Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: non-invasive

52 Noninvasive Evaluation of Acupuncture by Measuring Facial Temperature through Thermal Image

Authors: An Guo, Hieyong Jeong, Tianyi Wang, Na Li, Yuko Ohno


Acupuncture, known as sensory simulation, has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years. However, present studies had not addressed approaches for noninvasive measurement in order to evaluate therapeutic effect of acupuncture. The purpose of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to evaluate acupuncture by measuring facial temperature through thermal image. Three human subjects were recruited in this study. Each subject received acupuncture therapy for 30 mins. Acupuncture needles (Ø0.16 x 30 mm) were inserted into Baihui point (DU20), Neiguan points (PC6) and Taichong points (LR3), acupuncture needles (Ø0.18 x 39 mm) were inserted into Tanzhong point (RN17), Zusanli points (ST36) and Yinlingquan points (SP9). Facial temperature was recorded by an infrared thermometer. Acupuncture therapeutic effect was compared pre- and post-acupuncture. Experiment results demonstrated that facial temperature changed according to acupuncture therapeutic effect. It was concluded that proposed method showed high potential to evaluate acupuncture by noninvasive measurement of facial temperature.

Keywords: acupuncture, facial temperature, noninvasive evaluation, thermal image

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51 Noninvasive Disease Diagnosis through Breath Analysis Using DNA-functionalized SWNT Sensor Array

Authors: W. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Du, M. L. Wang


Noninvasive diagnostics of diseases via breath analysis has attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest for many years and become more and more promising with the rapid advancement in nanotechnology and biotechnology. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, which are mainly blood borne, particularly provide highly valuable information about individuals’ physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Additionally, breath analysis is noninvasive, real-time, painless and agreeable to patients. We have developed a wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for the detection of a number of physiological indicators in breath. Eight DNA sequences were used to functionalize SWNT sensors to detect trace amount of methanol, benzene, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, acetone and ethanol, which are indicators of heavy smoking, excessive drinking, and diseases such as lung cancer, breast cancer, cirrhosis and diabetes. Our tests indicated that DNA functionalized SWNT sensors exhibit great selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability. Furthermore, different molecules can be distinguished through pattern recognition enabled by this sensor array. Thus, the DNA-SWNT sensor array has great potential to be applied in chemical or bimolecular detection for the noninvasive diagnostics of diseases and health monitoring.

Keywords: breath analysis, diagnosis, DNA-SWNT sensor array, noninvasive

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50 Development of Noninvasive Method to Analyze Dynamic Changes of Matrix Stiffness and Elasticity Characteristics

Authors: Elena Petersen, Inna Kornienko, Svetlana Guryeva, Sergey Dobdin, Anatoly Skripal, Andrey Usanov, Dmitry Usanov


One of the most important unsolved problems in modern medicine is the increase of chronic diseases that lead to organ dysfunction or even complete loss of function. Current methods of treatment do not result in decreased mortality and disability statistics. Currently, the best treatment for many patients is still transplantation of organs and/or tissues. Therefore, finding a way of correct artificial matrix biofabrication in case of limited number of natural organs for transplantation is a critical task. One important problem that needs to be solved is development of a nondestructive and noninvasive method to analyze dynamic changes of mechanical characteristics of a matrix with minimal side effects on the growing cells. This research was focused on investigating the properties of matrix as a marker of graft condition. In this study, the collagen gel with human primary dermal fibroblasts in suspension (60, 120, 240*103 cells/mL) and collagen gel with cell spheroids were used as model objects. The stiffness and elasticity characteristics were evaluated by a semiconductor laser autodyne. The time and cell concentration dependency of the stiffness and elasticity were investigated. It was shown that these properties changed in a non-linear manner with respect to cell concentration. The maximum matrix stiffness was observed in the collagen gel with the cell concentration of 120*103 cells/mL. This study proved the opportunity to use the mechanical properties of matrix as a marker of graft condition, which can be measured by noninvasive semiconductor laser autodyne technique.

Keywords: graft, matrix, noninvasive method, regenerative medicine, semiconductor laser autodyne

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49 Diagnostic Value of Different Noninvasive Criteria of Latent Myocarditis in Comparison with Myocardial Biopsy

Authors: Olga Blagova, Yuliya Osipova, Evgeniya Kogan, Alexander Nedostup


Purpose: to quantify the value of various clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs in the diagnosis of myocarditis in comparison with morphological studies of the myocardium. Methods: in 100 patients (65 men, 44.7±12.5 years) with «idiopathic» arrhythmias (n = 20) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 80) were performed 71 endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), 13 intraoperative biopsy, 5 study of explanted hearts, 11 autopsy with virus investigation (real-time PCR) of the blood and myocardium. Anti-heart antibodies (AHA) were also measured as well as cardiac CT (n = 45), MRI (n = 25), coronary angiography (n = 47). The comparison group included of 50 patients (25 men, 53.7±11.7 years) with non-inflammatory heart diseases who underwent open heart surgery. Results. Active/borderline myocarditis was diagnosed in 76.0% of the study group and in 21.6% of patients of the comparison group (p < 0.001). The myocardial viral genome was observed more frequently in patients of comparison group than in study group (group (65.0% and 40.2%; p < 0.01. Evaluated the diagnostic value of noninvasive markers of myocarditis. The panel of anti-heart antibodies had the greatest importance to identify myocarditis: sensitivity was 81.5%, positive and negative predictive value was 75.0 and 60.5%. It is defined diagnostic value of non-invasive markers of myocarditis and diagnostic algorithm providing an individual assessment of the likelihood of myocarditis is developed. Conclusion. The greatest significance in the diagnosis of latent myocarditis in patients with 'idiopathic' arrhythmias and DCM have AHA. The use of complex of noninvasive criteria allows estimate the probability of myocarditis and determine the indications for EMB.

Keywords: myocarditis, "idiopathic" arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial biopsy, viral genome, anti-heart antibodies

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48 Assessment of Hepatosteatosis Among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Using Biochemical Parameters and Noninvasive Imaging Techniques

Authors: Tugba Sevinc Gamsiz, Emine Koroglu, Ozcan Keskin


Aim: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common chronic liver disease in the general population. The higher mortality and morbidity among NAFLD patients and lack of symptoms makes early detection and management important. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between noninvasive imaging and biochemical markers in diabetic and nondiabetic patients diagnosed with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from (September 2017) to (December 2017) on adults admitted to Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology outpatient clinics with hepatic steatosis reported on ultrasound or transient elastography within the last six months that exclude patients with other liver diseases or alcohol abuse. The data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Number cruncher statistical system (NCSS) 2007 program was used for statistical analysis. Results: 116 patients were included in this study. Diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics had significantly higher Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP), Liver Stiffness Measurement (LSM) and fibrosis values. Also, hypertension, hepatomegaly, high BMI, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, high A1c, and hyperuricemia were found to be risk factors for NAFLD progression to fibrosis. Advanced fibrosis (F3, F4) was present in 18,6 % of all our patients; 35,8 % of diabetic and 5,7 % of nondiabetic patients diagnosed with hepatic steatosis. Conclusion: Transient elastography is now used in daily clinical practice as an accurate noninvasive tool during follow-up of patients with fatty liver. Early diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis improves the monitoring and management of patients, especially in those with metabolic syndrome criteria.

Keywords: diabetes, elastography, fatty liver, fibrosis, metabolic syndrome

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47 Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface to Control Both Mecha TE Robotic Hands Using Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset

Authors: Adrienne Kline, Jaydip Desai


Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a noninvasive technique that registers signals originating from the firing of neurons in the brain. The Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset is a consumer product comprised of 14 EEG channels and was used to record the reactions of the neurons within the brain to two forms of stimuli in 10 participants. These stimuli consisted of auditory and visual formats that provided directions of ‘right’ or ‘left.’ Participants were instructed to raise their right or left arm in accordance with the instruction given. A scenario in OpenViBE was generated to both stimulate the participants while recording their data. In OpenViBE, the Graz Motor BCI Stimulator algorithm was configured to govern the duration and number of visual stimuli. Utilizing EEGLAB under the cross platform MATLAB®, the electrodes most stimulated during the study were defined. Data outputs from EEGLAB were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics® Version 20. This aided in determining the electrodes to use in the development of a brain-machine interface (BMI) using real-time EEG signals from the Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset. Signal processing and feature extraction were accomplished via the Simulink® signal processing toolbox. An Arduino™ Duemilanove microcontroller was used to link the Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset and the right and left Mecha TE™ Hands.

Keywords: brain-machine interface, EEGLAB, emotiv EEG neuroheadset, OpenViBE, simulink

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46 First Experimental Evidence on Feasibility of Molecular Magnetic Particle Imaging of Tumor Marker Alpha-1-Fetoprotein Using Antibody Conjugated Nanoparticles

Authors: Kolja Them, Priyal Chikhaliwala, Sudeshna Chandra


Purpose: The purpose of this work is to examine possibilities for noninvasive imaging and identification of tumor markers for cancer diagnosis. The proposed method uses antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and multicolor Magnetic Particle Imaging (mMPI). The method has the potential for radiation exposure free real-time estimation of local tumor marker concentrations in vivo. In this study, the method is applied to human Alpha-1-Fetoprotein. Materials and Methods: As tracer material AFP antibody-conjugated Dendrimer-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used. The nanoparticle bioconjugates were then incubated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to block any possible nonspecific binding sites. Parts of the resulting solution were then incubated with AFP antigen. MPI measurements were done using the preclinical MPI scanner (Bruker Biospin MRI GmbH) and the multicolor method was used for image reconstruction. Results: In multicolor MPI images the nanoparticles incubated only with BSA were clearly distinguished from nanoparticles incubated with BSA and AFP antigens. Conclusion: Tomographic imaging of human tumor marker Alpha-1-Fetoprotein is possible using AFP antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles in presence of BSA. This opens interesting perspectives for cancer diagnosis.

Keywords: noninvasive imaging, tumor antigens, antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles, multicolor magnetic particle imaging, cancer diagnosis

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45 Role of Imaging in Predicting the Receptor Positivity Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Chapter in Radiogenomics

Authors: Sonal Sethi, Mukesh Yadav, Abhimanyu Gupta


The upcoming field of radiogenomics has the potential to upgrade the role of imaging in lung cancer management by noninvasive characterization of tumor histology and genetic microenvironment. Receptor positivity like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genotyping are critical in lung adenocarcinoma for treatment. As conventional identification of receptor positivity is an invasive procedure, we analyzed the features on non-invasive computed tomography (CT), which predicts the receptor positivity in lung adenocarcinoma. Retrospectively, we did a comprehensive study from 77 proven lung adenocarcinoma patients with CT images, EGFR and ALK receptor genotyping, and clinical information. Total 22/77 patients were receptor-positive (15 had only EGFR mutation, 6 had ALK mutation, and 1 had both EGFR and ALK mutation). Various morphological characteristics and metastatic distribution on CT were analyzed along with the clinical information. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found spiculated margin, lymphangitic spread, air bronchogram, pleural effusion, and distant metastasis had a significant predictive value for receptor mutation status. On univariate analysis, air bronchogram and pleural effusion had significant individual predictive value. Conclusions: Receptor positive lung cancer has characteristic imaging features compared with nonreceptor positive lung adenocarcinoma. Since CT is routinely used in lung cancer diagnosis, we can predict the receptor positivity by a noninvasive technique and would follow a more aggressive algorithm for evaluation of distant metastases as well as for the treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, multidisciplinary cancer care, oncologic imaging, radiobiology

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44 Assessment of Cellular Metabolites and Impedance for Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer among Habitual Smokers

Authors: Ripon Sarkar, Kabita Chaterjee, Ananya Barui


Smoking is one of the leading causes of oral cancer. Cigarette smoke affects various cellular parameters and alters molecular metabolism of cells. Epithelial cells losses their cytoskeleton structure, membrane integrity, cellular polarity that subsequently initiates the process of epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition due to long exposure of cigarette smoking. It changes the normal cellular metabolic activity which induces oxidative stress and enhances the reactive oxygen spices (ROS) formation. Excessive ROS and associated oxidative stress are considered to be a driving force in alteration in cellular phenotypes, polarity distribution and mitochondrial metabolism. Noninvasive assessment of such parameters plays essential role in development of routine screening system for early diagnosis of oral cancer. Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is one of such method applied for detection of cellular membrane impedance which can be correlated to cell membrane integrity. Present study intends to explore the alteration in cellular impedance along with the expression of cellular polarity molecules and cytoskeleton distributions in oral epithelial cells of habitual smokers and to correlate the outcome to that of clinically diagnosed oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Total 80 subjects were categorized into four study groups: nonsmoker (NS), cigarette smoker (CS), oral leukoplakia (OLPK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cytoskeleton distribution was analyzed by staining of actin filament and generation of ROS was measured using assay kit using standard protocol. Cell impedance was measured through ECIS method at different frequencies. Expression of E-cadherin and protease-activated receptor (PAR) proteins were observed through immune-fluorescence method. Distribution of actin filament is well organized in NS group however; distribution pattern was grossly varied in CS, OLPK and OSCC. Generation of ROS was low in NS which subsequently increased towards OSCC. Expressions of E-cadherin and change in cellular electrical impedance in different study groups indicated the hallmark of cancer progression from NS to OSCC. Expressions of E-cadherin, PAR protein, and cell impedance were decreased from NS to CS and farther OSCC. Generally, the oral epithelial cells exhibit apico-basal polarity however with cancer progression these cells lose their characteristic polarity distribution. In this study expression of polarity molecule and ECIS observation indicates such altered pattern of polarity among smoker group. Overall the present study monitored the alterations in intracellular ROS generation and cell metabolic function, membrane integrity in oral epithelial cells in cigarette smokers. Present study thus has clinical significance, and it may help in developing a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer amongst susceptible individuals.

Keywords: cigarette smoking, early oral cancer detection, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, noninvasive screening

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43 Portable, Noninvasive and Wireless Near Infrared Spectroscopy Device to Monitor Skeletal Muscle Metabolism during Exercise

Authors: Adkham Paiziev, Fikrat Kerimov


Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is one of the biophotonic techniques which can be used to monitor oxygenation and hemodynamics in a variety of human tissues, including skeletal muscle. In the present work, we are offering tissue oximetry (OxyPrem) to measure hemodynamic parameters of skeletal muscles in rest and exercise. Purpose: - To elaborate the new wireless, portable, noninvasive, wearable NIRS device to measure skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise. - To test this device on brachioradialis muscle of wrestler volunteers by using combined method of arterial occlusion (AO) and NIRS (AO+NIRS). Methods: Oxyprem NIRS device has been used together with AO test. AO test and Isometric brachioradialis muscle contraction experiments have been performed on one group of wrestler volunteers. ‘Accu- Measure’ caliper (USA) to measure skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used. Results: Elaborated device consists on power supply box, a sensor head and installed ‘Tubis’ software for data acquisition and to compute deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation (StO2) and muscle tissue oxygen consumption (mVO2). Sensor head consists on four light sources with three light emitting diodes with nominal wavelengths of 760 nm, 805 nm, and 870 nm, and two detectors. AO and isometric voluntary forearm muscle contraction (IVFMC) on five healthy male subjects (23,2±0.84 in age, 0.43±0.05cm of SFT ) and four female subjects (22.0±1.0 in age and 0.24±0.04 cm SFT) has been measured. mVO2 for control group has been calculated (-0.65%/sec±0.07) for male and -0.69%/±0.19 for female subjects). Tissue oxygenation index for wrestlers in average about 75% whereas for control group StO2 =63%. Second experiment was connected with quality monitoring muscle activity during IVFMC at 10%,30% and 50% of MVC. It has been shown, that the concentration changes of HbO2 and HHb positively correlated to the contraction intensity. Conclusion: We have presented a portable multi-channel wireless NIRS device for real-time monitoring of muscle activity. The miniaturized NIRS sensor and the usage of wireless communication make the whole device have a compact-size, thus can be used in muscle monitoring.

Keywords: skeletal muscle, oxygenation, instrumentation, near infrared spectroscopy

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42 Magnetic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) as Novel Theranostic Nanocarriers: Enhanced Targeting and Noninvasive MRI Tracking

Authors: Achraf Al Faraj, Asma Sultana Shaik, Baraa Al Sayed


Specific and effective targeting of drug delivery systems (DDS) to cancerous sites remains a major challenge for a better diagnostic and therapy. Recently, SWCNTs with their unique physicochemical properties and the ability to cross the cell membrane show promising in the biomedical field. The purpose of this study was first to develop a biocompatible iron oxide tagged SWCNTs as diagnostic nanoprobes to allow their noninvasive detection using MRI and their preferential targeting in a breast cancer murine model by placing an optimized flexible magnet over the tumor site. Magnetic targeting was associated to specific antibody-conjugated SWCNTs active targeting. The therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin-conjugated SWCNTs was assessed, and the superiority of diffusion-weighted (DW-) MRI as sensitive imaging biomarker was investigated. Short Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized water soluble SWCNTs were first developed, tagged with iron oxide nanoparticles and conjugated with Endoglin/CD105 monoclonal antibodies. They were then conjugated with doxorubicin drugs. SWCNTs conjugates were extensively characterized using TEM, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS) zeta potential analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Their MR relaxivities (i.e. r1 and r2*) were measured at 4.7T and their iron content and metal impurities quantified using ICP-MS. SWCNTs biocompatibility and drug efficacy were then evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a set of immunological assays. Luciferase enhanced bioluminescence 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells (4T1-Luc2) were injected into the right inguinal mammary fat pad of Balb/c mice. Tumor bearing mice received either free doxorubicin (DOX) drug or SWCNTs with or without either DOX or iron oxide nanoparticles. A multi-pole 10x10mm high-energy flexible magnet was maintained over the tumor site during 2 hours post-injections and their properties and polarity were optimized to allow enhanced magnetic targeting of SWCNTs toward the primary tumor site. Tumor volume was quantified during the follow-up investigation study using a fast spin echo MRI sequence. In order to detect the homing of SWCNTs to the main tumor site, susceptibility-weighted multi-gradient echo (MGE) sequence was used to generate T2* maps. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements were also performed as a sensitive imaging biomarker providing early and better assessment of disease treatment. At several times post-SWCNT injection, histological analysis were performed on tumor extracts and iron-loaded SWCNT were quantified using ICP-MS in tumor sites, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lung. The optimized multi-poles magnet revealed an enhanced targeting of magnetic SWCNTs to the primary tumor site, which was found to be much higher than the active targeting achieved using antibody-conjugated SWCNTs. Iron-loading allowed their sensitive noninvasive tracking after intravenous administration using MRI. The active targeting of doxorubicin through magnetic antibody-conjugated SWCNTs nanoprobes was found to considerably decrease the primary tumor site and may have inhibited the development of metastasis in the tumor-bearing mice lung. ADC measurements in DW-MRI were found to significantly increase in a time-dependent manner after the injection of DOX-conjugated SWCNTs complexes.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotubes, nanomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging, cancer diagnosis and therapy

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41 FISCEAPP: FIsh Skin Color Evaluation APPlication

Authors: J. Urban, Á. S. Botella, L. E. Robaina, A. Bárta, P. Souček, P. Císař, Š. Papáček, L. M. Domínguez


Skin coloration in fish is of great physiological, behavioral and ecological importance and can be considered as an index of animal welfare in aquaculture as well as an important quality factor in the retail value. Currently, in order to compare color in animals fed on different diets, biochemical analysis, and colorimetry of fished, mildly anesthetized or dead body, are very accurate and meaningful measurements. The noninvasive method using digital images of the fish body was developed as a standalone application. This application deals with the computation burden and memory consumption of large input files, optimizing piece wise processing and analysis with the memory/computation time ratio. For the comparison of color distributions of various experiments and different color spaces (RGB, CIE L*a*b*) the comparable semi-equidistant binning of multi channels representation is introduced. It is derived from the knowledge of quantization levels and Freedman-Diaconis rule. The color calibrations and camera responsivity function were necessary part of the measurement process.

Keywords: color distribution, fish skin color, piecewise transformation, object to background segmentation

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40 Feature Extraction Based on Contourlet Transform and Log Gabor Filter for Detection of Ulcers in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Nimisha Elsa Koshy, Varun P. Gopi, V. I. Thajudin Ahamed


The entire visualization of GastroIntestinal (GI) tract is not possible with conventional endoscopic exams. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a low risk, painless, noninvasive procedure for diagnosing diseases such as bleeding, polyps, ulcers, and Crohns disease within the human digestive tract, especially the small intestine that was unreachable using the traditional endoscopic methods. However, analysis of massive images of WCE detection is tedious and time consuming to physicians. Hence, researchers have developed software methods to detect these diseases automatically. Thus, the effectiveness of WCE can be improved. In this paper, a novel textural feature extraction method is proposed based on Contourlet transform and Log Gabor filter to distinguish ulcer regions from normal regions. The results show that the proposed method performs well with a high accuracy rate of 94.16% using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in HSV colour space.

Keywords: contourlet transform, log gabor filter, ulcer, wireless capsule endoscopy

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39 Co-Registered Identification and Treatment of Skin Tumor with Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Therapy

Authors: Bo-Huei Huang, Chih-Hsun Yang, Meng-Tsan Tsai


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables to provide advantages of noninvasive imaging, high resolution, and high imaging speed. In this study, we integrated OCT and a CW laser for tumor diagnosis and treatment. The axial and transverse resolutions of the developed OCT system are 3 μm and 1 μm, respectively. The frame rate of OCT system is 30 frames/s. In this study, the tumor cells were implanted into the mice skin and scanned by OCT to observe the morphological and angiographic changes. With OCT imaging, 3D microstructures and skin angiography of mice skin can be simultaneously acquired, which can be utilized for identification of the tumor distribution. Then, the CW laser beam can be accurately controlled to expose on the center of the tumor, according to the OCT results. Moreover, OCT was used to monitor the induced photothermolysis and to evaluate the treatment outcome. The results showed that OCT-guided laser therapy could efficiently improve the treatment outcome and the extra damage induced by CW can be greatly reduced. Such OCT-guided laser therapy system could be a potential tool for dermatological applications.

Keywords: optical coherence tomography, laser therapy, skin tumor, position guide

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38 Balanced Ischemia Misleading to a False Negative Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (Stress) Test

Authors: Devam Sheth


Nuclear imaging with stress myocardial perfusion (stress test) is the preferred first line investigation for noninvasive evaluation of ischaemic heart condition. The sensitivity of this test is close to 90 % making it a very reliable test. However, rarely it gives a false negative result which can be explained by the phenomenon termed as “balanced ischaemia”. We present the case of a 78 year Caucasian female without any significant past cardiac history, who presents with chest pain and shortness of breath since one day. The initial ECG and cardiac enzymes were non-impressive. Few hours later, she had some substernal chest pain along with some ST segment depression in the lateral leads. Stress test comes back negative for any significant perfusion defects. However, given her typical symptoms, she underwent a cardiac catheterization which revealed significant triple vessel disease mandating her to get a bypass surgery. This unusual phenomenon of false nuclear stress test in the setting of positive ECG changes can be explained only by balanced ischemia wherein due to global myocardial ischemia, the stress test fails to reveal relative perfusion defects in the affected segments.

Keywords: balanced, false positive, ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging

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37 WO₃-SnO₂ Sensors for Selective Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds for Breath Analysis

Authors: Arpan Kumar Nayak, Debabrata Pradhan


A simple, single-step and one-pot hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize WO₃-SnO₂ mixed nanostructured metal oxides at 200°C in 12h. The SnO₂ nanoparticles were found to be uniformly decorated on the WO₃ nanoplates. Though it is widely known that noble metals such as Pt, Pd doping or decoration on metal oxides improve the sensing response and sensitivity, we varied the SnO₂ concentration in the WO₃-SnO₂ mixed oxide and demonstrated their performance in ammonia, ethanol and acetone sensing. The sensing performance of WO₃-(x)SnO₂ [x = 0.27, 0.54, 1.08] mixed nanostructured oxides was found to be not only superior to that of pristine oxides but also higher/better than that of reported noble metal-based sensors. The sensing properties (selectivity, limit of detection, response and recovery times) are measured as a function of operating temperature (150-350°C). In particular, the gas selectivity is found to be highly temperature-dependent with optimum performance obtained at 200°C, 300°C and 350°C for ammonia, ethanol, and acetone, respectively. The present results on cost effective WO₃-SnO₂ sensors can find potential application in human breath analysis by noninvasive detection.

Keywords: gas sensing, mixed oxides, nanoplates, ammonia, ethanol, acetone

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36 Quality Assurance in Cardiac Disorder Detection Images

Authors: Anam Naveed, Asma Andleeb, Mehreen Sirshar


In the article, Image processing techniques have been applied on cardiac images for enhancing the image quality. Two types of methodologies considers for survey, invasive techniques and non-invasive techniques. Different image processes for improvement of cardiac image quality and reduce the amount of radiation exposure for invasive techniques are explored. Different image processing algorithms for enhancing the noninvasive cardiac image qualities are described. Beside these two methodologies, third methodology has applied on live streaming of heart rate on ECG window for extracting necessary information, removing noise and enhancing quality. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to investigate the impacts of cardiac images for diagnosis of cardiac arteries disease and how the enhancement on images will help the cardiologist to diagnoses disease. The paper evaluates strengths and weaknesses of different techniques applied for improved the image quality and draw a conclusion. Some specific limitations must be considered for whole survey, like the patient heart beat must be 70-75 beats/minute while doing the angiography, similarly patient weight and exposure radiation amount has some limitation.

Keywords: cardiac images, CT angiography, critical analysis, exposure radiation, invasive techniques, invasive techniques, non-invasive techniques

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35 Evaluation of the Role of Circulating Long Non-Coding RNA H19 as a Promising Biomarker in Plasma of Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Doaa Hashad, Amany Elbanna, Abeer Ibrahim, Gihan Khedr


Background: H19 is one of the long non coding RNAs (LncRNA) that is related to the progression of many diseases including cancers. This work was carried out to study the level of the long non-coding RNA; H119, in plasma of patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to assess its significance in their clinical management. Methods: A total of sixty-two participants were enrolled in the present study. The first group included thirty-two GC patients, while the second group was formed of thirty age and sex matched healthy volunteers serving as a control group. Plasma samples were used to assess H19 gene expression using real time quantitative PCR technique. Results: H19 expression was up-regulated in GC patients with positive correlation to TNM cancer stages. Conclusions: Up-regulation of H19 is closely associated with gastric cancer and correlates well with tumor staging. Convenient, efficient quantification of H19 in plasma using real time PCR technique implements its role as a potential noninvasive prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer, that predicts patient’s outcome and most importantly as a novel target in gastric cancer treatment with better performance achieved on using both CEA and H19 simultaneously.

Keywords: biomarker, gastric, cancer, LncRNA

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34 Detection of Intravenous Infiltration Using Impedance Parameters in Patients in a Long-Term Care Hospital

Authors: Ihn Sook Jeong, Eun Joo Lee, Jae Hyung Kim, Gun Ho Kim, Young Jun Hwang


This study investigated intravenous (IV) infiltration using bioelectrical impedance for 27 hospitalized patients in a long-term care hospital. Impedance parameters showed significant differences before and after infiltration as follows. First, the resistance (R) after infiltration significantly decreased compared to the initial resistance. This indicates that the IV solution flowing from the vein due to infiltration accumulates in the extracellular fluid (ECF). Second, the relative resistance at 50 kHz was 0.94 ± 0.07 in 9 subjects without infiltration and was 0.75 ± 0.12 in 18 subjects with infiltration. Third, the magnitude of the reactance (Xc) decreased after infiltration. This is because IV solution and blood components released from the vein tend to aggregate in the cell membrane (and acts analogously to the linear/parallel circuit), thereby increasing the capacitance (Cm) of the cell membrane and reducing the magnitude of reactance. Finally, the data points plotted in the R-Xc graph were distributed on the upper right before infiltration but on the lower left after infiltration. This indicates that the infiltration caused accumulation of fluid or blood components in the epidermal and subcutaneous tissues, resulting in reduced resistance and reactance, thereby lowering integrity of the cell membrane. Our findings suggest that bioelectrical impedance is an effective method for detection of infiltration in a noninvasive and quantitative manner.

Keywords: intravenous infiltration, impedance, parameters, resistance, reactance

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33 Optic Nerve Sheath Measurement in Children with Head Trauma

Authors: Sabiha Sahin, Kursad Bora Carman, Coskun Yarar


Introduction: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a noninvasive and easy to use imaging technique to predict intracranial pressure in children and adults. The aim was to measure the diameter of the optic nerve sheath in pediatric head trauma. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 children with healthy and 40 patients with head trauma. Transorbital sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter was performed. Conclusion: The mean diameters of the optic nerve sheath of right and left eyes were 0.408 ± 0.064 mm and 0.417 ± 0.065 mm, respectively, in the trauma group. These results were higher in patients than in control group. There was a negative correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and Glasgow Coma Scales in patients with head trauma (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and positive CT findings, systolic blood pressure in patients with head trauma. The clinical status of the patients at admission, blood pH and lactate level were related to the optic nerve sheath diameter. Conclusion: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is not an invasive technique and can be easily used to predict increased intracranial pressure and to prevent secondary brain injury.

Keywords: head trauma, intracranial pressure, optic nerve, sonography

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32 Monitoring Blood Pressure Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Qasem Qananwah, Ahmad Dagamseh, Hiam AlQuran, Khalid Shaker Ibrahim


Blood pressure helps the physicians greatly to have a deep insight into the cardiovascular system. The determination of individual blood pressure is a standard clinical procedure considered for cardiovascular system problems. The conventional techniques to measure blood pressure (e.g. cuff method) allows a limited number of readings for a certain period (e.g. every 5-10 minutes). Additionally, these systems cause turbulence to blood flow; impeding continuous blood pressure monitoring, especially in emergency cases or critically ill persons. In this paper, the most important statistical features in the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals were extracted to estimate the blood pressure noninvasively. PPG signals from more than 40 subjects were measured and analyzed and 12 features were extracted. The features were fed to principal component analysis (PCA) to find the most important independent features that have the highest correlation with blood pressure. The results show that the stiffness index means and standard deviation for the beat-to-beat heart rate were the most important features. A model representing both features for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) was obtained using a statistical regression technique. Surface fitting is used to best fit the series of data and the results show that the error value in estimating the SBP is 4.95% and in estimating the DBP is 3.99%.

Keywords: blood pressure, noninvasive optical system, principal component analysis, PCA, continuous monitoring

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31 Blood Oxygen Saturation Measurement System Using Broad-Band Light Source with LabVIEW Program

Authors: Myoung Ah Kim, Dong Ho Sin, Chul Gyu Song


Blood oxygen saturation system is a well-established, noninvasive photoplethysmographic method to monitor vital signs. Conventional blood oxygen saturation measurements for the two LED light source is the ambiguity of the oxygen saturation measurement principle and the measurement results greatly influenced and heat and motion artifact. A high accuracy in order to solve these problems blood oxygen saturation measuring method has been proposed using a broadband light source that can be easily understood by the algorithm. The measurement of blood oxygen saturation based on broad-band light source has advantage of simple testing facility and easy understanding. Broadband light source based on blood oxygen saturation measuring program proposed in this paper is a combination of LabVIEW and MATLAB. Using the wavelength range of 450 nm-750 nm using a floating light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to measure the blood oxygen saturation. Hand movement is to fix the probe to the motor stage in order to prevent oxygen saturation measurement that affect the sample and probe kept constant interval. Experimental results show that the proposed method noticeably increases the accuracy and saves time compared with the conventional methods.

Keywords: oxygen saturation, broad-band light source, CCD, light reflectance theory

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30 Study of Human Upper Arm Girth during Elbow Isokinetic Contractions Based on a Smart Circumferential Measuring System

Authors: Xi Wang, Xiaoming Tao, Raymond C. H. So


As one of the convenient and noninvasive sensing approaches, the automatic limb girth measurement has been applied to detect intention behind human motion from muscle deformation. The sensing validity has been elaborated by preliminary researches but still need more fundamental study, especially on kinetic contraction modes. Based on the novel fabric strain sensors, a soft and smart limb girth measurement system was developed by the authors’ group, which can measure the limb girth in-motion. Experiments were carried out on elbow isometric flexion and elbow isokinetic flexion (biceps’ isokinetic contractions) of 90°/s, 60°/s, and 120°/s for 10 subjects (2 canoeists and 8 ordinary people). After removal of natural circumferential increments due to elbow position, the joint torque is found not uniformly sensitive to the limb circumferential strains, but declining as elbow joint angle rises, regardless of the angular speed. Moreover, the maximum joint torque was found as an exponential function of the joint’s angular speed. This research highly contributes to the application of the automatic limb girth measuring during kinetic contractions, and it is useful to predict the contraction level of voluntary skeletal muscles.

Keywords: fabric strain sensor, muscle deformation, isokinetic contraction, joint torque, limb girth strain

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29 Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Transmembrane Carbonic Anhydrases IX, Ca XII and Glut 1 in Ovarian Cancer

Authors: M. Sunitha, B. Nithyavani, Mathew Yohannan, S. Thiruvieni Balajji, M. A. Rathi, C. Arul Raj, P. Ragavendran, V. K. Gopalkrishnan


Establishment of an early and reliable biomarker for ovarian carcinogenesis whose expression can be monitored through noninvasive techniques will enable early diagnosis of cancer. Carbonic anhydrases (CA) isozymes IX and XII have been suggested to play a role in oncogenic processes. In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-defective tumors, the cell surface transmembrane carbonic anhydrase (CA) CA XI and CA XII genes are overexpressed because of the absence of pVHL. These enzymes are involved in causing a hypoxia condition, thereby providing an environment for metastasis. Aberrant expression of the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT I is found in a wide spectrum of epithelial malignancies. Studying the mRNA expression of CA IX, CA XII and Glut I isozymes in ovarian cancer cell lines (OAW-42 and PA-1) revealed the expression of these hypoxia genes. Immunohistochemical staining of carbonic anhydrases was also performed in 40 ovarian cancer tissues. CA IX and CA XII were expressed at 540 bp and 520 bp in OAW42, PA1 in ovarian cancer cell lines. GLUT-1 was expressed at 325bp in OAW 42, PA1 genes in ovarian cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry revealed high to moderate levels of expression of these enzymes. The immuostaining was seen predominantly on the cell surface membrane. The study concluded that these genes CA IX, CA XII and Glut I are expressed under hypoxic condition in tumor cells. From the present results expression of CA IX, XII and Glut I may represent potential targets in ovarian cancer therapy.

Keywords: ovarian cancer, carbonic anhydrase IX, XII, Glut I, tumor markers

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28 Effectiveness of Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Angioplasty: Wound Healing in Critically Limb Ischemic

Authors: M. Wisnu Pamungkas, Patrianef Darwis


Introduction: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a vascular disease that has a significant amputation and mortality risk with diabetes mellitus, the most significant risk factor in CLI, is very common among Indonesian. Endovascular intervention (EVI) is preferred in treating CLI because it is noninvasive and effective. Balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are the most common method of EVI in Indonesia. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty on wound healing in CLI. Method: A cross-sectional study enrolled 90 subjects of CLI who underwent endovascular intervention using balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty from January 2013 to July 2017 in dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The wound healing period between balloon angioplasty dan stent angioplasty was analyzed using unpaired T-test with p<0,05 considered as statistically significant. Data of intervention method wound healing period, and subjects characteristic data (age, amputation, BMI, smoking habit, DM, occlusion site, and blood profile) were obtained. Result: The wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty distributed normally. Mean value of wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are 84,8+/-2,423 and 59,93 +/- 2,423 days with a mean difference of 25 days. The difference in wound healing period in both groups is statically significant (p<0,05). The amputation event in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty is 22 and 16 event with no difference statistically. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty is a better method than balloon angioplasty for wound healing in patients with CLI.

Keywords: critical limb ischemia, endovascular intervention, wound healing, angioplasty

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27 Nondestructive Evaluation of Hidden Delamination in Glass Fiber Composite Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

Authors: Chung-Hyeon Ryu, Do-Hyoung Kim, Hak-Sung Kim


As the use of the composites was increased, the detecting method of hidden damages which have an effect on performance of the composite was important. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was assessed as one of the new powerful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for fiber reinforced composite structures because it has many advantages which can overcome the limitations of conventional NDE techniques such as x-rays or ultrasound. The THz wave offers noninvasive, noncontact and nonionizing methods evaluating composite damages, also it gives a broad range of information about the material properties. In additions, it enables to detect the multiple-delaminations of various nonmetallic materials. In this study, the pulse type THz spectroscopy imaging system was devised and used for detecting and evaluating the hidden delamination in the glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite laminates. The interaction between THz and the GFRP composite was analyzed respect to the type of delamination, including their thickness, size and numbers of overlaps among multiple-delaminations in through-thickness direction. Both of transmission and reflection configurations were used for evaluation of hidden delaminations and THz wave propagations through the delaminations were also discussed. From these results, various hidden delaminations inside of the GFRP composite were successfully detected using time-domain THz spectroscopy imaging system and also compared to the results of C-scan inspection. It is expected that THz NDE technique will be widely used to evaluate the reliability of composite structures.

Keywords: terahertz, delamination, glass fiber reinforced plastic composites, terahertz spectroscopy

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26 Detection of Atrial Fibrillation Using Wearables via Attentional Two-Stream Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Huawei Bai, Jianguo Yao, Fellow, IEEE


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of heart arrhythmia and is closely associated with mortality and morbidity in heart failure, stroke, and coronary artery disease. The development of single spot optical sensors enables widespread photoplethysmography (PPG) screening, especially for AF, since it represents a more convenient and noninvasive approach. To our knowledge, most existing studies based on public and unbalanced datasets can barely handle the multiple noises sources in the real world and, also, lack interpretability. In this paper, we construct a large- scale PPG dataset using measurements collected from PPG wrist- watch devices worn by volunteers and propose an attention-based two-stream heterogeneous neural network (TSHNN). The first stream is a hybrid neural network consisting of a three-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) and two-layer attention- based bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) network to learn representations from temporally sampled signals. The second stream extracts latent representations from the PPG time-frequency spectrogram using a five-layer CNN. The outputs from both streams are fed into a fusion layer for the outcome. Visualization of the attention weights learned demonstrates the effectiveness of the attention mechanism against noise. The experimental results show that the TSHNN outperforms all the competitive baseline approaches and with 98.09% accuracy, achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Keywords: PPG wearables, atrial fibrillation, feature fusion, attention mechanism, hyber network

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25 Evaluation of 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography, MRI, and Ultrasound in the Assessment of Axillary Lymph Node Metastases in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Wooseok Byon, Eunyoung Kim, Junseong Kwon, Byung Joo Song, Chan Heun Park


Purpose: 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can identify nodal metastases in women with primary breast cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of FDG-PET with MRI and sonography scanning to determine axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. Patients and Methods: Between January and December 2012, ninety-nine patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes were evaluated. All patients underwent FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results: Using axillary lymph node assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 51.4% (95% CI, 41.3% to 65.6%) and 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI and ultrasound were 57.1% (95% CI, 39.4% to 73.7%), 67.2% (95% CI, 54.3% to 78.4%) and 42.86% (95% CI, 26.3% to 60.7%), 92.2% (95% CI, 82.7% to 97.4%). Stratification according to hormone receptor status showed an increase in specificity when negative (FDG-PET: 42.3% to 77.8%, MRI 50% to 77.8%, ultrasound 34.6% to 66.7%). Also, positive HER2 status was associated with an increase in specificity (FDG-PET: 42.9% to 85.7%, MRI 50% to 85.7%, ultrasound 35.7% to 71.4%). Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET compared with MRI and ultrasound was high. However, FDG-PET is not sufficiently accurate to appropriately identify lymph node metastases. This study suggests that FDG-PET scanning cannot replace histologic staging in early-stage breast cancer, but might have a role in evaluating axillary lymph node status in hormone receptor negative or HER-2 overexpressing subtypes.

Keywords: axillary lymph node metastasis, FDG-PET, MRI, ultrasound

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24 Osteogenesis in Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Human Turbinate

Authors: A. Reum Son, Jin Seon Kwon, Seung Hun Park, Hai Bang Lee, Moon Suk Kim


These days, stem cell therapy is focused on for promising source of treatment in clinical human disease. As a supporter of stem cells, in situ-forming hydrogels with growth factors and cells appear to be a promising approach in tissue engineering. To examine osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs which is one of mesenchymal stem cells in vivo in an injectable hydrogel, we use a methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone blockcopolymer (MPEG-PCL) solution with osteogenic factors. We synthesized MPEG-PCL hydrogel and measured viscosity to check sol-gel transition. In order to demonstrate osteogenic ability of hTMSCs, we conducted in vitro osteogenesis experiment. Then, to confirm the cell cytotoxicity, we performed WST-1 with hTMSCs and MPEG-PCL. As the result of in vitro experiment, we implanted cell and hydrogel mixture into animal model and checked degree of osteogenesis with histological analysis and amount of expression genes. Through these experimental data, MPEG-PCL hydrogel has sol-gel transition in temperature change and is biocompatible with stem cells. In histological analysis and gene expression, hTMSCs are very good source of osteogenesis with hydrogel and will use it to tissue engineering as important treatment method. hTMSCs could be a good adult stem cell source for usability of isolation and high proliferation. When hTMSCs are used as cell therapy method with in situ-formed hydrogel, they may provide various benefits like a noninvasive alternative for bone tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: injectable hydrogel, stem cell, osteogenic differentiation, tissue engineering

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23 The Superiority of 18F-Sodium Fluoride PET/CT for Detecting Bone Metastases in Comparison with Other Bone Diagnostic Imaging Modalities

Authors: Mojtaba Mirmontazemi, Habibollah Dadgar


Bone is the most common metastasis site in some advanced malignancies, such as prostate and breast cancer. Bone metastasis generally indicates fewer prognostic factors in these patients. Different radiological and molecular imaging modalities are used for detecting bone lesions. Molecular imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, planar bone scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography, and positron emission tomography as noninvasive visualization of the biological occurrences has the potential to exact examination, characterization, risk stratification and comprehension of human being diseases. Also, it is potent to straightly visualize targets, specify clearly cellular pathways and provide precision medicine for molecular targeted therapies. These advantages contribute implement personalized treatment for each patient. Currently, NaF PET/CT has significantly replaced standard bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases. On one hand, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has gained high attention for accurate staging of primary prostate cancer and restaging after biochemical recurrence. On the other hand, FDG PET/CT is not commonly used in osseous metastases of prostate and breast cancer as well as its usage is limited to staging patients with aggressive primary tumors or localizing the site of disease. In this article, we examine current studies about FDG, NaF, and PSMA PET/CT images in bone metastases diagnostic utility and assess response to treatment in patients with breast and prostate cancer.

Keywords: skeletal metastases, fluorodeoxyglucose, sodium fluoride, molecular imaging, precision medicine, prostate cancer (68Ga-PSMA-11)

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