Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40390

Search results for: longitudinal study

40390 Modelling Consistency and Change of Social Attitudes in 7 Years of Longitudinal Data

Authors: Paul Campbell, Nicholas Biddle


There is a complex, endogenous relationship between individual circumstances, attitudes, and behaviour. This study uses longitudinal panel data to assess changes in social and political attitudes over a 7-year period. Attitudes are captured with the question 'what is the most important issue facing Australia today', collected at multiple time points in a longitudinal survey of 2200 Australians. Consistency of attitudes, and factors predicting change over time, are assessed. The consistency of responses has methodological implications for data collection, specifically how often such questions ought to be asked of a population. When change in attitude is observed, this study assesses the extent to which individual demographic characteristics, personality traits, and broader societal events predict change.

Keywords: attitudes, longitudinal survey analysis, personality, social values

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
40389 Behavior Fatigue Life of Wind Turbine Rotor with Longitudinal Crack Growth

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Tchina, H. Kebir


This study concerned the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine rotor. Before all, we have studied the loads applied to the rotor, which allows the knowledge their effect on the fatigue. We also studied the movement of the longitudinal cracked rotor in order to determine stress, strain and displacement. Moreover, to study the issues of cracks in the critical zone ABAQUS software is used, which based to the finite element to give the results. In the first we compared the first six modes shapes between cracking and uncracking of HAWT rotor. In the second part, we show the evolution of six first naturals frequencies with longitudinal crack propagation. Finally, we conclude that the residual change in the naturals frequencies can be used as in shaft crack diagnosis predictive maintenance.

Keywords: wind turbine rotor, natural frequencies, longitudinal crack growth, life time

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
40388 Food Insecurity and Quality of Life among the Poor Elderly in South Korea

Authors: Jayoung Cho


Poverty has become a social problem in South Korea, given that seven out of ten elderly experience multidimensional poverty. As quality of life is a major social welfare measure of a society, verifying the major factors affecting the quality of life among the elderly in poverty can be used as baseline data for the promotion of welfare. This study aims to investigate the longitudinal relationships between food insecurity and quality of life among the elderly in poverty. In this study, panel regression analysis using 5-year longitudinal panel data were derived from Korea Welfare Panel Study (KWPS, 2011-2015) were used to identify the research question. A total of 1,327 elderly people aged 65 or older with less than 60% of median income was analyzed. The main results of the study are as follows; first, the level of quality of life of the poor elderly was on average of 5, and repeated the increase and decrease over time. Second, food insecurity and quality of life of the elderly in poverty had a longitudinal causal relationship. Furthermore, the statistical significance of food insecurity was the highest despite controlling for major variables affecting the quality of life among the poor elderly. Therefore, political and practical approaches are strongly suggested and considered regarding the food insecurity for the quality of life among the elderly in poverty. In practical intervention, it is necessary to pay attention to food insecurity when assessing the poor elderly. Also, there is a need to build a new delivery system that incorporates segmented health and nutrition-related services. This study has an academic significance in that it brought out the issue of food insecurity of the poor elderly and confirmed the longitudinal relationship between food insecurity and quality of life.

Keywords: food insecurity, longitudinal panel analysis, poor elderly, quality of life

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40387 Length Dimension Correlates of Longitudinal Physical Conditioning on Indian Male Youth

Authors: Seema Sharma Kaushik, Dhananjoy Shaw


Various length dimensions of the body have been a variable of interest in the research areas of kinanthropometry. However the inclusion of length measurements in various studies remains restricted to reflect characteristics of a particular game/sport at a particular time. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study various length dimensions correlates of a longitudinal physical conditioning program on Indian male youth. The study was conducted on 90 Indian male youth. The sample was equally divided into three groups namely, progressive load training (PLT), constant load training (CLT) and no load training (NL). The variables included sitting height, leg length, arm length and foot length. The study was conducted by adopting the multi group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration each. The measurements were taken using the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of co-variance were computed to analyze the data statistically. The post-hoc analysis was conducted for the significant F-ratios at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the followed longitudinal physical conditioning program had significant effect on various length dimensions of Indian male youth.

Keywords: Indian male youth, longitudinal, length dimensions, physical conditioning

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40386 Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Longitudinal Seismic Response of Tunnels under Asynchronous Earthquake

Authors: Peng Li, Er-xiang Song


Numerical analysis of longitudinal tunnel seismic response due to spatial variation of earthquake ground motion is an important issue that cannot be ignored in the design and safety evaluation of tunnel structures. In this paper, numerical methods for analysis of tunnel longitudinal response under asynchronous seismic wave is extensively studied, including the improvement of the 1D time-domain finite element method, three dimensional numerical simulation technique for the site asynchronous earthquake response as well as the 3-D soil-tunnel structure interaction analysis. The study outcome will be beneficial to aid further research on the nonlinear meticulous numerical analysis and seismic response mechanism of tunnel structures under asynchronous earthquake motion.

Keywords: asynchronous input, longitudinal seismic response, tunnel structure, numerical simulation, traveling wave effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
40385 Investigation of Changes of Physical Properties of the Poplar Wood in Radial and Longitudinal Axis at Chaaloos Zone

Authors: Afshin Veisi


In this study, the physical properties of wood in poplar wood (Populous sp.) were analyzed in longitudinal and radial directions of the stem. Three Populous Alba tree were cut in chaloos zone and from each tree, 3 discs were selected at 130cm, half of tree and under of crown. The test samples from pith to bark (heartwood to sapwood) were prepared from these discs for measuring the involved properties such as, wet, dry and critical specific gravity, porosity, volume shrinkage and swelling based on the ASTM standard, and data in two radial and longitudinal directions in the trank were statistically analyzed. Such as, variations of wet, dry and critical specific gravity had in radial direction respectively: irregular increase, increase and increase, and in longitudinal direction respectively: irregular decrease, irregular increase and increase. Results of variations to moisture content and porosity show that in radial direction respectively: irregular increasing and decreasing, and in longitudinal direction from down to up respectively: irregular decreasing and stability. Volume shrinkage and swelling variations show in radial direction irregular and in longitudinal axial regular decreasing.

Keywords: poplar wood, physical properties, shrinkage, swelling, critical specific gravity, wet specific gravity, dry specific gravity

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40384 Exposure to Bullying and General Psychopathology: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

Authors: Jolien Rijlaarsdam, Charlotte A. M. Cecil, J. Marieke Buil, Pol A. C. Van Lier, Edward D. Barker


Although there is mounting evidence that the experience of being bullied associates with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms, it is not known yet whether the identified associations are specific to these symptoms or shared between them. The primary focus of this study is to assess the prospective associations of bullying exposure with both general and specific (i.e., internalizing, externalizing) factors of psychopathology. This study included data from 6,210 children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Child bullying was measured by self-report at ages 8 and 10 years. Child psychopathology symptoms were assessed by parent-interview, using the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA) at ages 7 and 13 years. Bullying exposure is significantly associated with the general psychopathology factor in early adolescence. In particular, chronically victimized youth exposed to multiple forms of bullying (i.e., both overt and relational) showed the highest levels of general psychopathology. Bullying exposure is also associated with both internalizing and externalizing factors from the correlated-factors model. However, the effect estimates for these factors decreased considerably in size and dropped to insignificant for the internalizing factor after extracting the shared variance that belongs to the general factor of psychopathology. In an integrative longitudinal model, higher levels of general psychopathology at age seven are associated with bullying exposure at age eight, which, in turn, is associated with general psychopathology at age 13 through its two-year continuity. Findings suggest that exposure to bullying is a risk factor for a more general vulnerability to psychopathology through mutually influencing relationships.

Keywords: bullying exposure, externalizing, general psychopathology, internalizing, longitudinal

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40383 Behavioral Study Circumferential and Longitudinal Cracks in a Steel Pipeline X65 and Repair Patch

Authors: Sadok Aboubakr


The mechanical behavior of cracks from several manufacturing defect in an oil pipeline, is characterized by the fact that defects'm taking several forms: circumferential, longitudinal and inclined crack that evolve over time. Increased lifetime of the constructions and in particular cylindrical tubes under internal pressure requires knowledge improving these defects during loading. From this study we simulated various forms of cracking and also their pipeline repair patch.

Keywords: stress intensity factor, pressure, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Shear modulus, Longueur du pipeline, the angle of crack, crack length

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
40382 The Child Attachment Interview: A Psychometric Longitudinal Validation Study in a German Sample

Authors: Jorn Meyer, Stefan Sturmer


The assessment of attachment patterns in toddlers and adults has been well researched, and valid diagnostic methods (e.g., Strange Situation Test, Adult Attachment Interview) are applicable. For middle and late childhood, on the other hand, there are only few validated methods available so far. For the Child Attachment Interview (CAI) promising validation studies from English-speaking countries are available, but so far a comprehensive study on the validity of a German sample is lacking. Within the scope of a longitudinal project, the results of the first point of measurement are reported in this study. A German-language version of the CAI was carried out with 111 primary school children (56% female; age: M = 8.34, SD = 0.49). In relation to psychometric quality criteria, parameters on interrater reliability, construct validity and discriminant, and convergent validity are reported. Analyses of the correlations between attachment patterns and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from parent and teacher reports are presented. The implications for the German-language assessment of attachment in middle and late childhood in research and individual case diagnostics, e.g., in the context of conducting expert evaluation reports for family courts, are discussed.

Keywords: attachment, attachment assessment, developmental psychology, longitudinal study

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40381 From Longitudinal Measurements to Image Classification: Application to Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Images in Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Samaneh A. Mofrad, Hauke Bartsch, Alexander S. Lundervold


We propose a method of constructing representations of multiple one-dimensional longitudinal measurements as two-dimensional grey-scale images. This can be used to turn classification problems from longitudinal settings into simpler image classification problems, allowing for the application of newer deep learning methods on longitudinal measurements. Our approach is applicable to situations with balanced or imbalanced longitudinal data sets and where there are missing data at some time points. To evaluate our approach, we apply it to an important and challenging task: the prediction of dementia from brain volume trajectories derived from longitudinal MRI. We construct an ensemble of convolutional neural network models to classify two groups of subjects: those diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment at all examinations (stable MCI) versus those starting out as MCI but later converting to Alzheimer’s disease (converted AD). Models were trained on image representations derived from N = 736 subjects sourced from the ADNI database (471/265 sMCI/cAD). We obtained an accuracy of a resulting ensemble model of 76%, measured on an independent test set. Our approach is simple and easy to apply but competitive (in terms of accuracy) with results reported in other machine learning approaches with similar classification on comparable tasks. This indicates that our approach can lead to useful representations of longitudinal data.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, longitudinal data, MRI, convolutional neural networks

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40380 A Review of Methods for Handling Missing Data in the Formof Dropouts in Longitudinal Clinical Trials

Authors: A. Satty, H. Mwambi


Much clinical trials data-based research are characterized by the unavoidable problem of dropout as a result of missing or erroneous values. This paper aims to review some of the various techniques to address the dropout problems in longitudinal clinical trials. The fundamental concepts of the patterns and mechanisms of dropout are discussed. This study presents five general techniques for handling dropout: (1) Deletion methods; (2) Imputation-based methods; (3) Data augmentation methods; (4) Likelihood-based methods; and (5) MNAR-based methods. Under each technique, several methods that are commonly used to deal with dropout are presented, including a review of the existing literature in which we examine the effectiveness of these methods in the analysis of incomplete data. Two application examples are presented to study the potential strengths or weaknesses of some of the methods under certain dropout mechanisms as well as to assess the sensitivity of the modelling assumptions.

Keywords: incomplete longitudinal clinical trials, missing at random (MAR), imputation, weighting methods, sensitivity analysis

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40379 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoop Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (FoS) in Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammed Hani Ajani


The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

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40378 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoops Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (Fos) in the Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammad Hani Ajani


The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
40377 Effects of Egg Yolk Peptide on the Retardation of Bone Growth Induced by Low-Calcium Diets

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim


Eggs have long been an important contributor to the nutritional quality of the human, and recognized as a very valuable source of proteins for human nutrition. Egg yolk is composed of various important chemical substances for human health. Growth means not only the increase of body weight but also the elongation of height and the enlargement of each organ's anatomical and morphological size. A calcium shortage causes the growth retardation on the body growth. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of egg yolk peptide (EYP) on the retardation of the longitudinal bone growth induced by low-calcium diet (0.05%) in adolescent rats. Low calcium diets were administrated for 15 days. During the last five days, calcium and/or vitamin D and/or EYP were administrated. The body weights, longitudinal bone growth rates, the heights of growth plates, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expressions were measured using histochemical analysis. Low calcium diets caused the significant reduction in body weight gains and the longitudinal bone growth. The heights of growth plates and the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 showed the impairment of body growth as well. Calcium and/or vitamin D administration could not significantly increase the longitudinal bone growth. However, calcium, vitamin D, and EYP administration significantly increased the bone growth, the growth plate height, and BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions. These results suggest that EYP enhances the longitudinal bone growth in the calcium and/or vitamin D deficiency and it could be a promising agent for the treatment of children suffering from malnutrition.

Keywords: egg yolk peptide, low-calcium diet, longitudinal bone growth, morphogenetic protein-2, insulin-like growth factor-1, vitamin D

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40376 Joint Modeling of Longitudinal and Time-To-Event Data with Latent Variable

Authors: Xinyuan Y. Song, Kai Kang


Joint models for analyzing longitudinal and survival data are widely used to investigate the relationship between a failure time process and time-variant predictors. A common assumption in conventional joint models in the survival analysis literature is that all predictors are observable. However, this assumption may not always be supported because unobservable traits, namely, latent variables, which are indirectly observable and should be measured through multiple observed variables, are commonly encountered in the medical, behavioral, and financial research settings. In this study, a joint modeling approach to deal with this feature is proposed. The proposed model comprises three parts. The first part is a dynamic factor analysis model for characterizing latent variables through multiple observed indicators over time. The second part is a random coefficient trajectory model for describing the individual trajectories of latent variables. The third part is a proportional hazard model for examining the effects of time-invariant predictors and the longitudinal trajectories of time-variant latent risk factors on hazards of interest. A Bayesian approach coupled with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to perform statistical inference. An application of the proposed joint model to a study on the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging Initiative is presented.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, joint model, longitudinal data, time-to-event data

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40375 Games behind Bars: A Longitudinal Study of Inmates Pro-Social Preferences

Authors: Mario A. Maggioni, Domenico Rossignoli, Simona Beretta, Sara Balestri


The paper presents the results of a Longitudinal Randomized Control Trial implemented in 2016 two State Prisons in California (USA). The subjects were randomly assigned to a 10-months program (GRIP, Guiding Rage Into Power) aiming at undoing the destructive behavioral patterns that lead to criminal actions by raising the individual’s 'mindfulness'. This study tests whether the participation to this program (treatment), based on strong relationships and mutual help, affects pro-social behavior of participants, in particular with reference to trust and inequality aversion. The research protocol entails the administration of two questionnaires including a set of behavioral situations ('games') - widely used in the relevant literature in the field - to 80 inmates, 42 treated (enrolled in the program) and 38 controls. The first questionnaire has been administered before treatment and randomization took place; the second questionnaire at the end of the program. The results of a Difference-in-Differences estimation procedure, show that trust significantly increases GRIP participants to compared to the control group. The result is robust to alternative estimation techniques and to the inclusion of a set of covariates to further control for idiosyncratic characteristics of the prisoners.

Keywords: behavioral economics, difference in differences, longitudinal study, pro-social preferences

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40374 The Mirage of Progress? a Longitudinal Study of Japanese Students’ L2 Oral Grammar

Authors: Robert Long, Hiroaki Watanabe


This longitudinal study examines the grammatical errors of Japanese university students’ dialogues with a native speaker over an academic year. The L2 interactions of 15 Japanese speakers were taken from the JUSFC2018 corpus (April/May 2018) and the JUSFC2019 corpus (January/February). The corpora were based on a self-introduction monologue and a three-question dialogue; however, this study examines the grammatical accuracy found in the dialogues. Research questions focused on a possible significant difference in grammatical accuracy from the first interview session in 2018 and the second one the following year, specifically regarding errors in clauses per 100 words, global errors and local errors, and with specific errors related to parts of speech. The investigation also focused on which forms showed the least improvement or had worsened? Descriptive statistics showed that error-free clauses/errors per 100 words decreased slightly while clauses with errors/100 words increased by one clause. Global errors showed a significant decline, while local errors increased from 97 to 158 errors. For errors related to parts of speech, a t-test confirmed there was a significant difference between the two speech corpora with more error frequency occurring in the 2019 corpus. This data highlights the difficulty in having students self-edit themselves.

Keywords: clause analysis, global vs. local errors, grammatical accuracy, L2 output, longitudinal study

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40373 A Longitudinal Survey Study of Izmir Commuter Rail System (IZBAN)

Authors: Samet Sen, Yalcin Alver


Before Izmir Commuter Rail System (IZBAN), most of the respondents along the railway were making their trips by city buses, minibuses or private cars. After IZBAN was put into service, some people changed their previous trip behaviors and they started travelling by IZBAN. Therefore a big travel demand in IZBAN occurred. In this study, the characteristics of passengers and their trip behaviors are found out based on the longitudinal data conducted via two wave trip surveys. Just after one year from IZBAN's opening, the first wave of the surveys was carried out among 539 passengers at six stations during morning peak hours between 07.00 am-09.30 am. The second wave was carried out among 669 passengers at the same six stations two years after the first wave during the same morning peak hours. As a result of this study, the respondents' socio-economic specifications, the distribution of trips by region, the impact of IZBAN on transport modes, the changes in travel time and travel cost and satisfaction data were obtained. These data enabled to compare two waves and explain the changes in socio-economic factors and trip behaviors. In both waves, 10 % of the respondents stopped driving their own cars and they started to take IZBAN. This is an important development in solving traffic problems. More public transportation means less traffic congestion.

Keywords: commuter rail system, comparative study, longitudinal survey, public transportation

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40372 Correlation Between Diastolic Function and Lower GLS in Hypertensive Patients

Authors: A. Kherraf, S. Ouarrak, L. Azzouzi, R. Habbal


Introduction: Preserved LVEF heart failure is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients. A strong correlation between impaired diastolic function and longitudinal systolic dysfunction. could have several explanations, first, the diastole is an energy dependent process, especially during its first phase, it also includes active systolic components during the phase of iso volumetric relaxation, in addition, the impairment of the intrinsic myocytic function is part of hypertensive pathology as evidenced by recent studies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This work consists of performing in a series of 333 hypertensive patients (aged 25 to 75 years) a complete echocardiographic study, including LVEF by Simpson biplane method, the calculation of the indexed left ventricular mass, the analysis of the diastolic function, and finally, the study of the longitudinal deformation of the LV by the technique of speckletracking (calculation of the GLS). Patients with secondary hypertension, leaky or stenosing valve disease, arrhythmia, and a history of coronary insufficiency were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Of the 333 hypertensive patients, 225 patients (67.5%) had impaired diastolic function, of which 60 patients (18%) had high filling pressures. 49.39% had echocardigraphic HVG, Almost all of these patients (60 patients) had low GLS. There is a statistically very significant relationship between lower GLS and increased left ventricular filling pressures in hypertensive patients. These results suggest that increased filling pressures are closely associated with atrioventricular interaction in patients with hypertension, with a strong correlation with impairment of longitudinal systolic function and diastolic function CONCLUSION: Overall, a linear relationship is established between increased left ventricular mass, diastolic dysfunction, and longitudinal LV systolic dysfunction

Keywords: hypertension, diastolic function, left ventricle, heart failure

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40371 Non-Linear Transformation of Bulk Acoustic Waves at Oblique Incidence on Plane Solid Boundary

Authors: Aleksandr I. Korobov, Natalia V. Shirgina, Aleksey I. Kokshaiskiy


The transformation of two types of acoustic waves can occur on a flat interface between two solids at oblique incidence of longitudinal and shear bulk acoustic waves (BAW). This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the properties of reflection and propagation of longitudinal wave and generation of second and third longitudinal and shear harmonics of BAW at oblique incidence of longitudinal BAW on a flat rough boundary between two solids. The experimental sample was a rectangular isosceles pyramid made of D16 aluminum alloy with the plane parallel bases cylinder made of D16 aluminum alloy pressed to the base. The piezoelectric lithium niobate transducer with a resonance frequency of 5 MHz was secured to one face of the pyramid to generate a longitudinal wave. Longitudinal waves emitted by this transducer felt at an angle of 45° to the interface between two solids and reflected at the same angle. On the opposite face of the pyramid, and on the flat side of the cylinder was attached longitudinal transducer with resonance frequency of 10 MHz or the shear transducer with resonance frequency of 15 MHz. These transducers also effectively received signal at a frequency of 5 MHz. In the spectrum of the transmitted and reflected BAW was observed shear and longitudinal waves at a frequency of 5 MHz, as well as longitudinal harmonic at a frequency harmonic of 10 MHz and a shear harmonic at frequency of 15 MHz. The effect of reversing changing of external pressure applied to the rough interface between two solids on the value of the first and higher harmonics of the BAW at oblique incidence on the interface of the longitudinal BAW was experimentally investigated. In the spectrum of the reflected signal from the interface, there was a decrease of amplitudes of the first harmonics of the signal, and non-monotonic dependence of the second and third harmonics of shear wave with an increase of the static pressure applied to the interface. In the spectrum of the transmitted signal growth of the first longitudinal and shear harmonic amplitude and non-monotonic dependence - first increase and then decrease in the amplitude of the second and third longitudinal shear harmonic with increasing external static pressure was observed. These dependencies were hysteresis at reversing changing of external pressure. When pressure applied to the border increased, acoustic contact between the surfaces improves. This increases the energy of the transmitted elastic wave and decreases the energy of the reflected wave. The second longitudinal acoustic harmonics generation was associated with the Hertz nonlinearity on the interface of two pressed rough surfaces, the generation of the third harmonic was caused by shear hysteresis nonlinearity due to dry friction on a rough interface. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project №14-22-00042).

Keywords: generation of acoustic harmonics, hysteresis nonlinearity, Hertz nonlinearity, transformation of acoustic waves

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40370 A Survey on Quasi-Likelihood Estimation Approaches for Longitudinal Set-ups

Authors: Naushad Mamode Khan


The Com-Poisson (CMP) model is one of the most popular discrete generalized linear models (GLMS) that handles both equi-, over- and under-dispersed data. In longitudinal context, an integer-valued autoregressive (INAR(1)) process that incorporates covariate specification has been developed to model longitudinal CMP counts. However, the joint likelihood CMP function is difficult to specify and thus restricts the likelihood based estimating methodology. The joint generalized quasilikelihood approach (GQL-I) was instead considered but is rather computationally intensive and may not even estimate the regression effects due to a complex and frequently ill conditioned covariance structure. This paper proposes a new GQL approach for estimating the regression parameters (GQLIII) that are based on a single score vector representation. The performance of GQL-III is compared with GQL-I and separate marginal GQLs (GQL-II) through some simulation experiments and is proved to yield equally efficient estimates as GQL-I and is far more computationally stable.

Keywords: longitudinal, com-Poisson, ill-conditioned, INAR(1), GLMS, GQL

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40369 The Development of a Residual Stress Measurement Method for Roll Formed Products

Authors: Yong Sun, Vladimir Luzin, Zhen Qian, William J. T. Daniel, Mingxing Zhang, Shichao Ding


The residual stresses in roll formed products are generally very high and un-predictable. This is due to the occurrence of redundant plastic deformation in roll forming process and it can cause various product defects. Although the residual stresses of a roll formed product consist of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses components, but the longitudinal residual stresses plays a key role to the product defects of a roll formed product and therefore, only the longitudinal residual stresses concerned by the roll forming scholars and engineers. However, how to inspect the residual stresses of a product quickly and economically as a routine operation is still a challenge. This paper introduces a residual stresses measurement method called slope cutting method to study the longitudinal residual stresses through layers geometrically to a roll formed products or a product with similar process such as a rolled sheet. The detailed measuring procedure is given and discussed. The residual stresses variation through the layer can be derived based on the variation of curvature in different layers and steps. The slope cutting method has been explored and validated by experimental study on a roll-formed square tube. The neutron diffraction method is applied to validate the accuracy of the newly proposed layering removal materials results. The two set results agree with each other very well and therefore, the method is expected to be a routine testing method to monitor the quality of a product been formed and that is a great impact to roll forming industry.

Keywords: roll forming, residual stress, measurement method, neutron diffraction

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40368 A Longitudinal Study of the Readability of the Chairman’s Narratives in Corporate Reports: Malaysian Evidence

Authors: Azhar Abdul Rahman


This paper examines the readability of the chairman’s narratives, as determined by the Flesch score, of a Malaysian public listed company’s corporate reports from 1962 to 2009. It partially supports earlier studies which demonstrated that corporate reports were difficult to read, and had shown very negligible decrease in difficulty over time. Net profit to sales and readability was significantly positively correlated but number of financial statements was significantly negatively correlated with readability.

Keywords: chairman’s narratives, corporate communications, readability, longitudinal

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40367 A U-shaped Relationship between Body Mass Index and Dysmenorrhea: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: H. Ju, M. Jones, G. D. Mishra


Introduction: Limited longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between BMI and dysmenorrhea, resulting in mixed results. This study aims to investigate the long-term association between BMI and dysmenorrhea. Methods: 9,688 women from Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH), a prospective population-based cohort study, were followed for 13 years. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires repeatedly on all variables, including dysmenorrhea, weight and height. The longitudinal association between dysmenorrhea and BMI or BMI transition (change of BMI categories between two successive surveys) was investigated by generalized estimating equations. Results: When the women were aged 22 to 27 years, approximately 11% were obese, 7% underweight, and 25% reported dysmenorrhea. Over the study period, the prevalence of obesity doubled whereas that of underweight declined substantially. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea remained relatively stable. Compared to women with a normal weight, significantly higher odds of reporting dysmenorrhea were detected for both women who were underweight (odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.43) and obese (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.10, 1.31). Being overweight was not associated with increased risk of dysmenorrhea. Compared to women who remained at normal weight or overweight over time, significant risk was detected for women who: remained underweight or obese (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.23, 1.49), were underweight but became normal or overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11, 1.50), became underweight (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01, 1.52). However, the higher risk among obese women disappeared when they lost weight and became normal weight or overweight (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.87, 1.30). Conclusions: A U-shaped association was revealed between dysmenorrhea and BMI, revealing higher risk of dysmenorrhea for both underweight and obese women. Further, the risk disappeared when obese women lost weight and acquired a healthier BMI. However obesity certainly poses a greater burden of disease from the public health perspective, thus requires greater effort to tackle the increasing problem at the population level. It is important to maintain a healthy weight over time for women to enjoy a better reproductive health.

Keywords: body mass index, dysmenorrhea, obesity, painful period, underweight

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40366 The Causes and Consequences of Anti-muslim Prejudice: Evidence from a National Scale Longitudinal Study in New Zealand

Authors: Aarif Rasheed, Joseph Bulbulia


Western democracies exhibit signs of distinctive anti-Muslim prejudice, but little is known about its causes and effects on Muslim minorities. Here, drawing on nine years of responses from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of New Zealanders (New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study, N > 31,000), we systematically investigate the demographic and ideological predictors of factors that predict both positive and negative change in Muslim attitudes. First, we find that that education, moderate and liberal political ideology, and positive views about religion predict greater Muslim acceptance. Second, we find a there though there is a general trend for increasing acceptance over nine years, we find evidence of increasing extremism at the margins. Third, focusing on the Muslim sub-sample and comparing it to other religious sub-groups, we find substantially higher reports of perceived anti-religious prejudice. Collectively, these results point to serious challenges to the health of New Zealand as a democracy where people can worship freely without discrimination. Finally, we find consistency in our responses with the reported experiences of victims of the Christchurch attacks, in terms of harassment, assault, slurs, and other hostile behaviour both before and after the attacks.

Keywords: democracy, longitudinal, Muslim, panel data, prejudice

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40365 3D Numerical Studies and Design Optimization of a Swallowtail Butterfly with Twin Tail

Authors: Arunkumar Balamurugan, G. Soundharya Lakshmi, V. Thenmozhi, M. Jegannath, V. R. Sanal Kumar


Aerodynamics of insects is of topical interest in aeronautical industries due to its wide applications on various types of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Note that the MAVs are having smaller geometric dimensions operate at significantly lower speeds on the order of 10 m/s and their Reynolds numbers range is approximately 1,50,000 or lower. In this paper, numerical study has been carried out to capture the flow physics of a biological inspired Swallowtail Butterfly with fixed wing having twin tail at a flight speed of 10 m/s. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out on swallow butterfly with twin tail flying at a speed of 10 m/s with uniform upper and lower angles of attack in both lateral and longitudinal position for identifying the best wing orientation with better aerodynamic efficiency. Grid system in the computational domain is selected after a detailed grid refinement exercises. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out with different lateral and longitudinal angles of attack for finding the better aerodynamic efficiency at the same flight speed. The results reveal that lift coefficient significantly increases with marginal changes in the longitudinal angle and vice versa. But in the case of drag coefficient the conventional changes have been noticed, viz., drag increases at high longitudinal angles. We observed that the change of twin tail section has a significant impact on the formation of vortices and aerodynamic efficiency of the MAV’s. We concluded that for every lateral angle there is an exact longitudinal orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient flying condition of any MAV. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of Twin tail MAVs with flapping wings.

Keywords: aerodynamics of insects, MAV, swallowtail butterfly, twin tail MAV design

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40364 Perceptions of Chinese Top-up Students Transitioning through a Regional UK University: A Longitudinal Study Using the U-Curve Model

Authors: Xianghan O'Dea


This article argues an urgent need to better understand the personal experiences of Chinese top-up students studying in the UK since the number of Chinese students taking year-long top-up programmes in the UK has risen rapidly in recent years. This lack of knowledge could potentially have implications for the reputation of some UK institutions and also the attractiveness of the UK higher education sector to future international students. This longitudinal study explored the academic and social experiences of twelve Chinese top-up students in a UK institution in-depth and revealed that the students felt their experiences were influenced significantly by their surrounding contexts at the macro and meso levels, which, however, have been largely overlooked in existing research. This article suggests the importance of improving the communications between the partner institutions in China and the UK, and also providing sufficient pre-departure and after arrival support to Chinese top-up students at the institutional level.

Keywords: articulation agreements, Chinese top-up students, top-up programmes, U-curve

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40363 Evaluation of Longitudinal Relaxation Time (T1) of Bone Marrow in Lumbar Vertebrae of Leukaemia Patients Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: M. G. R. S. Perera, B. S. Weerakoon, L. P. G. Sherminie, M. L. Jayatilake, R. D. Jayasinghe, W. Huang


The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the Longitudinal Relaxation Times (T1) in bone marrow of an Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) patient in order to explore the potential for a prognostic biomarker using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which will be a non-invasive prognostic approach to AML. MR image data were collected in the DICOM format and MATLAB Simulink software was used in the image processing and data analysis. For quantitative MRI data analysis, Region of Interests (ROI) on multiple image slices were drawn encompassing vertebral bodies of L3, L4, and L5. T1 was evaluated using the T1 maps obtained. The estimated bone marrow mean value of T1 was 790.1 (ms) at 3T. However, the reported T1 value of healthy subjects is significantly (946.0 ms) higher than the present finding. This suggests that the T1 for bone marrow can be considered as a potential prognostic biomarker for AML patients.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukaemia, longitudinal relaxation time, magnetic resonance imaging, prognostic biomarker.

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40362 Shield Tunnel Excavation Simulation of a Case Study Using a So-Called 'Stress Relaxation' Method

Authors: Shengwei Zhu, Alireza Afshani, Hirokazu Akagi


Ground surface settlement induced by shield tunneling is addressing increasing attention as shield tunneling becomes a popular construction technique for tunnels in urban areas. This paper discusses a 2D longitudinal FEM simulation of a tunneling case study in Japan (Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line). Tunneling-induced field data was already collected and is used here for comparison and evaluating purposes. In this model, earth pressure, face pressure, backfilling grouting, elastic tunnel lining, and Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soil elements are considered. A method called ‘stress relaxation’ is also exploited to simulate the gradual tunneling excavation. Ground surface settlements obtained from numerical results using the introduced method are then compared with the measurement data.

Keywords: 2D longitudinal FEM model, tunneling case study, stress relaxation, shield tunneling excavation

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40361 Variability of Covariance of Selected Skeletal Diameters of Female in a Longitudinal Physical Training Programme

Authors: Dhananjoy Shaw, Seema Sharma (Kaushik)


Anthropometry helps in associating the physical properties of an individual with their racial, cultural, and psychological attributes. Numerous research studies have included different skeletal diameters as a variable. However, most of the studies suggest their inclusion describing specific characteristics/traits of the body. However, there seems to be a scarcity of literature related to the effect of any kind of longitudinal physical training on human skeletal diameters. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study the variability of covariance of selected skeletal diameters of females in a longitudinal physical training programme. The sample for the study was 78 college going students of the University of Delhi, classified equally in three groups, i.e. viz. (a) Progressive load of training or conditioning group coded as PLT; (b) Constant load of training or non-conditioning group coded as CLT; and (c) No-load or control or sedentary group coded as NL. Collectively, mean age of the sample was 19.54±1.79 years. The randomly selected samples were given maximum consideration to maintain their homogeneity. The variables included biacromial diameter, biiliocristal diameter, bitrochantaerion diameter, humeral bicondylar, femoral bicondylar, wrist diameter, ankle diameter, and foot breadth. Multi-group repeated measure design was adopted for the experimentation. Each group was measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration. The measurements were taken following the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of co-variance and its post-hoc analysis were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the selected skeletal diameters of females. It also reflected the increase due to growth also along with training.

Keywords: longitudinal, physical training, skeletal diameters, step progression load

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