: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation, Analysis of Variance, Factor and Regression analysis. Conclusion: The results indicate that the divisional structure and number of playoff teams results in a negative effect on the winning percentage of playoff teams. It also prevents teams with higher winning percentages from accessing the playoffs. Recommendations: 1. Teams that have a winning percentage greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean from the regular season will have access to playoffs. (Eliminates mediocre teams.) 2. Eliminate Divisions (Eliminates weaker teams from access to playoffs.) 3. Eliminate Conferences (Eliminates weaker teams from access to the playoffs.) 4. Have a balanced regular season schedule, (Reduces the number of regular season games, creates equilibrium, reduces bias) that will reduce the need for load management.

Keywords: alignment, mediocrity, regression, z-score

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588 The Bully in the Boat: Discovering Co-Destructive Transformative Value in Olympic and Elite Rowers

Authors: Edwina Luck, Rory Mulcahy


This paper explores a distinctive perspective of resources which are integrated to co-destroy transformative value in sport. Combining previously published transformative service research and sports literature with data from twenty in-depth interviews with elite and Olympic rowers, our study uncovers the co-destructive resources of ‘interpersonal misbehavior’ and ‘sport misbehavior’. We also identified transformative value in sport is multi-dimensional, encompassing important benefits that support well-being. This research has important implications for transformative sport service research, recommending the need to embrace a transformative service lens to value, a more holistic understanding of co-destruction, and the need to utilise multi-dimensional frameworks to ensure greater insights into sport and sports services and their impact on sportsperson’s well-being. Gaining this understanding will encourage sport managers, sporting bodies to justify resources that they integrate based upon their impact on co-destruction of value.

Keywords: elite sports, sport misbehavior, transformative sport service research, value co-destruction

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587 Analysis of Barbell Kinematics of Snatch Technique among Women Weightlifters in India

Authors: Manish Kumar Pillai, Madhavi Pathak Pillai, Rajender Lal, Dinesh P. Sharma


India has not yet been able to produce many weightlifters in the past years. Karnam Malleshwari is the only woman to win a medal for India in Olympics. When we try to introspect, there seem to be different reasons. One of the probable cause could be the lack of biomechanical analysis for technique improvements. The analysis of motion in sports has gained prime importance for technical improvement. It helps an athlete to develop a better understanding of his own skills and increasing the rate of technical learning process. Kinematics is concerned with describing and quantifying both the linear and angular position of bodies and their time derivatives. The techniques analysis of barbell movement is very important in weightlifting. But women weightlifting has a shorter history than men’s. Research on women weightlifting based on video analysis is less; there is a lack of scientific evidence based on kinematic analysis of especially on Indian weightlifters at national level are limited. Hence, the present investigation was aimed to analyze the barbell kinematics of women weightlifters in India. The study was delimited to the medal winners of 69-kilogram weight category in the All India Inter-University Competition, age ranging between 18 and 28 years. The variables selected for the mechanical analysis of Barbell kinematics included barbell trajectory, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy, and average power output. The performance was captured during the competition by two DV PC-60 Digital cameras (Panasonic Company, Ltd). Two cameras were placed 6-meters perpendicular to the plane of the motion, 130 cm. above the ground to record/capture the frontal and lateral view of the lifters simultaneously. Video recordings were analyzed by using Dartfish software, and barbell kinematics were analyzed with the information derived with the help of software. The result documented on the basis of the finding of the study clearly states that there are differences in the selected kinematic variables in all three lifters in respect to their technique in five phases during snatch technique using by them.

Keywords: dartfish, digital camera, kinematic, snatch, weightlifting

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586 Impact of 6-Week Brain Endurance Training on Cognitive and Cycling Performance in Highly Trained Individuals

Authors: W. Staiano, S. Marcora


Introduction: It has been proposed that acute negative effect of mental fatigue (MF) could potentially become a training stimulus for the brain (Brain endurance training (BET)) to adapt and improve its ability to attenuate MF states during sport competitions. Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of 6 weeks of BET on cognitive and cycling tests in a group of well-trained subjects. We hypothesised that combination of BET and standard physical training (SPT) would increase cognitive capacity and cycling performance by reducing rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and increase resilience to fatigue more than SPT alone. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial design, 26 well trained participants, after a familiarization session, cycled to exhaustion (TTE) at 80% peak power output (PPO) and, after 90 min rest, at 65% PPO, before and after random allocation to a 6 week BET or active placebo control. Cognitive performance was measured using 30 min of STROOP coloured task performed before cycling performance. During the training, BET group performed a series of cognitive tasks for a total of 30 sessions (5 sessions per week) with duration increasing from 30 to 60 min per session. Placebo engaged in a breathing relaxation training. Both groups were monitored for physical training and were naïve to the purpose of the study. Physiological and perceptual parameters of heart rate, lactate (LA) and RPE were recorded during cycling performances, while subjective workload (NASA TLX scale) was measured during the training. Results: Group (BET vs. Placebo) x Test (Pre-test vs. Post-test) mixed model ANOVA’s revealed significant interaction for performance at 80% PPO (p = .038) or 65% PPO (p = .011). In both tests, groups improved their TTE performance; however, BET group improved significantly more compared to placebo. No significant differences were found for heart rate during the TTE cycling tests. LA did not change significantly at rest in both groups. However, at completion of 65% TTE, it was significantly higher (p = 0.043) in the placebo condition compared to BET. RPE measured at ISO-time in BET was significantly lower (80% PPO, p = 0.041; 65% PPO p= 0.021) compared to placebo. Cognitive results in the STROOP task showed that reaction time in both groups decreased at post-test. However, BET decreased significantly (p = 0.01) more compared to placebo despite no differences accuracy. During training sessions, participants in the BET showed, through NASA TLX questionnaires, constantly significantly higher (p < 0.01) mental demand rates compared to placebo. No significant differences were found for physical demand. Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidences that combining BET and SPT seems to be more effective than SPT alone in increasing cognitive and cycling performance in well trained endurance participants. The cognitive overload produced during the 6-week training of BET can induce a reduction in perception of effort at a specific power, and thus improving cycling performance. Moreover, it provides evidence that including neurocognitive interventions will benefit athletes by increasing their mental resilience, without affecting their physical training load and routine.

Keywords: cognitive training, perception of effort, endurance performance, neuro-performance

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585 Enhancing Grit through Functional Imagery Training: A Holistic Imagery Model

Authors: Jonathan Rhodes


Motor and motivational imagery have received a wide range of attention related to goal achievement. However, there has been little to actively implement interventions over periods lasting longer than six weeks. The purpose of this research is to align long-term goals with immediate action through functional imagery training. A sample of one-hundred and sixty-seven athletes from nine sports competing at elite (N=36), performance (N=95), and talent (N=36) levels of competition were randomly allocated into a control or imagery condition. At baseline, athletes completed the sporting grit scale (passion and perseverance for long-term goals), then received an educational workshop on mental skills or imagery intervention for two sessions and were again tested on their grit after 6 and 12 weeks post baseline. Results show no differences at baseline between groups, but significant differences were observed after 6 weeks for the imagery condition, which was maintained over time. The control group reported no change in scores. In addition, participants in the imagery group subjectively fed back that they perceived imagery enhanced their sporting performance. A formal process based on integrating goal centered motivational interviewing with imagery is presented, and the holistic model of imagery is detailed for practitioners to use as a guide for helping athletes develop character related to resilience, mental toughness, self-control, and developing a determined ruthlessness towards achieving challenging goals.

Keywords: imagery, grit, motivation, sport

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584 Variability of Covariance of Selected Skeletal Diameters of Female in a Longitudinal Physical Training Programme

Authors: Dhananjoy Shaw, Seema Sharma


Anthropometry helps in associating the physical properties of an individual with their racial, cultural, and psychological attributes. Numerous research studies have included different skeletal diameters as a variable. However, most of the studies suggest their inclusion describing specific characteristics/traits of the body. However, there seems to be a scarcity of literature related to the effect of any kind of longitudinal physical training on human skeletal diameters. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study the variability of covariance of selected skeletal diameters of females in a longitudinal physical training programme. The sample for the study was 78 college going students of the University of Delhi, classified equally in three groups, i.e. viz. (a) Progressive load of training or conditioning group coded as PLT; (b) Constant load of training or non-conditioning group coded as CLT; and (c) No-load or control or sedentary group coded as NL. Collectively, mean age of the sample was 19.54±1.79 years. The randomly selected samples were given maximum consideration to maintain their homogeneity. The variables included biacromial diameter, biiliocristal diameter, bitrochantaerion diameter, humeral bicondylar, femoral bicondylar, wrist diameter, ankle diameter, and foot breadth. Multi-group repeated measure design was adopted for the experimentation. Each group was measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration. The measurements were taken following the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of co-variance and its post-hoc analysis were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the selected skeletal diameters of females. It also reflected the increase due to growth also along with training.

Keywords: longitudinal, physical training, skeletal diameters, step progression load

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583 Length Dimension Correlates of Longitudinal Physical Conditioning on Indian Male Youth

Authors: Seema Sharma Kaushik, Dhananjoy Shaw


Various length dimensions of the body have been a variable of interest in the research areas of kinanthropometry. However the inclusion of length measurements in various studies remains restricted to reflect characteristics of a particular game/sport at a particular time. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study various length dimensions correlates of a longitudinal physical conditioning program on Indian male youth. The study was conducted on 90 Indian male youth. The sample was equally divided into three groups namely, progressive load training (PLT), constant load training (CLT) and no load training (NL). The variables included sitting height, leg length, arm length and foot length. The study was conducted by adopting the multi group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration each. The measurements were taken using the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of co-variance were computed to analyze the data statistically. The post-hoc analysis was conducted for the significant F-ratios at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the followed longitudinal physical conditioning program had significant effect on various length dimensions of Indian male youth.

Keywords: Indian male youth, longitudinal, length dimensions, physical conditioning

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582 Impact of Financial and Nutrition Support on Blood Health, Dietary Intake, and Well-Being among Female Student-Athletes

Authors: Kaila A. Vento


Within the field of sports science, financial situations have been reported as a key barrier in purchasing high-quality foods. A lack of proper nutrition leads to insecurities of health, impairs training, and diminishes optimal performances. Consequently, insufficient nutrient intake, disordered eating patterns, and eating disorders may arise, leading to poor health and well-being. Athletic scholarships, nutrition resources, and meal programs are available, yet are disproportionally allocated, favoring male sports, Caucasian athletes, and higher sport levels. Direct athlete finances towards nutrition at various sport levels and the role race influences aid received has yet to be examined. Additionally, a diverse female athlete population is missing in the sports science literature, specifically in nutrition. To address this gap, the current project assesses how financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge impacts physical health, dietary intake, and overall quality of life of a diverse sample of female athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), National Junior Collegiate Athletic Association (NJCAA), and cub sport levels. The project will identify differences in financial support in relation to race, as well. Approximately (N = 120) female athletes will participate in a single 30-minute lab visit. At this visit, body composition (i.e., height, weight, body mass index, and fat percent), blood health indicators (fasted blood glucose and lipids), and resting blood pressure are measured. In addition, three validated questionnaires pertaining to nutrition knowledge (Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire; SNKQ), dietary intake (Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants; REAP), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief; WHOQL-B) are gathered. Body composition and blood health indicators will be compared with the results of self-reported sports nutrition knowledge, dietary intake, and quality of life questionnaires. It is hypothesized that 1) financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge will differ between the sport levels and 2) financial and nutrition support and nutrition knowledge will have a positive association with quality of dietary intake and blood health indicators, 3) financial and nutrition support will differ significantly among racial background across the various competition levels, and 4) dietary intake will influence blood health indicators and quality of life. The findings from this study could have positive implications on athletic associations' policies on equity of financial and nutrition support to improve the health and safety of all female athletes across several sport levels.

Keywords: athlete, equity, finances, health, resources

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581 US Track And Field System: Examining Micro-Level Practices against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and Elite Sport

Authors: Peter Smolianov, Steven Dion, Christopher Schoen, Jaclyn Norberg, Nicholas Stone, Soufiane Rafi


This study assessed the micro-level elements of track and field development in the US against a model for integrating high-performance sport with mass participation. This investigation is important for the country’s international sport performance, which declined relative to other countries and wellbeing, which in its turn deteriorated as over half of the US population became overweight. A questionnaire was designed for the following elements of the model: talent identification and development as well as advanced athlete support. Survey questions were validated by 12 experts, including academics, executives from sport governing bodies, coaches, and administrators. To determine the areas for improvement, the questionnaires were completed by 102 US track and field coaches representing the country’s regions and coaching levels. Possible advancements were further identified through semi-structured discussions with 10 US track and field administrators. The study found that talent search and development is a critically important area for improvement: 49 percent of respondents had overall negative perceptions, and only 16 percent were positive regarding these US track and field practices. Both quantitative survey results and open responses revealed that the key reason for the inadequate athlete development was a shortage of well-educated and properly paid coaches: 77 percent of respondents indicated that coach expertise is never or rarely high across all participant ages and levels. More than 40 percent of the respondents were uncertain of or not familiar with world’s best talent identification and development practices, particularly methods of introducing children to track and field from outside the sport’s participation base. Millions more could be attracted to the sport by adopting best international practices. First, physical education should be offered a minimum three times a week in all school grades, and track and field together with other healthy sports, should be taught at school to all children. Second, multi-sport events, including track and field disciplines, should be organized for everyone within and among all schools, cities and regions. Three, Australian and Eastern European methods of talent search at schools should be utilized and tailored to the US conditions. Four, comprehensive long term athlete development guidelines should be used for the advancement of the American Development Model, particularly track and field tests and guidelines as part of both school education and high-performance athlete development for every age group from six to over 70 years old. These world’s best practices are to improve the country’s international performance while increasing national sport participation and positively influencing public health.

Keywords: high performance, mass participation, sport development, track and field, USA

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580 The Effect of Goal Setting on Psychological Status and Freestyle Swimming Performance in Young Competitive Swimmers

Authors: Sofiene Amara, Mohamed Ali Bahri, Sabri Gaied Chortane


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of personal goal setting on psychological parameters (cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence) and the 50m freestyle performance. 30 young swimmers participated in this investigation, and was divided into three groups, the first group (G1, n = 10, 14 ± 0.7 years old) was prepared for the competition without a fixed target (method 1), the second group (G2, n = 10, 14 ± 0.9 years old) was oriented towards a vague goal 'Do your best' (method 2), while the third group (G3, n = 10, 14 ± 0, 5 years old) was invited to answer a goal that is difficult to reach according to a goal-setting interval (GST) (method 3). According to the statistical data of the present investigation, the cognitive and somatic anxiety scores in G1 and G3 were higher than in G2 (G1-G2, G3-G2: cognitive anxiety, P = 0.000, somatic anxiety: P = 0.000 respectively). On the other hand, the self-confidence score was lower in G1 compared with the other two groups (G1-G2, G3-G2: P = 0.02, P = 0.03 respectively). Our assessment also shows that the 50m freestyle time performance was improved better by method 3 (pre and post-Test: P = 0.006, -2.5sec, 7.83%), than by method 2 (pre and Post-Test: P = 0.03; -1sec; 3.24%), while, performance remained unchanged in G1 (P > 0.05). To conclude, the setting of a difficult goal by GST is more effective to improve the chronometric performance in the 50m freestyle, but at the same time increased the values ​​of the cognitive and somatic anxiety. For this, the mental trainers and the staff technical, invited to develop models of mental preparation associated with this method of setting a goal to help swimmers on the psychological level.

Keywords: cognitive anxiety, goal setting, performance of swimming freestyle, self-confidence, somatic anxiety

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579 Relationship between Deliberate Practice of Dribbling and Self-Regulatory Behavior of Male Basketball Players

Authors: Daud Abdia, Aqsa Shamim, Farhan Tabassum


In order to achieve specific goals, basketball players have to use different skills to enhance their motivation, one such skill is deliberate practice. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between deliberate practice of dribbling and self-regulatory behavior of male basketball players. For this purpose, a sample of 108 basketball players using stratified sampling was taken from public and private sector universities. Sample was divided into two groups that are experimental (n=54) and control group (n=54) using comparative experimental design. Experimental group was involved in the training of deliberate practice of dribbling for 5 weeks. Amounts of weekly practice activity and Self-Regulation of Learning Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS) were used for self-regulatory behavior to collect data after the deliberate practice. The reliability of amounts of weekly practice activity was found to be 0.852, whereas SRL-SRS was found to be 0.890. The results of the study indicated a strong positive correlation between deliberate practice of dribbling and self-regulatory behavior (r=0.755, n=54, p=.000). Whereas, paired sample t-test; t(53)=1.37, p < 0.005 shows statistically significant improvement in the self-regulatory behavior after the training program of deliberate practice from 3.02 ± 0.64m to 3.21 ± 0.75m (p < 0.005). It was concluded that in order to enhance the self-regulatory behavior of basketball players we should work on the deliberate practice of the players.

Keywords: self-regulatory behavior, deliberate practice, dribbling, basketball

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578 Post-Exercise Recovery Tracking Based on Electrocardiography-Derived Features

Authors: Pavel Bulai, Taras Pitlik, Tatsiana Kulahava, Timofei Lipski


The method of Electrocardiography (ECG) interpretation for post-exercise recovery tracking was developed. Metabolic indices (aerobic and anaerobic) were designed using ECG-derived features. This study reports the associations between aerobic and anaerobic indices and classical parameters of the person’s physiological state, including blood biochemistry, glycogen concentration and VO2max changes. During the study 9 participants, healthy, physically active medium trained men and women, which trained 2-4 times per week for at least 9 weeks, fulfilled (i) ECG monitoring using Apple Watch Series 4 (AWS4); (ii) blood biochemical analysis; (iii) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, (iv) bioimpedance analysis (BIA). ECG signals from a single-lead wrist-wearable device were processed with detection of QRS-complex. Aerobic index (AI) was derived as the normalized slope of QR segment. Anaerobic index (ANI) was derived as the normalized slope of SJ segment. Biochemical parameters, glycogen content and VO2max were evaluated eight times within 3-60 hours after training. ECGs were recorded 5 times per day, plus before and after training, cycloergometry and BIA. The negative correlation between AI and blood markers of the muscles functional status including creatine phosphokinase (r=-0.238, p < 0.008), aspartate aminotransferase (r=-0.249, p < 0.004) and uric acid (r = -0.293, p<0.004) were observed. ANI was also correlated with creatine phosphokinase (r= -0.265, p < 0.003), aspartate aminotransferase (r = -0.292, p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (r = -0.190, p < 0.050). So, when the level of muscular enzymes increases during post-exercise fatigue, AI and ANI decrease. During recovery, the level of metabolites is restored, and metabolic indices rising is registered. It can be concluded that AI and ANI adequately reflect the physiology of the muscles during recovery. One of the markers of an athlete’s physiological state is the ratio between testosterone and cortisol (TCR). TCR provides a relative indication of anabolic-catabolic balance and is considered to be more sensitive to training stress than measuring testosterone and cortisol separately. AI shows a strong negative correlation with TCR (r=-0.437, p < 0.001) and correctly represents post-exercise physiology. In order to reveal the relation between the ECG-derived metabolic indices and the state of the cardiorespiratory system, direct measurements of VO2max were carried out at various time points after training sessions. The negative correlation between AI and VO2max (r = -0.342, p < 0.001) was obtained. These data testifying VO2max rising during fatigue are controversial. However, some studies have revealed increased stroke volume after training, that agrees with findings. It is important to note that post-exercise increase in VO2max does not mean an athlete’s readiness for the next training session, because the recovery of the cardiovascular system occurs over a substantially longer period. Negative correlations registered for ANI with glycogen (r = -0.303, p < 0.001), albumin (r = -0.205, p < 0.021) and creatinine (r = -0.268, p < 0.002) reflect the dehydration status of participants after training. Correlations between designed metabolic indices and physiological parameters revealed in this study can be considered as the sufficient evidence to use these indices for assessing the state of person’s aerobic and anaerobic metabolic systems after training during fatigue, recovery and supercompensation.

Keywords: aerobic index, anaerobic index, electrocardiography, supercompensation

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577 Investigating Teaching and Learning to Meet the Needs of Deaf Children in Physical Education

Authors: Matthew Fleet, Savannah Elliott


Background: This study investigates the use of teaching and learning to meet the needs of deaf children in the UK PE curriculum. Research has illustrated that deaf students in mainstream schools do not receive sufficient support from teachers in lessons. This research examines the impact of different types of hearing loss and its implications within Physical Education (PE) in secondary schools. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight challenges PE teachers face and make recommendations for more inclusive learning environments for deaf students. The aims and objectives of this research are: to critically analyse the current situation for deaf students accessing the PE curriculum, by identifying barriers deaf students face; to identify the challenges for PE teachers in providing appropriate support for deaf students; to provide recommendations for deaf awareness training, to enhance PE teachers’ understanding and knowledge. Method: Semi-structured interviews collected data from both PE teachers and deaf students, to examine: the support available and coping mechanisms deaf students use when they do not receive support; strategies PE teachers use to provide support for deaf students; areas for improvement and potential strategies PE teachers can apply to their practice. Results & Conclusion: The findings from the study concluded that PE teachers were inconsistent in providing appropriate support for deaf students in PE lessons. Evidence illustrated that PE teachers had limited exposure to deaf awareness training. This impacted on their ability to support deaf students effectively. Communication was a frequent barrier for deaf students, affecting their ability to retain and learn information. Also, the use of assistive technology was found to be compromised in practical PE lessons.

Keywords: physical education, deaf, inclusion, education

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576 The Role of Satisfaction on Performance among Afe Babalola University Team Sports

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu


Viability and competency during competition is the dream of every team sports so as to have a good result. But it seems factors abound which deter the performance of even a good sports team. Different individuals with different state of mind all come together to perform in team sports with different degree of satisfaction. This study investigated the role of satisfaction on performance among Afe Babalola University team sports. Descriptive survey research design was used and the population consists of all male and female athletes in the team sports that participated in the last 2019 Ekiti State Higher Institution games (ESHIGA). Total enumeration technique was used for the three team sports; football (44), basketball (24) and volleyball (24). A total of 92 participants were involved in the research. The instrument used for the study was a modified Athlete Satisfaction Scale (ASS). The questionnaire was divided into two sections. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.71 was obtained. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significant levels. The completed questionnaire was collated, coded, and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage and inferential statistics of chi-square (X2). Findings of this study revealed that satisfaction significantly influences team sports performance among Athletes of Afe Babalola University. The responsibility of satisfying athlete lies on the coaches, fans, sports administrators as well as organizers of such event, as it is not only financial reward that gives satisfaction. The performance of a team sports is quiet important and its being determined by the degree of satisfaction of each individual that make up the team. All effort must be made to satisfy athlete in order to guarantee optimum performance.

Keywords: athlete satisfaction, optimum achievement, optimum performance, sports performance and team sports

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575 Awareness and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching and Learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education Courses in Nigeria Universities

Authors: Ibrahim Laro ABUBAKAR


The study examined the Availability and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching of Human Kinetics and Health Education courses in Nigerian Universities, specifically, Universities in Kwara State. Two purposes were formulated to guide the study from which two research questions and two hypotheses were raised. The descriptive research design was used in the research. Three Hundred respondents (100 Lecturers and 200 Students) made up the population for the study. There was no sampling, as the population of the study was not much. A structured questionnaire tagged ‘Availability and Utilization of E-Learning Technologies in Teaching and Learning Questionnaire’ (AUETTLQ) was used for data collection. The questionnaire was subjected to face and content validation, and it was equally pilot tested. The validation yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.78. The data collected from the study were statistically analyzed using frequencies and percentage count for personal data of the respondents, mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the independent t-test. One among other findings of this study showed that lecturers and Student are aware of synchronous e-learning technologies in teaching and learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education but often utilize the synchronous e-learning technologies. It was recommended among others that lecturers and Students should be sensitized through seminars and workshops on the need to maximally utilize available e-learning technologies in teaching and learning of Human Kinetics and Health Education courses in Universities.

Keywords: awareness, utilization, E-Learning, technologies, human kinetics synchronous

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574 MOVIDA.polis: Physical Activity mHealth Based Platform

Authors: Rui Fonseca-Pinto, Emanuel Silva, Rui Rijo, Ricardo Martinho, Bruno Carreira


The sedentary lifestyle is associated to the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases (obesity, hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2) and the World Health Organization, given the evidence that physical activity is determinant for individual and collective health, defined the Physical Activity Level (PAL) as a vital signal. Strategies for increasing the practice of physical activity in all age groups have emerged from the various social organizations (municipalities, universities, health organizations, companies, social groups) by increasingly developing innovative strategies to promote motivation strategies and conditions to the practice of physical activity. The adaptation of cities to the new paradigms of sustainable mobility has provided the adaptation of urban training circles and mobilized citizens to combat sedentarism. This adaptation has accompanied the technological evolution and makes possible the use of mobile technology to monitor outdoor training programs and also, through the network connection (IoT), use the training data to make personalized recommendations. This work presents a physical activity counseling platform to be used in the physical maintenance circuits of urban centers, the MOVIDA.polis. The platform consists of a back office for the management of circuits and training stations, and for a mobile application for monitoring the user performance during workouts. Using a QRcode, each training station is recognized by the App and based on the individual performance records (effort perception, heart rate variation) artificial intelligence algorithms are used to make a new personalized recommendation. The results presented in this work were obtained during the proof of concept phase, which was carried out in the PolisLeiria training circuit in the city of Leiria (Portugal). It was possible to verify the increase in adherence to the practice of physical activity, as well as to decrease the interval between training days. Moreover, the AI-based recommendation acts as a partner in the training and an additional challenging factor. The platform is ready to be used by other municipalities in order to reduce the levels of sedentarism and approach the weekly goal of 150 minutes of moderate physical activity. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia FCT- Portugal and CENTRO2020 under the scope of MOVIDA project: 02/SAICT/2016 – 23878.

Keywords: physical activity, mHealth, urban training circuits, health promotion

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573 A Comparative Study of Cardio Respiratory Efficiency between Aquatic and Track and Field Performers

Authors: Sumanta Daw, Gopal Chandra Saha


The present study was conducted to explore the basic pulmonary functions which may generally vary according to the bio-physical characteristics including age, height, body weight, and environment etc. of the sports performers. Regular and specific training exercises also change the characteristics of an athlete’s prowess and produce a positive effect on the physiological functioning, mostly upon cardio-pulmonary efficiency and thereby improving the body mechanism. The objective of the present study was to compare the differences in cardio-respiratory functions between aquatics and track and field performers. As cardio-respiratory functions are influenced by pulse rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), so both of the factors were also taken into consideration. The component selected under cardio-respiratory functions for the present study were i) FEVI/FVC ratio (forced expiratory volume divided by forced vital capacity ratio, i.e. the number represents the percentage of lung capacity to exhale in one second) ii) FVC1 (this is the amount of air which can force out of lungs in one second) and iii) FVC (forced vital capacity is the greatest total amount of air forcefully breathe out after breathing in as deeply as possible). All the three selected components of the cardio-respiratory efficiency were measured by spirometry method. Pulse rate was determined manually. The radial artery which is located on the thumb side of our wrist was used to assess the pulse rate. Blood pressure was assessed by sphygmomanometer. All the data were taken in the resting condition. 36subjects were selected for the present study out of which 18were water polo players and rest were sprinters. The age group of the subjects was considered between 18 to 23 years. In this study the obtained data inform of digital score were treated statistically to get result and draw conclusions. The Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) were used as descriptive statistics and the significant difference between the two subject groups was assessed with the help of statistical ‘t’-test. It was found from the study that all the three components i.e. FEVI/FVC ratio (p-value 0.0148 < 0.01), FVC1 (p-value 0.0010 < 0.01) and FVC (p-value 0.0067 < 0.01) differ significantly as water polo players proved to be better in terms of cardio-respiratory functions than sprinters. Thus study clearly suggests that the exercise training as well as the medium of practice arena associated with water polo players has played an important role to determine better cardio respiratory efficiency than track and field athletes. The outcome of the present study revealed that the lung function in land-based activities may not provide much impact than that of in water activities.

Keywords: cardio-respiratory efficiency, spirometry, water polo players, sprinters

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572 Comparative Effect of Self-Myofascial Release as a Warm-Up Exercise on Functional Fitness of Young Adults

Authors: Gopal Chandra Saha, Sumanta Daw


Warm-up is an essential component for optimizing performance in various sports before a physical fitness training session. This study investigated the immediate comparative effect of Self-Myofascial Release through vibration rolling (VR), non-vibration rolling (NVR), and static stretching as a part of a warm-up treatment on the functional fitness of young adults. Functional fitness is a classification of training that prepares the body for real-life movements and activities. For the present study 20male physical education students were selected as subjects. The age of the subjects was ranged from 20-25 years. The functional fitness variables undertaken in the present study were flexibility, muscle strength, agility, static and dynamic balance of the lower extremity. Each of the three warm-up protocol was administered on consecutive days, i.e. 24 hr time gap and all tests were administered in the morning. The mean and SD were used as descriptive statistics. The significance of statistical differences among the groups was measured by applying ‘F’-test, and to find out the exact location of difference, Post Hoc Test (Least Significant Difference) was applied. It was found from the study that only flexibility showed significant difference among three types of warm-up exercise. The observed result depicted that VR has more impact on myofascial release in flexibility in comparison with NVR and stretching as a part of warm-up exercise as ‘p’ value was less than 0.05. In the present study, within the three means of warm-up exercises, vibration roller showed better mean difference in terms of NVR, and static stretching exercise on functional fitness of young physical education practitioners, although the results were found insignificant in case of muscle strength, agility, static and dynamic balance of the lower extremity. These findings suggest that sports professionals and coaches may take VR into account for designing more efficient and effective pre-performance routine for long term to improve exercise performances. VR has high potential to interpret into an on-field practical application means.

Keywords: self-myofascial release, functional fitness, foam roller, physical education

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571 Single-Camera Basketball Tracker through Pose and Semantic Feature Fusion

Authors: Adrià Arbués-Sangüesa, Coloma Ballester, Gloria Haro


Tracking sports players is a widely challenging scenario, specially in single-feed videos recorded in tight courts, where cluttering and occlusions cannot be avoided. This paper presents an analysis of several geometric and semantic visual features to detect and track basketball players. An ablation study is carried out and then used to remark that a robust tracker can be built with Deep Learning features, without the need of extracting contextual ones, such as proximity or color similarity, nor applying camera stabilization techniques. The presented tracker consists of: (1) a detection step, which uses a pretrained deep learning model to estimate the players pose, followed by (2) a tracking step, which leverages pose and semantic information from the output of a convolutional layer in a VGG network. Its performance is analyzed in terms of MOTA over a basketball dataset with more than 10k instances.

Keywords: basketball, deep learning, feature extraction, single-camera, tracking

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570 Athlete’s Preparation and Quality of Opponent as Determinants of Self-Efficacy among University Athletes in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Raimi Abiodun Moronfolu, Anthonia Olusola Moronfolu


The purpose of this study was to assess athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent as determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in south-west Nigeria. The descriptive research method was employed in conducting the study. A total of 200 athletes, selected from 4 universities in South-West geopolitical zone of Nigeria through a stratified random sampling technique, were used in the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire named ‘Athletes Self-Efficacy Assessment Questionnaire (ASAQ)’. This was developed by the researchers and face validated by three experts in sports psychology. The test-retest method was used in establishing the reliability of the instrument (r=0.79). A total of 200 copies of the validated ASAQ were administered on selected respondents using the spot method. The data collected was used to develop a frequency distribution table for analysis. The descriptive statistics of percentage was used in presenting the data collected, while inferential statistics of linear regression was used in drawing inferences at a 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicated that athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent were significant determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in South-West Nigeria.

Keywords: athletes, preparation, opponent, self-efficacy

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569 Concussion History, Career Status and Cumulative Years of Football Exposure Influence Concussion Assessment Performance in Elite Football Players

Authors: Brittani Cookinham, Mark Weber, Chad Swank, Ann Medley, Kelli Brizzolara


Objective: The objective is to explore the relationship between concussion history, career status, and years of contact football exposure on total symptoms, symptom severity, neurocognitive function, and balance in elite football players. Background: Sport-related concussions have an incidence of 1.6-3.8 billion per year in the United States and 61% of retired football players report sustaining a concussion during their professional career. However, the influence of concussion history, career status, and cumulative years played on total symptoms, symptom severity, neurocognitive function, and balance is largely unexplored. Methods: Elite football players (n=102; age M = 27.75 ± 6.95 years) without a concussion (> 30 days) underwent Sport Concussion Assessment Tool – 3rd edition (SCAT-3) assessments. Players were placed into a low (0–1) or multiple concussion (2+) history group and categorized by career status (draft prospects, active professional players and retired professional players). Data were analyzed using negative binomial regression and multiple linear regression analyses. Results: 58.8% of players reported symptoms. Most common symptoms were fatigue (33.3%), trouble falling asleep (31.4%), difficulty remembering (29.4%), and difficulty concentrating (20.6%). Multiple concussions group reported 3.07 times greater total symptoms (p < .001), 3.58 times higher symptom severity (p < .001), and lower Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) scores (1.42 points) (p=.033) compared to low concussion group. Professionals reported 1.88 times greater total symptoms (p=.038) and 2.35 times higher symptom severity (p=.001) compared to draft prospects. Retired players reported 7.07 times greater total symptoms (p < .001), 8.97 times higher symptom severity (p < .001), lower SAC scores (1.98 points) (p = .025), and 3.67 more balance errors (p = .002), compared to draft prospects. Players with 11-19 years football exposure reported 3.83 times higher symptom severity (p = .001) compared to players with < 11 years of football exposure. Players with > 19 years football exposure had 6.87 times higher symptom severity (p < .001) than players with <11 years of football exposure. Conclusions: Retired players with multiple concussions and 19+ years of contact football exposure are likely to have more symptoms, higher symptom severity, and lower neurocognitive scores.

Keywords: concussion, football, mild traumatic brain injury, sports medicine

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568 Use of a Symptom Scale Based on Degree of Functional Impairment for Acute Concussion

Authors: Matthew T. McCarthy, Sarah Janse, Natalie M. Pizzimenti, Anthony K. Savino, Brian Crosser, Sean C. Rose


Concussion is diagnosed clinically using a comprehensive history and exam, supported by ancillary testing. Frequently, symptom checklists are used as part of the evaluation of concussion. Existing symptom scales are based on a subjective Likert scale, without relation of symptoms to clinical or functional impairment. This is a retrospective review of 133 patients under age 30 seen in an outpatient neurology practice within 30 days of a probable or definite concussion. Each patient completed 2 symptom checklists at the initial visit – the SCAT-3 symptom evaluation (22 symptoms, 0-6 scale) and a scale based on the degree of clinical impairment for each symptom (22 symptoms, 0-3 scale related to functional impact of the symptom). Final clearance date was determined by the treating physician. 60.9% of patients were male with mean age 15.7 years (SD 2.3). Mean time from concussion to first visit was 6.9 days (SD 6.2), and 101 patients had definite concussions (75.9%), while 32 were diagnosed as probable (24.1%). 94 patients had a known clearance date (70.7%) with mean clearance time of 20.6 days (SD 18.6) and median clearance time of 19 days (95% CI 16-21). Mean total symptom score was 27.2 (SD 22.9) on the SCAT-3 and 14.7 (SD 11.9) for the functional impairment scale. Pearson’s correlation between the two scales was 0.98 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient and injury characteristics, an equivalent increase in score on each scale was associated with longer time to clearance (SCAT-3 hazard ratio 0.885, 95%CI 0.835-0.938, p < 0.001; functional impairment scale hazard ratio 0.851, 95%CI 0.802-0.902, p < 0.001). A concussion symptom scale based on degree of functional impairment correlates strongly with the SCAT-3 scale and demonstrates a similar association with time to clearance. By assessing the degree of impact on clinical functioning, this symptom scale reflects a more intuitive approach to rating symptoms and can be used in the management of concussion.

Keywords: checklist, concussion, neurology, scale, sports, symptoms

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567 Sport and Psychological Need Satisfaction: A Cross Sectional Study Applied to Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

Authors: Isabel Stolz, Vera Tillmann, Volker Anneken


The relationship between sport participation and psychological need satisfaction was examined by an analysis of interest and involvement in the sport of 937 children and adolescents with disabilities and their self-perceived need satisfaction. The Children’s intrinsic need-satisfaction Scale (CINSS) has been used to measure sport-related need satisfaction in this cross-sectional study. CINSS scores for the dimensions competence, autonomy and relatedness of the study’s participants were generally located in higher score levels. Significant relations between interest and involvement in sport and higher levels of psychological need satisfaction were found in the questioned children and adolescents. Examining the results of each need, the competence-dimension displayed a particular relevance for an increased sport-related lifestyle. The further results showed a negative correlation between children’s need satisfaction and a lack of confidence of participating in sport. A negative correlation was also found between children’s need satisfaction and experiencing difficulties in making contact with others. Despite the general interest in sport and the wish to participate in another sporting activity, the participation of the questioned children and adolescents in organized sport is comparatively low and decreases with age. Participation in sport seems to be beneficial to children and adolescents with disabilities’ psychological need satisfaction. This research highlights the positive impact of sport on psychological need satisfaction of children and adolescents with disabilities and emphasizes the demand for greater participation in organized sport for children and adolescents with disabilities.

Keywords: children and adolescents, health, physical activity, sport

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