Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 754

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Sport and Health Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

754 Scoping Review of Biological Age Measurement Composed of Biomarkers

Authors: Diego Alejandro Espíndola-Fernández, Ana María Posada-Cano, Dagnóvar Aristizábal-Ocampo, Jaime Alberto Gallo-Villegas


Background: With the increase in life expectancy, aging has been subject of frequent research, and therefore multiple strategies have been proposed to quantify the advance of the years based on the known physiology of human senescence. For several decades, attempts have been made to characterize these changes through the concept of biological age, which aims to integrate, in a measure of time, structural or functional variation through biomarkers in comparison with simple chronological age. The objective of this scoping review is to deepen the updated concept of measuring biological age composed of biomarkers in the general population and to summarize recent evidence to identify gaps and priorities for future research. Methods: A scoping review was conducted according to the five-phase methodology developed by Arksey and O'Malley through a search of five bibliographic databases to February 2021. Original articles were included with no time or language limit that described the biological age composed of at least two biomarkers in those over 18 years of age. Results: 674 articles were identified, of which 105 were evaluated for eligibility and 65 were included with information on the measurement of biological age composed of biomarkers. Articles from 1974 of 15 nationalities were found, most observational studies, in which clinical or paraclinical biomarkers were used, and 11 different methods described for the calculation of the composite biological age were informed. The outcomes reported were the relationship with the same measured biomarkers, specified risk factors, comorbidities, physical or cognitive functionality, and mortality. Conclusions: The concept of biological age composed of biomarkers has evolved since the 1970s and multiple methods of its quantification have been described through the combination of different clinical and paraclinical variables from observational studies. Future research should consider the population characteristics, and the choice of biomarkers against the proposed outcomes to improve the understanding of aging variables to direct effective strategies for a proper approach.

Keywords: biological age, biological aging, aging, senescence, biomarker

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753 Designing and Using a 3-D Printed Dynamic Upper Extremity Orthosis (DUEO) with Children with Cerebral Palsy and Severe Upper Extremity Involvement

Authors: Justin Lee, Siraj Shaikh, Alice Chu MD


Children with cerebral palsy (CP) commonly present with upper extremity impairment, affecting one or both extremities, and are classified using the Manual Ability Classification Scale (MACS). The MACS defines bimanual hand abilities for children ages 4-18 years in everyday tasks and is a gradient scale, with I being nearly normal and V requiring total assistance. Children with more severe upper extremity impairment (MACS III-V) are often underrepresented, and relatively few effective therapies have been identified for these patients. Current orthoses are static and are only meant to prevent the progression of contractures in these patients. Other limitations include cost, comfort, accessibility, and longevity of the orthoses. Taking advantage of advances in 3D printing technology, we have created a highly customizable upper extremity orthotic that can be produced at a low cost. Iterations in our design have resulted in an orthotic that is custom fit to the patient based on scans of their arm, made of rigid polymer when needed to provide support, flexible material where appropriate to allow for comfort, and designed with a mechanical pulley system to allow for some functional use of the arm while in the orthotic. Preliminary data has shown that our orthotic can be built at a fraction of the cost of current orthoses and provide clinically significant improvement in assisting hand assessment (AHA) and pediatric quality of life scores (PedsQL).

Keywords: upper extremity orthosis, upper extremity, orthosis, 3-D printing, cerebral palsy, occupational therapy, spasticity, customizable

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752 Experience Marketing and Behavioral Intentions: An Exploratory Study Applied to Middle-Aged and Senior Pickleball Participated in Taiwan

Authors: Yi Yau, Chia-Huei Hsiao


The elderly society is already a problem of globalization, and Taiwan will enter a super-aged society in 2025. Therefore, how to improve the health of the elderly and reduce the government's social burden is an important issue at present. Exercise is the best medical care, and it is also a healthy activity for people to live a healthy life. Facing the super-aged society in the future, it is necessary to attract them to participate in sports voluntarily through sports promotion so that they can live healthy and independent lives and continue to participate in society to enhance the well-being of the elderly. Experiential marketing and sports participation are closely related. In the past, it was mainly aimed at consumer behavior at the commercial level. At present, there are not many study objects focusing on participant behavior and middle-aged and elderly people. Therefore, this study takes the news emerged sport-Pickleball that has been loved by silver-haired people in recent years as the research sport. It uses questionnaire surveys and intentional sampling methods. The purpose of the group is to understand the middle-aged and elderly people’s experience and behavior patterns of Pickleball, explore the relationship between experiential marketing and participants' intentional behaviors, and predict which aspects of experiential marketing will affect their intentional behaviors. The findings showed that experience marketing is highly positively correlated with behavioral intentions, and experience marketing has a positive predictive power for behavioral intentions. Among them, "ACT" and "SENSE" are predictive variables that effectively predict behavioral intentions. This study proves the feasibility of pickleball for middle-aged and senior sports. It is recommended that in the future curriculum planning, try to simplify the exercise steps, increase the chances of contact with the sphere, and enhance the sensory experience to enhance the sense of success during exercise, and then generate exercise motivation, and ultimately change the exercise mode or habits and promote health.

Keywords: newly emerged sports, middle age and elderly, health promotion, ACT, SENSE

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751 Impact Location From Instrumented Mouthguard Kinematic Data In Rugby

Authors: Jazim Sohail, Filipe Teixeira-Dias


Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) within non-helmeted contact sports is a growing concern due to the serious risk of potential injury. Extensive research is being conducted looking into head kinematics in non-helmeted contact sports utilizing instrumented mouthguards that allow researchers to record accelerations and velocities of the head during and after an impact. This does not, however, allow the location of the impact on the head, and its magnitude and orientation, to be determined. This research proposes and validates two methods to quantify impact locations from instrumented mouthguard kinematic data, one using rigid body dynamics, the other utilizing machine learning. The rigid body dynamics technique focuses on establishing and matching moments from Euler’s and torque equations in order to find the impact location on the head. The methodology is validated with impact data collected from a lab test with the dummy head fitted with an instrumented mouthguard. Additionally, a Hybrid III Dummy head finite element model was utilized to create synthetic kinematic data sets for impacts from varying locations to validate the impact location algorithm. The algorithm calculates accurate impact locations; however, it will require preprocessing of live data, which is currently being done by cross-referencing data timestamps to video footage. The machine learning technique focuses on eliminating the preprocessing aspect by establishing trends within time-series signals from instrumented mouthguards to determine the impact location on the head. An unsupervised learning technique is used to cluster together impacts within similar regions from an entire time-series signal. The kinematic signals established from mouthguards are converted to the frequency domain before using a clustering algorithm to cluster together similar signals within a time series that may span the length of a game. Impacts are clustered within predetermined location bins. The same Hybrid III Dummy finite element model is used to create impacts that closely replicate on-field impacts in order to create synthetic time-series datasets consisting of impacts in varying locations. These time-series data sets are used to validate the machine learning technique. The rigid body dynamics technique provides a good method to establish accurate impact location of impact signals that have already been labeled as true impacts and filtered out of the entire time series. However, the machine learning technique provides a method that can be implemented with long time series signal data but will provide impact location within predetermined regions on the head. Additionally, the machine learning technique can be used to eliminate false impacts captured by sensors saving additional time for data scientists using instrumented mouthguard kinematic data as validating true impacts with video footage would not be required.

Keywords: head impacts, impact location, instrumented mouthguard, machine learning, mTBI

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750 Left Ventricular Adaptations of Elite Volleyball Players Based on the Playing Position

Authors: Shihab Aldin Al Riyami, Khosrow Ebrahim, Sajad Ahmadizad


Hemodynamic changes and ventricular loading during exercise lead to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. In athletes, volume load induces enlargement of the LV internal diameter and a proportional increase of wall thickness; while, pressure load would induce thickening of the ventricular wall. These adaptations are not similar in all athletes and are related to the types of sport. Volleyball players have different types of activity and roles based on their playing. Therefore, their physiological adaptations and requirements are different. The aim of the current study was to investigate the LV adaptationsinelite volleyball players based on their playing position. Sixty male elite volleyball players (age, 30.55±3.64 years)from Brazil, Serbia, Poland, Iran, Colombia, Cameroon, Japan, Egypt, Qatar, and Tunisia were investigated (from all five volleyball play positions). All participants had the experience of at least 3 years of participation at a professional level and international tournaments. LV characteristics were evaluated and measured using the echocardiography technique. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences (P<0.05)among the five groups of players forLV internal dimension (LVID), posterior wall thickness (PWT), and intact ventricular septum (IVS). Post-hoc analysis showed that opposite position players had significant higher value of LVID, PWT, and IVS when compared with other players, including outside hitter, middle blocker, setter, and libero (p<0.05). Additionally, in libero players, PWT was significantly lower when compared with other players (p<0.05). Based on the findings of the present study, it is concluded that LV adaptations in volleyball players are related to their playing position and that the opposite players had the highest LV adaptations when compared to other positions.

Keywords: athletes, cardiac adaptations, echocardio graphy, heart, sport

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749 An Electromyographic Study of Muscle Coordination during Dynamic Glenohumeral Joint Elevation

Authors: Omid Khaiyat, David Hawkes


Introduction: There remains a lack of information on sophisticated coordination patterns across shoulder girdle muscles. Considering the stability of the shoulder being heavily dependent on coordinated muscle activity during its wide-ranging movements, it is important that key intermuscular relationships are well-defined for a better understanding of underlying pathology. This study investigated shoulder intermuscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Materials and Methods: EMG was recorded from 14 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy participants during shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction, and extension. Cross-correlation by means of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) was used to examine the coordination between different muscles and muscle groups. Results: Coordination between rotator cuff and deltoid muscle groups was significantly higher (p =0.020-0.035) during the initial (PCC) = 0.79) and final (PCC = 0.74) phases of elevation compared to the mid-range (PCC = 0.34). Furthermore, a high level of coordination (PCC = 0.89) was noted between the deltoid group and the adductor group (latissimus dorsi and teres major) during the initial stage of shoulder elevation. Conclusion: The destabilising force of the deltoid during the initial stage of shoulder elevation is balanced by coordinated activity of rotator cuff, latissimus dorsi, and teres major. This is also the case for the end-range of movement, where increased demand for stability again leads to higher coordination between the deltoid and rotator cuff muscle groups. Appreciation of the sophistication of normal shoulder function evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for conditions such as subacromial impingement syndrome or shoulder instability can be developed.

Keywords: shoulder, coordination, EMG, muscle activity, upper limb

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748 Sport Facilities and Social Change: European Funds as an Opportunity for Urban Regeneration

Authors: Lorenzo Maiorino, Fabio Fortuna, Giovanni Panebianco, Marco Sanzari, Gabriella Arcese, Valerio Maria Paolozzi


It is well known that sport is a factor of social cohesion and the breaking down of barriers between people. From this point of view, the aim is to demonstrate how, through the (re)generation of sustainable structures, it is possible to give life to a new social, cultural, and economic pathway, where possible, in peripheral areas with problems of abandonment and degradation. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to study realities such as European programs and funds and to highlight the ways in which planning can be used to respond to critical issues such as urban decay, abandonment, and the mitigation of social differences. For this reason, the analysis will be carried out through the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) package, the Next Generation EU, the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), the Cohesion Fund, the European Social Fund, and other managed funds. The procedure will rely on sources and data of unquestionable origin, and the relation to the object of study in question will be highlighted. The project lends itself to be ambitious and exploring a further aspect of the sports theme, which, as we know, is one of the foundations for a healthy society.

Keywords: sport, social inclusion, urban regeneration, sports facilities, European funds

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747 Social Media Use and Exercise Behaviors

Authors: Justin M. Swanson, Anna Nelson, Daniel Handysides, Patti Herring, Christopher Hill


Not only may social media use have a psychological impact, but increased use may be tied to decreases in physical activity and influencing sedentary behaviors. Social media can be used to share physically active lifestyles and possibly influence others to participate. In contrast, social media use may have adverse effects by decreasing participation in exercise. This study used a qualitative design to examine the relationship between social media use and exercise patterns. Participants were asked questions about their social media habits and how it might impact their physical activity behaviors. Self-reported exercise seemed to increase after viewing others engage in relatable activities or viewing someone that has overcame challenges. To increase the likelihood of engaging in exercise, exercise related posts should be low in difficulty, require few materials, or displayed progress from the individual posting.

Keywords: social media, exercise, physical activity, adults

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746 Discriminant Analysis of Pacing Behavior on Mass Start Speed Skating

Authors: Feng Li, Qian Peng


The mass start speed skating (MSSS) is a new event for the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics and will be an official race for the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics. Considering that the event rankings were based on points gained on laps, it is worthwhile to investigate the pacing behavior on each lap that directly influences the ranking of the race. The aim of this study was to detect the pacing behavior and performance on MSSS regarding skaters’ level (SL), competition stage (semi-final/final) (CS) and gender (G). All the men's and women's races in the World Cup and World Championships were analyzed in the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 seasons. As a result, a total of 601 skaters from 36 games were observed. ANOVA for repeated measures was applied to compare the pacing behavior on each lap, and the three-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to identify the influence of SL, CS, and G on pacing behavior and total time spent. In general, the results showed that the pacing behavior from fast to slow were cluster 1—laps 4, 8, 12, 15, 16, cluster 2—laps 5, 9, 13, 14, cluster 3—laps 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, and cluster 4—laps 1 and 2 (p=0.000). For CS, the total time spent in the final was less than the semi-final (p=0.000). For SL, top-level skaters spent less total time than the middle-level and low-level (p≤0.002), while there was no significant difference between the middle-level and low-level (p=0.214). For G, the men’s skaters spent less total time than women on all laps (p≤0.048). This study could help to coach staff better understand the pacing behavior regarding SL, CS, and G, further providing references concerning promoting the pacing strategy and decision making before and during the race.

Keywords: performance analysis, pacing strategy, winning strategy, winter Olympics

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745 Characteristics of Handgrip (Kumi-Kata) Profile of Georgian Elite Judo Athletes

Authors: Belkadi Adel, Beboucha Wahib, Cherara lalia


Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of Kumi-kata in elite judokas and characterize the kinematic and temporal parameters of different types of handgrip (HG). Method: fourteen participated in this study male athlete (23.5±2.61 years; 1.81±0.37 0 m; 87.25±22.75 kg), members of the Georgian Judo team. To characterize the dominance and types of kumi-kata used, videos of international competitions from each athlete were analyzed, and to characterize kinematic and temporal parameters and handgrip, and the volunteers pressed a digital dynamometer with each hand for 30 seconds(s) after a visual signal. Results: The values of 0.26±0.69s and 0.31±0.03s for reaction time were obtained, respectively, in the full grip and pinch grip; 19.62±18.83N/cm/s and 6.17±3.48N/cm/s for the rate of force development; 475,21 ± 101,322N and 494,65±112,73 for the FDR; 1,37 ± 0,521s and 1,45 ± 0,824s for the time between the force onset to the TFP; and 41,27±4,54N/cm/s and 45,16 ± 5,64N/cm/s for the fall index, in the dominant hand. There was no significant difference between hands for any variable, except for the dominance of Kumi-kata (p<0.05) used in combat. Conclusion: The dominance of application of the Kumi-kata is a technical option, as it does not depend on the kinetic-temporal parameters of the handgrip.

Keywords: hand grip, judo, athletes, Kumi-Kata

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744 The Role of Physical Education and Fitness for Active Ageing

Authors: A. Lakshya


The main aim of this paper is to interpret physical education for children from 5 to 18 years. Schools have the ability to promote positive mental health by developing physical education, which helps to build individual growth, goal setting, decision making, helps in muscular development, self-discipline, stresses relief, leadership qualities that can arise with new skills, prosocial behavior and problem-solving skills. But mostly the children at these early ages ought to hold the disorders as heart attack, diabetes and obesity disorders may increase in large number. The data of P.E has got a very least place, where children are with feeble minds and they acquired a state of inactiveness. Globally, 81% of adolescents aged 11-18 years were insufficiently physically active in the year 2016. Adolescent girls were less active than boys, with the percentage of 85% vs. 78% as well. A recent study of California schools found that students are sedentary most of the time during PE classes, with just four minutes of every half-hour spent in vigorous physical activity. Additionally, active PE time decreases with larger class sizes. Students in classes with more than forty-five students are half as active as students in smaller class sizes. The children in adolescence age they acquire more creative ideas hence they create new hairstyles, cooking styles and dressing styles. Instead, all the children are engaging themselves to TV (television) and video games. The development of physical quality not only improves students ’ physical fitness but is also conducive to the psychological development of the students. Physical education teaching should pay more attention to the training of physical quality in the future.

Keywords: physical education, prosocial behavior, leadership, goal setting

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743 Empathy in the Work of Physiotherapists in Slovakia

Authors: Vladimir Littva, Peter Kutis


Based on common practice, we know that an empathic approach to a patient is one of the characteristics of a physiotherapist. Although empathy is regarded as an essential condition of the psychotherapeutic relationship, it has taken quite a while for attention to be paid to it in clinical practice. Patients who are experiencing a sense of understanding from health care providers are more willing to cooperate, and treatment within the optimistic attunes a more comfortable framework of care. Age, experience, family, education and the working environment may have an impact on the degree of empathy for paramedics. Within the KEGA project no. 003KU-4-2021, we decided to investigate the level of empathy in the work of physiotherapists in Slovakia. Research sample and Methods: The sample comprised 194 respondents – physiotherapists working on the territory of Slovakia. 112 were men and 82 women. The age of respondents was between 21 and 64 years of age. 133 were married, 51 were single and ten were divorced. 98 were living in the countryside and 96 in towns. Twenty-two grew up without siblings, 95 with one sibling and 77 with two and more siblings. In the survey, we used the Empathy Assessment Questionnaire (EAQ) with 18 questions with four possible answers: strongly disagree, disagree, agree; and strongly agree, which we validated linguistically and psychometrically. All data were statistically processed by SPSS 25. Results: We evaluated the intrinsic reliability of the questionnaire EAQ using Cronbach's Alpha and the coefficient is 0.756 in the whole set. This means that the questionnaire is a quite strong and reliable measurement tool. The mean for individual questions ranged from 2.39 to 3.74 (maximum was 4). In Pearson's correlations, we confirmed the significant differences between the groups regarding sex in 8 questions out of 18, regarding age in 5 questions, regarding family status in 4 questions and regarding siblings in 4 questions out of 18 at the level 5% (p <0.05). Conclusion: The results obtained during the research show the importance of adequate communication with the patient due to his health and well-being. Empathy in the physiotherapists’ profession is very important. It would be worthwhile if the students of physiotherapy would receive a course during their study that would deal exclusively with empathy, empathic approach, burnout, or psycho-emotional hygiene.

Keywords: empathy, approach, clinical practice, physiotherapists

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742 Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Movement Variability Performing a Resistance Exercise with Different Ballasts and Rhythms

Authors: Sílvia tuyà Viñas, Bruno Fernández-Valdés, Carla Pérez-Chirinos, Monica Morral-Yepes, Lucas del Campo Montoliu, Gerard Moras Feliu


Some researchers stated that whole body vibration (WBV) generates postural destabilization, although there is no extensive research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze movement variability when performing a half-squat with a different type of ballasts and rhythms with (V) and without (NV) WBV in male athletes using entropy. Twelve experienced in strength training males (age: 21.24  2.35 years, height: 176.83  5.80 cm, body mass: 70.63  8.58 kg) performed a half-squat with weighted vest (WV), dumbbells (D), and a bar with the weights suspended with elastic bands (B), in V and NV at 40 bpm and 60 bpm. Subjects performed one set of twelve repetitions of each situation, composed by the combination of the three factors. The movement variability was analyzed by calculating the Sample Entropy (SampEn) of the total acceleration signal recorded at the waist. In V, significant differences were found between D and WV (p<0.001; ES: 2.87 at 40 bpm; p<0.001; ES: 3.17 at 60 bpm) and between the B and WV at both rhythms (p<0.001; ES: 3.12 at 40 bpm; p<0.001; ES: 2.93 at 60 bpm) and a higher SampEn was obtained at 40 bpm with all ballasts (p<0.001; ES of WV: 1.22; ES of D: 4.49; ES of B: 4.03). No significant differences were found in NV. WBV is a disturbing and destabilizing stimulus. Strength and conditioning coaches should choose the combination of ballast and rhythm of execution according to the level and objectives of each athlete.

Keywords: accelerometry, destabilization, entropy, movement variability, resistance training

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741 Quo Vadis, European Football: An Analysis of the Impact of Over-The-Top Services in the Sports Rights Market

Authors: Farangiz Davranbekova


Subject: The study explores the impact of Over-the-Top services in the sports rights market, focusing on football games. This impact is analysed in the big five European football markets. The research entails how the pay-TV market is combating the disruptors' entry, how the fans are adjusting to these changes and how leagues and football clubs are orienting in the transitional period of more choice. Aims and methods: The research aims to offer a general overview of the impact of OTT players in the football rights market. A theoretical framework of Jenkins’ five layers of convergence is implemented to analyse the transition the sports rights market is witnessing from various angles. The empirical analysis consists of secondary research data as and seven expert interviews from three different clusters. The findings are bound by the combination of the two methods offering general statements. Findings: The combined secondary data as well as expert interviews, conducted on five layers of convergence found: 1. Technological convergence presents that football content is accessible through various devices with innovative digital features, unlike the traditional TV set box. 2. Social convergence demonstrates that football fans multitask using various devices on social media when watching the games. These activities are complementary to traditional TV viewing. 3. Cultural convergence points that football fans have a new layer of fan engagement with leagues, clubs and other fans using social media. Additionally, production and consumption lines are blurred. 4. Economic convergence finds that content distribution is diversifying and/or eroding. Consumers now have more choices, albeit this can be harmful to them. Entry barriers are decreased, and bigger clubs feel more powerful. 5. Global convergence shows that football fans are engaging with not only local fans but with fans around the world that social media sites enable. Recommendation: A study on smaller markets such as Belgium or the Netherlands would benefit the study on the impact of OTT. Additionally, examination of other sports will shed light on this matter. Lastly, once the direct-to-consumer model is fully taken off in Europe, it will be of importance to examine the impact of such transformation in the market.

Keywords: sports rights, OTT, pay TV, football

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740 Validity of a Timing System in the Alpine Ski Field: A Magnet-Based Timing System Using the Magnetometer Built into an IMU

Authors: Carla Pérez-Chirinos Buxadé, Bruno Fernández-Valdés, Mónica Morral-Yepes, Sílvia Tuyà Viñas, Josep Maria Padullés Riu, Gerard Moras Feliu


There is a long way to explore all the possible applications inertial measurement units (IMUs) have in the sport field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a new application on the use of these wearable sensors. Specifically, it was to evaluate a magnet-based timing system (M-BTS) for timing gate-to-gate in an alpine ski slalom using the magnetometer embedded in an IMU. This was a validation study. The criterion validity of time measured by the M-BTS was assessed using the 95% error-range against actual time obtained from photocells. The experiment was carried out with first-and second-year junior skiers performing a ski slalom on a ski training slope. Eight alpine skiers (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 176.4 ± 4.9 cm, 67.7 ± 2.0 kg, 128.8 ± 26.6 slalom FIS-Points) participated in the study. An IMU device was attached to the skier’s lower back. Skiers performed a 40-gate slalom from which four gates were assessed. The M-BTS consisted of placing four bar magnets buried into the snow surface, on the inner side of each gate’s turning pole; the magnetometer built into the IMU detected the peak-shaped magnetic field when passing near the magnets at a certain speed. Four magnetic peaks were detected. The time compressed between peaks was calculated. Three inter-gate times were obtained for each system: photocells and M-BTS. The total time was defined as the time sum of the inter-gate times. The 95% error intervals for the total time was 0.050 s for the ski slalom. The M-BTS is valid for timing gate-to-gate in an alpine ski slalom. Inter-gate times can provide additional data for analyzing skier’s performance, such as asymmetries between left and right foot.

Keywords: gate crossing time, inertial measurement unit, timing system, wearable sensor

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739 Impact of Preoperative Physiotherapy Care in Total Hip Arthroplasty in Slovakia and Austria

Authors: Peter Kutis, Vladimir Littva


Nowadays, it is necessary to ensure that this reduction in costs is not at the expense of the quality of health care and future medical success. In general, physiotherapy for total hip joint arthroplasty is considered to be a routine matter that deals mainly with mobility training, increased muscular strength, and basic day-to-day activities such as bed-to-chair transition, standing, and walking. Within the KEGA project no. 003KU-4-2021, we decided to investigate preoperative physiotherapy care in Slovakia and Austria in total hip arthroplasty patients to shortened overall recovery. Research Sample and Methods: The sample comprised 498 respondents –patients who were indicated to total hip arthroplasty on the territory of Slovakia and Austria. There were 130 women in Slovakia and 135 women in Austria. The numbers of men were 120 in Slovakia and 113 men in Austria. The age of respondents was between 40 and 85 years of age. As a method of our research, we chose a non-standardized questionnaire, which consisted of three parts. The first part for the initial examination of the patient contained the identification of the patient according to the assigned number and subsequently 19 questions conditioned by the physical examination and evaluation of the patients. The second part of our questionnaire was completed after the patient's hospitalization and contained 10 questions that were conditioned by the patient's examination. The last third part for the overall assessment of the patient's state of health consisted of 12 questions conditioned by the patient's examination. This part was performed at the last meeting with the patient at the end of the treatment. All data were statistically processed by SPSS 25. Results: All data were evaluated at a significance level of p = 0.05. From the comparison of patients who underwent preoperative preparation, we can clearly state that the total duration of treatment is significantly shorter. A t-test of two mean values with uneven variance was used to verify the validity of the assumption. The total duration of treatment in patients with preoperative preparation was on average 92,635 days and without preoperative preparation was on average 135,884 days (t-Stat = 44,52784, t Critical one-tail = 1,648187415, t Critical two-tail = 1,965157). Conclusion: The results obtained during the research show the importance of adequate preoperative physiotherapeutic preparation of the patient. The results of total hip joint arthroplasty studies showed a significant reduction in a hospital stay as well as shortened total treatment time.

Keywords: THA, physiotherapy, recovery, preoperative physiotherapy care

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738 Using Swarm Intelligence to Forecast Outcomes of English Premier League Matches

Authors: Hans Schumann, Colin Domnauer, Louis Rosenberg


In this study, machine learning techniques were deployed on real-time human swarm data to forecast the likelihood of outcomes for English Premier League matches in the 2020/21 season. These techniques included ensemble models in combination with neural networks and were tested against an industry standard of Vegas Oddsmakers. Predictions made from the collective intelligence of human swarm participants managed to achieve a positive return on investment over a full season on matches, empirically proving the usefulness of a new artificial intelligence valuing human instinct and intelligence.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, data science, English Premier League, human swarming, machine learning, sports betting, swarm intelligence

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737 A Finite Element Study of Laminitis in Horses

Authors: Naeim Akbari Shahkhosravi, Reza Kakavand, Helen M. S. Davies, Amin Komeili


Equine locomotion and performance are significantly affected by hoof health. One of the most critical diseases of the hoof is laminitis, which can lead to horse lameness in a severe condition. This disease exhibits the mechanical properties degradation of the laminar junction tissue within the hoof. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the biomechanics of the hoof, focusing specifically on excessive and cumulatively accumulated stresses within the laminar junction tissue. For this aim, the current study generated a novel equine hoof Finite Element (FE) model under dynamic physiological loading conditions and employing a hyperelastic material model. Associated tissues of the equine hoof were segmented from computed tomography scans of an equine forelimb, including the navicular bone, third phalanx, sole, frog, laminar junction, digital cushion, and medial- dorsal- lateral wall areas. The inner tissues were connected based on the hoof anatomy, and the hoof was under a dynamic loading over cyclic strides at the trot. The strain distribution on the hoof wall of the model was compared with the published in vivo strain measurements to validate the model. Then the validated model was used to study the development of laminitis. The ultimate stress tolerated by the laminar junction before rupture was considered as a stress threshold. The tissue damage was simulated through iterative reduction of the tissue’s mechanical properties in the presence of excessive maximum principal stresses. The findings of this investigation revealed how damage initiates from the medial and lateral sides of the tissue and propagates through the hoof dorsal area.

Keywords: horse hoof, laminitis, finite element model, continuous damage

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736 Effect of Different Muscle Contraction Mode on the Expression of Myostatin, IGF-1, and PGC-1 Alpha Family Members in Human Vastus Lateralis Muscle

Authors: Pejman Taghibeikzadehbadr


Muscle contraction stimulates a transient change of myogenic factors, partly related to the mode of contractions. Here, we assessed the response of Insulin-like growth factor 1Ea (IGF-1Ea), Insulin-like growth factor 1Eb (IGF-1Eb), Insulin-like growth factor 1Ec (IGF-1Ec), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α-1), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 4-alpha (PGC1α-4), and myostatin to the eccentric Vs the concentric contraction in human skeletal muscle. Ten healthy males were performed an acute eccentric and concentric exercise bout (n = 5 per group). For each contraction type, participants performed 12 sets of 10 repetitions knee extension by the dominant leg. Baseline and post-exercise muscle biopsy were taken 4 weeks before and immediately after experimental sessions from Vastus Lateralis muscle. Genes expression was measured by real-time PCR technique. There was a significant increase in PGC1α-1, PGC1α-4, IGF-1Ea and, IGF-1Eb mRNA after concentric contraction (p ≤ 0.05), while the PGC1α-4 and IGF-1Ec significantly increased after eccentric contraction (p ≤ 0.05). It is intriguing to highlight that; no significant differences between groups were evident for changes in any variables following exercise bouts (p ≥ 0.05). Our results found that concentric and eccentric contractions presented different responses in PGC1α-1, IGF-1Ea, IGF-1Eb, and IGF-1Ec mRNA. However, a similar significant increase in mRNA content was observed in PGC1α-4. Further, no apparent differences could be found between the response of genes to eccentric and concentric contraction.

Keywords: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, gene expression, PGC-1 alpha, IGF-1 Myostatin

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735 The Relationship between Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Primary School Learners from a Pre-Dominantly Rural Province in South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe, Philemon Lyoka, Chioneso Show Marange, Dennyford Mafa


There is arguably a lack of literature regarding body physical fitness and body composition amongst primary school learners in South Africa. For this reason, the study is aimed at investigating and accessing how body composition relates to physical fitness amongst primary school learners in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In order to achieve this, a school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out among 876 primary school learners aged 9 to 14 years. Body composition indicators were measured and/or calculated, whilst physical fitness was evaluated according to the EUROFIT fitness standards by a 20 m shuttle run, push-ups, sit and reach as well as sit-ups. Out of 876 participants, a total of 870 were retained. Of these, 351 (40.34%) were boys, and 519 (59.66%) were girls. The average age of learners was 11.04 ± 1.50 years, with boys having a significantly (p = 0.002) higher mean age (M = 11.24; SD = 1.51 years) as compared to that of girls (M = 10.91; SD = 1.48 years). The non-parametric Spearman Rho correlation coefficients revealed several significant and negative relationships between body composition measurements with physical fitness characteristics, which were stronger in girls than in boys. The findings advocate for policymakers and responsible authorities to initiate the development of policies and interventions targeted at encouraging physical activity and health promotion among primary school learners in South Africa, especially in girls.

Keywords: BMI, body composition, body fat, children, physical fitness, primary school

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734 The Patterns and Levels of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Primary School Learners in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Howard Gomwe, Eunice Seekoe, Philemon Lyoka, Chioneso Show Marange, Dennyford Mafa


Background: This study was designed to assess PA levels and sedentary behavior among primary school learners in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was adopted to assess the patterns and levels of PA and sedentary behavior using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results: Using complete case analysis, 870 randomly selected participants (boys = 351 and girls = 519) aged 9 to 14 years were retained. The sample comprised of primary school learners, both boys and girls; aged 9-14 years old, who were randomly selected from rural, urban and peri-urban areas in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Overly, the sample had a mean PAQ-C score of 2.33 ± 0.43. The mean of PA in boys was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in comparison with the girls. The 13 to 14 age group had a significantly higher PA level (p = 0.014). Learners from urban areas (n = 136; 77.3%) engaged more in sedentary behaviour as compared to those from rural areas (n = 252; 54.9%). Conclusion: The findings demonstrated low levels of PA and high engagement of sedentary behavior, which have negative implications on the health, growth and development of children. The study, therefore, recommends relevant stakeholders to implement interventions aimed to promote the increase in PA and reduction in sedentary behaviors for primary school learners in the Eastern Cape province in South Africa.

Keywords: learners, physical activity, sedentary behavior, south Africa

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733 The Knowledge and Attitude of Doping among Junior Athletes and Coaches in Sri Lanka

Authors: Mahadula I. P. Kumari, Kasturiratne A., De Silva AP


Doping refers to an athlete's use of banned substances as a method to improve training and performance in sports. It is known that some young athletes use banned substances in Sri Lanka without knowing their side effects and associated health risks. The main objective of this study was to describe the level of knowledge and attitude among junior athletes and coaches on doping in sports. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Four individual sports and six team sports were taken into the study. Schools were selected considering the results of the all-island school sports competitions 2017. Two hundred sixty-two female athletes, 290 male athletes and 30 coaches representing all sports counted into this study. The data collection method was a self-administered questionnaire and SPSS Version 21 was used for the data analysis. According to the result, 79% of athletes have heard of the term "doping," and 21% have never heard of it. This means these children have not been educated on doping. A number of questions were asked to study the level of knowledge of the coaches and players. Those who answered the questions correctly were given a mark. According to the marks, it is evident that the level of knowledge of the players and coaches is very low. All athletes and coaches do not accept the use of banned substances. This shows that athletes and coaches have a good attitude about winning without cheating. It was evident that athletes in athletics, weightlifting, rugby, and badminton had some level of knowledge about banned substances. All coaches stated that school athletes and coaches do not have sufficient knowledge of banned substances. And they should be made aware of it. This study has revealed that school/Junior athletes and coaches have limited knowledge of banned substances. School children and coaches need to be educated about banned substances and their harmful effects.

Keywords: attitude, doping, knowledge, Sri Lanka

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732 The Association Between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Health-related Quality of Life, Life-space Mobility and Successful Aging in Older Indian Adults

Authors: Jeanne Grace, Jacqueline Naiker


Background: Longevity is increasing, accompanied by a rise in disability and chronic diseases with physical activity (PA) delaying disability, ensuring successful aging (SA) and independent living in older adults. Aim: This study aimed to determine objectively measured PA levels, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), life-space mobility, and successful aging (SA) of older adults in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, as well as their mutual associations. Methods: A total of 210 older adults aged 65–92 years were purposively sampled and completed the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the Life-Space Mobility, and Successful Aging questionnaires. PA levels were measured using an Omron Pedometer, which the participants wore for seven consecutive days. Results: The average number of steps taken per day for the seven days was 2025, with 98.6% of the entire study population classified as sedentary. The Vitality domain (one of 8 categorized) reflected the best health status (M = 59.9, SD ± 18.8), with a significant 93% of the participants indicating that they had not visited places outside their immediate neighborhood (P < 0.0005). A significant, negative association between the average number of steps taken in 7 days and all three SA variables – namely, the physical (r = –0.152, P = 0.027), sociological (r = –0.148, P = 0.032) and psychological (r = –0.176, P = 0.010), and a significant, positive association with life-space mobility (r = 0.224, P = 0.001) was noted. Conclusion: The majority of the elderly were sedentary, affecting their HRQoL, life-space mobility, and SA negatively.

Keywords: active life expectancy, geriatrics, nursing homes, well-being

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731 Chest Pain as a Predictor for Heart Issues in Geriatrics

Authors: Leila Kargar, Homa Abri, Golsa Safai


The occurrence of chest pain among geriatrics could be considered as a predictor of heart issues. There is a need for attention to this pain among this population. This review paper has tried to collect the recent data with attention to the chest pain among geriatrics. This review paper has focused on specific keywords, including chest pain, heart issues, and geriatrics, among published papers from 2015 till 2020. To collect data for this purpose, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and PubMed were used. After inserting related papers to the Endnote, an independent researcher checked the abstract, and papers with unclear methods or non-English language were excluded. Finally, 7-papers were included in this review paper. The findings of those papers showed that chest pain could be a predictor for heart issues, and also, there is a direct relationship between chest pain and heart issues among geriatrics. So, early detection and an accurate decision could be helpful to prevent heart issues in this population.

Keywords: pain, heart issue, geriatrics, health

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730 Management of Femoral Neck Stress Fractures at a Specialist Centre and Predictive Factors to Return to Activity Time: An Audit

Authors: Charlotte K. Lee, Henrique R. N. Aguiar, Ralph Smith, James Baldock, Sam Botchey


Background: Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSF) are uncommon, making up 1 to 7.2% of stress fractures in healthy subjects. FNSFs are prevalent in young women, military recruits, endurance athletes, and individuals with energy deficiency syndrome or female athlete triad. Presentation is often non-specific and is often misdiagnosed following the initial examination. There is limited research addressing the return–to–activity time after FNSF. Previous studies have demonstrated prognostic time predictions based on various imaging techniques. Here, (1) OxSport clinic FNSF practice standards are retrospectively reviewed, (2) FNSF cohort demographics are examined, (3) Regression models were used to predict return–to–activity prognosis and consequently determine bone stress risk factors. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of FNSF attending Oxsport clinic between 01/06/2020 and 01/01/2020 were selected from the Rheumatology Assessment Database Innovation in Oxford (RhADiOn) and OxSport Stress Fracture Database (n = 14). (1) Clinical practice was audited against five criteria based on local and National Institute for Health Care Excellence guidance, with a 100% standard. (2) Demographics of the FNSF cohort were examined with Student’s T-Test. (3) Lastly, linear regression and Random Forest regression models were used on this patient cohort to predict return–to–activity time. Consequently, an analysis of feature importance was conducted after fitting each model. Results: OxSport clinical practice met standard (100%) in 3/5 criteria. The criteria not met were patient waiting times and documentation of all bone stress risk factors. Importantly, analysis of patient demographics showed that of the population with complete bone stress risk factor assessments, 53% were positive for modifiable bone stress risk factors. Lastly, linear regression analysis was utilized to identify demographic factors that predicted return–to–activity time [R2 = 79.172%; average error 0.226]. This analysis identified four key variables that predicted return-to-activity time: vitamin D level, total hip DEXA T value, femoral neck DEXA T value, and history of an eating disorder/disordered eating. Furthermore, random forest regression models were employed for this task [R2 = 97.805%; average error 0.024]. Analysis of the importance of each feature again identified a set of 4 variables, 3 of which matched with the linear regression analysis (vitamin D level, total hip DEXA T value, and femoral neck DEXA T value) and the fourth: age. Conclusion: OxSport clinical practice could be improved by more comprehensively evaluating bone stress risk factors. The importance of this evaluation is demonstrated by the population found positive for these risk factors. Using this cohort, potential bone stress risk factors that significantly impacted return-to-activity prognosis were predicted using regression models.

Keywords: eating disorder, bone stress risk factor, femoral neck stress fracture, vitamin D

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729 Variation In Gastrocnemius and Hamstring Muscle Activity During Peak Knee Flexor Torque After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Hamstring Graft

Authors: Luna Sequier, Florian Forelli, Maude Traulle, Amaury Vandebrouck, Pascal Duffiet, Louis Ratte, Jean Mazeas


The study's objective is to compare the muscular activity of the flexor knee muscle in patients who underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring autograft and the individuals who have not undergone surgery. Methods: The participants were divided into two groups: a healthy group and an experimental group who had undergone an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft. All participants had to perform a knee flexion strength test on an isokinetic dynamometer. The medial Gastrocnemius, lateral Gastrocnemius, Biceps femoris, and medial Hamstring muscle activity were measured during this test. Each group’s mean muscle activity was tested with statistical analysis, and a muscle activity ratio of gastrocnemius and hamstring muscles was calculated Results: The results showed a significant difference in activity of the medial gastrocnemius (p = 0,004901), the biceps femoris (p = 5,394.10-6), and the semitendinosus muscles (p = 1,822.10-6), with a higher Biceps femoris and Semitendinosus activity for the experimental group. It is however noticeable that inter-subject differences were important. Conclusion: This study has shown a difference in the gastrocnemius and hamstring muscle activity between patients who underwent an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery and healthy participants. With further results, this could show a modification of muscle activity patterns after surgery which could lead to compensatory behaviors at a return to sport and eventually explain a higher injury risk for our patients.

Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament, electromyography, muscle activity, physiotherapy

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728 Personality Traits and Physical Activity among Staff Personnel of University of Southern Mindanao

Authors: Cheeze Janito, Crisly Dawang


It is important to determine the personality traits that exist in the workplace and the contribution of these personality traits in the staff’s daily work routines; a sedentary lifestyle is harmful to one’s health. This study reports the personality traits of the University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Philippines, non-teaching staff, the physical activity involvement of the non-teaching staff, and the big five personality traits that shape the relationship of university non-teaching staff in engaging physical activities. A quantitative method approach, which comprised a three-part questionnaire, was used to collect the data. The fifty non-teaching staff complete the survey. The results revealed that among the big five personality traits, the university non-teaching staff scored higher in agreeableness as revealed, that there was a commonality among the respondents’ traits of consideration to the feelings of the co-workers in observance to not being rude and vividly display of respect to co-workers and workplace and scored least in the personality trait of neuroticism. The study also reported that the university non-teaching staff's main physical activity was house chores as a prime physical exercise in which respondents reported a physical activity frequency of once to twice a week; thus, this study reported that the respondents are less engaged in doing physical activities. Further, the relationship of personality traits and the physical activity of the non-teaching staff gained a p-value of .596 that indicates there is no significant relationship between the two variables, the personality trait and physical activities. This study recommends the tight promotion of staff in engaging in physical activity of at least one hundred fifty minutes of moderate-intensity activity each week. Added to this, the use of different platforms containing physical exercise literacy and the benefits of physical exercise for the holistic development of the university community.

Keywords: university staff, physical fitness, personality traits, physical activity

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727 A Comparative Study of Primary Revenue Sources in the U.S. Professional Sports, Intercollegiate Sports, and Sporting Goods Industry

Authors: Chenghao Ma


This paper mainly examines and compares the primary revenue sources in the professional sports, intercollegiate sports, and sporting goods industries in the U.S. In the professional team sport, revenues may come from different resources, including broadcasting rights, ticket sales, corporate partnerships, naming rights, licensed merchandise, luxury suites, club seating, ancillary activities, and transfer fees. Many universities use university budgets and student fees to cover the cost of collegiate athletics. Other sources of revenue include ticket sales, broadcast rights, concessions, corporate partnerships, cash contributions from alumni, and others. Revenues in the sporting goods industry are very different compared with professional sports teams and collegiate athletics. Sporting goods companies mainly sell a line of products and equipment to generate revenue. Revenues are critical for sports organizations, including professional sports teams, intercollegiate athletics, and sporting goods companies. There are similarities and differences among these areas. Sports managers are looking for new ways to generate revenues, and there are many changes of sources because of the development of the internet and technology. Compared with intercollegiate athletics, professional sport and sporting goods companies will create more revenue opportunities globally.

Keywords: revenue sources, professional sports, intercollegiate athletics, sporting goods industry

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726 The Effect of Head Posture on the Kinematics of the Spine During Lifting and Lowering Tasks

Authors: Mehdi Nematimoez


Head posture is paramount to retaining gaze and balance in many activities; its control is thus important in many activities. However, little information is available about the effects of head movement restriction on other spine segment kinematics and movement patterns during lifting and lowering tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of head movement restriction on relative angles and their derivatives using the stepwise segmentation approach during lifting and lowering tasks. Ten healthy men lifted and lowered a box using two styles (stoop and squat), with two loads (i.e., 10 and 20% of body weight); they performed these tasks with two instructed head postures (1. Flexing the neck to keep contact between chin and chest over the task cycle; 2. No instruction, free head posture). The spine was divided into five segments, tracked by six cluster markers (C7, T3, T6, T9, T12, and L5). Relative angles between spine segments and their derivatives (first and second) were analyzed by a stepwise segmentation approach to consider the effect of each segment on the whole spine. Accordingly, head posture significantly affected the derivatives of the relative angles and manifested latency in spine segments movement, i.e., cephalad-to-caudad or caudad-to-cephalad patterns. The relative angles for C7-T3 and T3-T6 increased over the cycle of all lifting and lowering tasks; nevertheless, in lower segments increased significantly when the spine moved into upright standing. However, these effects were clearer during lifting than lowering. Conclusively, the neck flexion can unevenly increase the flexion angles of spine segments from cervical to lumbar over lifting and lowering tasks; furthermore, stepwise segmentation reveals potential for assessing the segmental contribution in spine ROM and movement patterns.

Keywords: head movement restriction, spine kinematics, lifting, lowering, stepwise segmentation

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725 Removing Maturational Influences from Female Youth Swimming: The Application of Corrective Adjustment Procedures

Authors: Clorinda Hogan, Shaun Abbott, Mark Halaki, Marcela Torres Catiglioni, Goshi Yamauchi, Lachlan Mitchell, James Salter, Michael Romann, Stephen Cobley


Introduction: Common annual age-group competition structures unintentionally introduce participation inequalities, performance (dis)advantages and selection biases due to the effect of maturational variation between youth swimmers. On this basis, there are implications for improving performance evaluation strategies. Therefore the aim was to: (1) To determine maturity timing distributions in female youth swimming; (2) quantify the relationship between maturation status and 100-m FC performance; (3) apply Maturational-based Corrective Adjustment Procedures (Mat-CAPs) for removal of maturational status performance influences. Methods: (1) Cross-sectional analysis of 663 female (10-15 years) swimmers who underwent assessment of anthropometrics (mass, height and sitting height) and estimations of maturity timing and offset. (2) 100-m front-crawl performance (seconds) was assessed at Australian regional, state, and national-level competitions between 2016-2020. To determine the relationship between maturation status and 100-m front-crawl performance, MO was plotted against 100-m FC performance time. The expected maturity status - performance relationship for females aged 10-15 years of age was obtained through a quadratic function (y = ax2 + bx + c) from unstandardized coefficients. The regression equation was subsequently used for Mat-CAPs. (3) Participants aged 10-13 years were categorised into maturity-offset categories. Maturity offset distributions for Raw (‘All’, ‘Top 50%’ & ‘Top 25%’) and Correctively Adjusted swim times were examined. Chi-square, Cramer’s V and ORs determined the occurrence of maturation biases for each age group and selection level. Results—: (1) Maturity timing distributions illustrated overrepresentation of ‘normative’ maturing swimmers (11.82 ± 0.40 years), with a descriptive shift toward the early maturing relative to the normative population. (2) A curvilinear relationship between maturity-offset and swim performance was identified (R2 = 0.53, P < 0.001) and subsequently utilised for Mat-CAPs. (3) Raw maturity offset categories identified partial maturation status skewing towards biologically older swimmers at 10/11 and 12 years, with effect magnitudes increasing in the ‘Top 50%’ and ‘25%’ of performance times. Following Mat-CAPs application, maturity offset biases were removed in similar age groups and selection levels. When adjusting performance times for maturity offset, Mat-CAPs was successful in mitigating against maturational biases until approximately 1-year post Peak Height Velocity. The overrepresentation of ‘normative’ maturing female swimmers contrasted with the substantial overrepresentation of ‘early’ maturing male swimmers found previously in 100-m front-crawl. These findings suggest early maturational timing is not advantageous in females, but findings associated with Aim 2, highlight how advanced maturational status remained beneficial to performance. Observed differences between female and male maturational biases may relate to the differential impact of physiological development during pubertal years. Females experience greater increases of fat mass and potentially differing changes in body shape which can negatively affect swim performance. Conclusions: Transient maturation status-based participation and performance advantages were apparent within a large sample of Australian female youth 100-m FC swimmers. By removing maturity status performance biases within female youth swimming, Mat-CAPs could help improve participation experiences and the accuracy of identifying genuinely skilled female youth swimmers.

Keywords: athlete development, long-term sport participation, performance evaluation, talent identification, youth competition

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