Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 348

Search results for: feeling

348 Effects of Twitter Interactions on Self-Esteem and Narcissistic Behaviour

Authors: Leena-Maria Alyedreessy

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Self-esteem is thought to be determined by ones’ own feeling of being included, liked and accepted by others. This research explores whether this concept may also be applied in the virtual world and assesses whether there is any relationship between Twitter users' self-esteem and the amount of interactions they receive. 20 female Arab participants were given a survey asking them about their Twitter interactions and their feelings of having an imagined audience to fill out and a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Assessment to complete. After completion and statistical analysis, results showed a significant correlation between the feeling of being Twitter elite, the feeling of having a lot of people listening to your tweets and having a lot of interactions with high self-esteem. However, no correlations were detected for low-self-esteem and low interactions.

Keywords: twitter, social media, self-esteem, narcissism, interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
347 Existential Feeling in Contemporary Chinese Novels: The Case of Yan Lianke

Authors: Thuy Hanh Nguyen Thi

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Since 1940, existentialism has penetrated into China and continued to profoundly influence contemporary Chinese literature. By the method of deep reading and text analysis, this article analyzes the existential feeling in Yan Lianke’s novels through various aspects: the Sisyphus senses, the narrative rationalization and the viewpoint of the dead. In addition to pointing out the characteristics of the existential sensation in the writer’s novels, the analysis of the article also provides an insight into the nature and depth of contemporary Chinese society.

Keywords: Yan Lianke, existentialism, the existential feeling, contemporary Chinese literature

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
346 The Relationship between the Feeling of Distributive Justice and National Identity of the Youth

Authors: Leila Batmany

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This research studies the relationship between the feeling of distributive justice and national identity of the youth. The present analysis intends to experimentally investigate the various dimensions of the justice feeling and its effect on the national identity components. The study has taken justice into consideration from four different points of view on the basis of availability of valuable social sources such as power, wealth, knowledge and status in the political, economic, and cultural and status justice respectively. Furthermore, the national identity has been considered as the feeling of honour, attachment and commitment towards national society and its seven components i.e. history, language, culture, political system, religion, geographical territory and society. The 'field study' has been used as the method for the research with the individual as unit, taking 368 young between the age of 18 and 29 living in Tehran, chosen randomly according to Cochran formula. The individual samples have been randomly chosen among five districts in north, south, west, east, and centre of Tehran, based on the multistage cluster sampling. The data collection has been performed with the use of questionnaire and interview. The most important results are as follows: i) The feeling of economic justice is the weakest one among the youth. ii) The strongest and the weakest dimensions of the national identity are, respectively, the historical and the social dimension. iii) There is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling political and statues justice and then national identity, whereas no meaningful relationship exists between the economic and cultural justice and the national identity. iv) There is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling of justice in all dimensions and legitimacy of the political system. There is also such a relationship between the legitimacy of the political system and national identity. v) Generally, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling of distributive justice and national identity among the youth. vi) It is through the legitimacy of the political system that justice feeling can have an influence on the national identity.

Keywords: distributive justice, national identity, legitimacy of political system, Cochran formula, multistage cluster sampling

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345 The Impact of the Feeling of Discrimination and Possible Selves on Refugees’ Professional Trajectories in France

Authors: Zannad Hédia, Zouaghi Sondes, Beji-Becheur Amina

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At the confluence of the fields of business, management and humanities, the question of the professional future of refugees in France seems essential. Based on a qualitative field study including interviews with 20 refugees, on the one hand and the concepts of the possible self and subjective discrimination, on the other, our research identifies three different socio-professional trajectories: those who refuse a degradation of their previous status (qualification, level of responsibilities, etc.), feel discriminated against and reject France and the French people; those who exploit their "stigma" as refugees on a professional level (by creating a company employing or intended for refugees); finally, those who put their identity as a refugee in the background compared to their identity as a professional, do not nurture a feeling of discrimination and develop a broad and malleable professional self.

Keywords: feeling of discrimination, stigmatization, possible selves, professional trajectory, refugees

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344 Psychological Alarm among Individuals Suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Selim A., Albasher N., Bakrmom G., Alanzi S.

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort or pain and associated with alteration in frequency and/or form of bowel habit among other symptoms. This diagnosis is associated with increased levels of psychological distress, maladaptive coping, genetic risk factors, abnormal small and colonic intestine transit, change in stool frequency or form and abdominal discomfort or pain. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess psychological alarm among individuals suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Methods: A cross-sectional correlational research design was used to conduct the current study. A convenience sample of 504 participants was included in the present study. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, ROME III to identify Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Psychological Alarm Questionnaire. Results: Out of 504 participants who reported abdominal discomfort, 297 (58.9 %) participants met the diagnostic criteria of IBS. The mean age of the IBS participants was 30.16 years, females composed 75.1% of the IBS participants, and 55.2% did not seek medical help. Psychological alarms such as feeling anxious, feeling depressed, having suicidal ideations, bodily pain, having impaired functioning due to pain and feeling unable to cope with pain were significantly high among IBS individuals when compared to individuals not suffering from IBS. Psychological alarms such as feeling anxious, feeling depressed, having suicidal ideations, bodily pain, having impaired functioning due to pain and feeling unable to cope with pain were significantly high among IBS individuals compared to individuals not suffering from IBS. Conclusion: IBS is highly associated with significant psychological alarms including depression, anxiety and suicidal ideas.

Keywords: abdominal pain , irritable bowel syndrome, distress, psychological alarms

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
343 Impression Evaluation by Design Change of Anthropomorphic Agent

Authors: Kazuko Sakamoto

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Anthropomorphic agents have been successful in areas where there are many human interactions, such as education and medical care. The persuasive effect is also expected in e-shopping sites on the web. This indicates that customer service is not necessarily human but can play that role. However, the 'humanity' in anthropomorphism sometimes has a risk of working negatively. In general, as the appearance of anthropomorphic agents approaches humans, it is thought that their affinity with humans increases. However, when the degree of similarity reaches a certain level, it gives the user a weird feeling. This is the 'eerie valley' phenomenon. This is a concept used in the world of robotics, but it seems to be applicable to anthropomorphic agents such as characters. Then what kind of design can you accept as an anthropomorphic agent that gives you a feeling of friendliness or good feeling without causing discomfort or fear to people? This study focused on this point and examined what design and characteristics would be effective for marketing communication. As a result of the investigation, it was found that there is no need for gaze and blinking, the size of the eyes is normal or large, and the impression evaluation is higher when the structure is as simple as possible. Conversely, agents with high eye-gaze and white-eye ratios had low evaluations, and the negative impact on eye-gaze was particularly large.

Keywords: anthropomorphicgents, design evaluation, marketing communication, customer service

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342 Influences on Occupational Identity through Trans and Gender Diverse Identity: A Qualitative Study about Work Experiences of Trans and Gender Diverse Individuals

Authors: Robin C. Ladwig

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Work experiences and satisfaction as well as the feeling of belonging has been narrowly explored from the perspective of trans and gender diverse individuals. Hence, the study investigates the relationship of values, attitudes, and norms of occupational environments and the working identity of trans and gender diverse people of the Australian workforce. Based on 22 semi-structured interviews with trans and gender diverse individuals regarding their work and career experiences, a first insight about their feeling of belonging through commonality in the workplace could be established. Communality between the values, attitudes and norms of a trans and gender diverse individuals working identities and profession, organization and working environment could increase the feeling of belonging. Further reflection and evaluation of trans and gender diverse identities in the workplace need to be considered to create an equitable and inclusive workplace of the future. Consequently, an essential development step for the future of work and its fundamental values of diversity, inclusion, and belonging will consist of the acknowledgement and inclusion of trans and gender diverse people as part of a broader social identity of the workplace.

Keywords: belonging, future of work, working identity, trans and gender diverse identity

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341 The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level

Authors: M. Moeinaddini, Z. Asadi-Shekari, Z. Sultan, M. Zaly Shah

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Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. This study tries to consider the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Land use variables (beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres) are used as independent variables and the happiness score is used as the dependent variable in this study. In addition to the land use variables, socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) are also considered as independent variables. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socio-economic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.

Keywords: neighbourhood land use, neighbourhood design, happiness, socio-economic factors, generalised linear modelling

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340 The Spiritual Distress of Women Coping with the End of Life and Death of Their Spouses

Authors: Szu-Mei Hsiao

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Many nurses have concerns about the difficulties of providing spiritual care for ethnic-Chinese patients and family members within their cultural context. This is due to a lack of knowledge and training. Most family caregivers are female. There has been little research exploring the potential impact of Chinese cultural values on the spiritual distress of couple dyadic participants in Taiwan. This study explores the spiritual issues of Taiwanese women coping with their husband’s advanced cancer during palliative care to death. Qualitative multiple case studies were used. Data was collected through participant observation and in-depth face-to-face interviews. Transcribed interview data was analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Three couples were recruited from a community-based rural hospital in Taiwan where the husbands were hospitalized in a medical ward. Four spiritual distress themes emerged from the analysis: (1) A personal conflict in trying to come to terms with love and forgiveness; the inability to forgive their husband’s mistakes; and, lack of their family’s love and support. (2) A feeling of hopelessness due to advanced cancer, such as a feeling of disappointment in their destiny and karma, including expressing doubt on survival. (3) A feeling of uncertainty in facing death peacefully, such as fear of facing the unknown world; and, (4) A feeling of doubt causing them to question the meaning and values in their lives. This research has shown that caregivers needed family support, friends, social welfare, and the help of their religion to meet their spiritual needs in coping within the final stages of life and death. The findings of this study could assist health professionals to detect the spiritual distress of ethnic-Chinese patients and caregivers in the context of their cultural or religious background as early as possible.

Keywords: advanced cancer, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, qualitative research, spiritual distress

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339 Migrants in the West Immersed on Nihilism: Towards a Space for Mutual Recognition and Self-Realization

Authors: Marinete Araujo da Silva Fobister

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This presentation aims to discuss how the feeling of ‘nostalgia’ both present on Westerns and migrants could shed light to a mutual recognition and an exchange of ways of life that could enhance mutual possibilities of self-realization. It seems that this feeling of nostalgia is related to another unfolding of the nihilism of the death of God diagnosed by Nietzsche. Westerns are feeling on the margins of the values of their own culture as they feel such values as external to them. At the same time, some groups are claiming the return of the old devalued values. In this scenario, the West is receiving many migrants from different parts of the world since the second half of the last century. Migrants might be suffering from nostalgia or homesickness for having left their home. It might be that sharing a sense of nostalgia, although with different meanings, can bring together Westerns and migrants. Migrants bring ways of life that might be unknown and inexperienced in the West, and these can shed light to new forms of interpretation and cultivation of ones’ drives, and forces and this could become a source of mutual strength cultivation. Therefore, this mutual feeling of nostalgia could lead to ways of exploring the idea of self- realization in Nietzsche detaching it from the idea of being mainly individual to a more trans-individual-cultural claim. Nietzsche argues that nihilism is a European event here translated as a Western event, which would take 200 years until it could be overcome. To overcome nihilism a new kind of human would be needed, a creative and strong kind. For Nietzsche, there is not a fixed or true self, hence one possibility for one to achieve self-realization would reside on cultivating their multiple creative forces. The argument here is that in this recent unfolding of nihilism, translated in the sense of nostalgia, the encounter between the mainstream western immersed on nihilism with migrants could create a sense of a shared temporary home, where these different ways of life could inspire each other to create new meanings. Indeed, contributing to the expansion of one’s world view, drives and forces. Therefore, fertilizing the soil for the cultivation of self-realization and consequently the creation of new values.

Keywords: migration, nihilism, nostalgia, self-realization

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338 French Managers and Their Subordinates’ Well-Being

Authors: B. Gangloff, N. Malleh

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Well-being at work has many positive aspects. Our general hypothesis is that employees who feel well-being at work will be positively valued by their superiors, and that this positive value, which evokes the concept of social norms, allows us to assign to well-being at work a normative status. Three populations (line managers, students destined to become human resource managers, and employees) responded to a well-being questionnaire. Managers had to indicate, for each item, if they appreciated (or not) an employee feeling the well-being presented in the item; students had to indicate which items an employee should check if s/he wants to be positively (versus negatively) appreciated by his/her superior; and employees had to indicate to what degree each item corresponded to the well-being they used to feel. Three hypotheses are developed and confirmed: Managers positively value employees feeling some sense of well-being; students are aware of this positivity; spontaneously employees show a state of well-being, which means, knowing that spontaneous self-presentation is often produced by social desirability, that employees are aware of the well-being positivity. These data are discussed under a conceptual and applied angle.

Keywords: normativity, well-being at work, organization, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
337 Multimodal Sentiment Analysis With Web Based Application

Authors: Shreyansh Singh, Afroz Ahmed

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Sentiment Analysis intends to naturally reveal the hidden mentality that we hold towards an entity. The total of this assumption over a populace addresses sentiment surveying and has various applications. Current text-based sentiment analysis depends on the development of word embeddings and Machine Learning models that take in conclusion from enormous text corpora. Sentiment Analysis from text is presently generally utilized for consumer loyalty appraisal and brand insight investigation. With the expansion of online media, multimodal assessment investigation is set to carry new freedoms with the appearance of integral information streams for improving and going past text-based feeling examination using the new transforms methods. Since supposition can be distinguished through compelling follows it leaves, like facial and vocal presentations, multimodal opinion investigation offers good roads for examining facial and vocal articulations notwithstanding the record or printed content. These methodologies use the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) with the LSTM modes to increase their performance. In this study, we characterize feeling and the issue of multimodal assessment investigation and audit ongoing advancements in multimodal notion examination in various spaces, including spoken surveys, pictures, video websites, human-machine, and human-human connections. Difficulties and chances of this arising field are additionally examined, promoting our theory that multimodal feeling investigation holds critical undiscovered potential.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, RNN, LSTM, word embeddings

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336 Examining the Level of Career Maturity on Cultural Aspect among Undergraduate Foreign Students in A Public University in Malaysia

Authors: Mustafa Tekke, Nurullah Kurt

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This study examined the level of career maturity of undergraduate foreign students in a public university in Malaysia by examining on cultural aspect by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine (Male = 106, Female = 123) foreign students studying in various majors completed the Career Maturity Inventory and the scores of the foreign students on the CMI suggested that they had slightly higher levels than the mean level of maturity in career. Result was also supported by testing the feeling about major, consideration of changing major and planning after graduation, which indicated that foreign students had their own career decision making. However, this result should be viewed with caution within ethnic difference.

Keywords: career maturity, foreign students, career decision making, feeling about major, knowledge about major

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
335 Factor Analysis of Self-Efficacy among Traniees in the National Service for the Healthy Lifestyle Program

Authors: Nuzsep Almigo, Md Amin Md Taff, Yusop Ahmad, Norkhalid Salimin, Gunathevan Elumalai

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This research aimed to determine the level of self-efficacy in obese trainees before and after the Healthy Lifestyle Program. Self-efficacy is defined as the feeling, belief, perception, belief in the ability to cope with a particular situation that will influence the way individuals cope with the situation. Research instrument used was self efficacy questionnaire consisting of four main factors: (i) cognitive (abilities in a positive and realistic attitudes to the potential of to perform the duties, restrictions, or social desire), (ii) effective (mental management ability, feeling and mood), (iii) motivation (determination and the level of ability to achieve the purpose or goal), and (iv) selective (ability to choose the social conditions confronting and adapting to situations). The study sample consisted of 118 trainees from Healthy Lifestyle Program. The analysis showed there was a significant difference in self-efficacy before and after the Healthy Lifestyle Program (p = 0.00) indicated by increasing self-efficacy in the program.

Keywords: self efficacy, self-confidence, affective, motivation, selective

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334 Exploring Program Directors’ and Faculty’s Perception and Factors Leading to Burnout in Higher Education Institutions in Azerbaijan

Authors: Gunay Imanguliyeva

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Burnout is one of the concerning issues in education. The present paper aimed to explore the concept of burnout among program directors and faculty working in three higher education institutions (HEIs) in Azerbaijan and identify the factors contributing to burnout and the possible consequences of this syndrome on research participants’ professional and personal life. The researcher believed that if the concept of burnout was defined precisely and explored among more faculty, administration, and educational institutions, university leadership may have looked for the ways to support program directors and faculty, which would increase job satisfaction and decrease turnover. An exploratory qualitative research design was chosen for this study. The conceptual framework of this study was based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The instruments of the research were semi-structured interviews, observation, and document review. Three EFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) instructors and three program directors of the English Language Department working in three higher educational institutions in Azerbaijan participated in this study. The major findings of this study showed that both program directors and faculty suffered from burnout. Though they were aware of the factors that caused burnout, they did not know how to deal with this feeling. While research participants had high feeling of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, they had a low feeling of Personal Accomplishment. The researcher suggests that further research is important to measure the level of burnout and to enable HEIs to increase the productivity of program directors’ and faculty’s work as well as decrease the rate of retention in future. Also, in order to help program directors and faculty to cope with burnout, the research recommends the university leadership to meet their psycho-social needs, emotional-physical needs, and personal-intellectual needs. Keywords: burnout, emotional exhaustion, factors, well-being, higher education

Keywords: burnout, well-being, higher education, factors

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333 Adjustment with Changed Lifestyle at Old Age Homes: A Perspective of Elderly in India

Authors: Priyanka V. Janbandhu, Santosh B. Phad, Dhananjay W. Bansod

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The current changing scenario of the family is a compelling aged group not only to be alone in a nuclear family but also to join the old age institutions. The consequences of it are feeling of neglected or left alone by the children, adding a touch of helpless in the absence of lack of expected care and support. The accretion of all these feelings and unpleasant events ignite a question in their mind that – who is there for me? The efforts have taken to highlight the issues of the elderly after joining the old age home and their perception about the current life as an institutional inmate. This attempt to cover up the condition, adjustment, changed lifestyle and perspective in the association with several issues of the elderly, which have an essential effect on their well-being. The present research piece has collected the information about institutionalized elderly with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. This study interviewed 500 respondents from 22 old age homes of Pune city of Maharashtra State, India. This data collection methodology consists of Multi-stage random sampling. In which the stratified random sampling adopted for the selection of old age homes and sample size determination, sample selection probability proportional to the size and simple random sampling techniques implemented. The study provides that around five percent of the elderly shifted to old age home along with their spouse, whereas ten percent of the elderly are staying away from their spouse. More than 71 percent of the elderly have children, and they are an involuntary inmate of the old age institution, even less than one-third of the elderly consulted to the institution before the joining it. More than sixty percent of the elderly have children, but they joined institution due to the unpleasant response of their children only. Around half of the elderly responded that there are issues while adjusting to this environment, many of them are still persistent. At least one elderly out of ten is there who is suffering from the feeling of loneliness and left out by children and other family members. In contrast, around 97 percent of the elderly are very happy or satisfied with the institutional facilities. It illustrates that the issues are associated with their children and other family members, even though they left their home before a year or more. When enquired about this loneliness feeling few of them are suffering from it before leaving their homes, it was due to lack of interaction with children, as they are too busy to have time for the aged parents. Additionally, the conflicts or fights within the family due to the presence of old persons in the family contributed to establishing another feeling of insignificance among the elderly parents. According to these elderly, have more than 70 percent of the share, the children are ready to spend money indirectly for us through these institutions, but not prepared to provide some time and very few amounts of all this expenditure directly for us.

Keywords: elderly, old age homes, life style changes and adjustment, India

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332 Workaholism: A Study of Iranian Journalists at Gender, Career, and Educational Diversity

Authors: Minavand Mohammad, Maghsoudi Masoud, Mousavi Mahdis, Vahed Zahra, Hamidi Shabnam

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While workaholism in organizations has received considerable popular attention, our understanding of it on the basis of research proof is limited. This comes from the deficiency of both appropriate definitions and measures of the concept. The purpose of this paper is to investigate gender, career and educational diversity in three workaholism components among Iranian journalists. Data were collected from 243 journalists (110 men and 133 women) using nameless completed questionnaires, with a 48 percent response rate. No gender differences found between male and female respondents, so there seems no consistency with previous findings. Furthermore, the results showed that different levels of jobs and education score correspondingly on the measures of work involvement, feeling driven to work and work enjoyment. All data are gathered using self report questionnaires. It is not evident the extent to which these findings would generalize to men and women in other vocations. This investigation has a contribution to the small but growing literature on flow and optimal experience in media organizations in Iran.

Keywords: gender, career, education, workaholism, Iranian journalists, work involvement, work enjoyment, feeling driven to work

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331 Psychological Aspects in the Doctrine of Dependent Origination

Authors: Sanjoy Barua Chowdhury

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This research is an attempt to examine psychological aspect of the Buddha’s most cardinal and fundamental doctrine of Dependent Origination (paṭiccasamuppāda) along with drawing out a clear picture of the constituents from the law of causation and analyzes the mental states and motivational factors behind each constituent among twelvefold links. Meticulous research into the doctrine of Dependent Origination reveals how the main links from the doctrine of dependent origination provide a framework for psychological analysis through volitional formation (saṅkhāra), consciousness (viññāna), mentality and materiality (nāma-rūpa), contact (phassa), feeling (vedanā), craving (tanhā) and clinging (upādāna). This paper further illustrates the notion of perception (saññā) which can be found in the function of volitional formation (saṅkhāra) - a contributing factor, according to modern psychology, in the role of understanding human (puggala) motivation. The psychological analysis of dependent origination expounds the concept of personality highlighting present existence through the inter-relationship of the five faculties (pañcaupadānakkhandhā), viz., form (rūpa), feeling (vedanā), perception (saññā), volitional formation (saṅkhārā) and consciousness (viññāṇa).

Keywords: dependent origination, perception, motivational factors, feelings

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330 An In-Depth Study on the Experience of Novice Teachers

Authors: Tsafi Timor

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The research focuses on the exploration of the unique journey that novice teachers experience in their first year of teaching, among graduates of re-training programs into teaching. The study explores the experiences of success and failure and the factors that underpin positive experiences, as well as the journey (process) of this year with reference to the comparison between novice teachers and new immigrants. The content analysis that was adopted in the study was conducted on texts that were written by the teachers and detailed their first year of teaching. The findings indicate that experiences of success are featured by personal satisfaction, constant need of feedback, high motivation in challenging situations, and emotions. Failure experiences are featured by frustration, helplessness, sense of humiliation, feeling of rejection, and lack of efficacy. Factors that promote and inhibit positive experiences relate to personal, personality, professional and organizational levels. Most teachers reported feeling like new immigrants, and demonstrated different models of the process of the first year of teaching. Further research is recommended on the factors that promote and inhibit positive experiences, and on 'The Missing Link' of the relationship between Teacher Education Programs and the practices in schools.

Keywords: first-year teaching, novice teachers, school practice, teacher education programs

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329 Computerized Scoring System: A Stethoscope to Understand Consumer's Emotion through His or Her Feedback

Authors: Chen Yang, Jun Hu, Ping Li, Lili Xue

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Most companies pay careful attention to consumer feedback collection, so it is popular to find the ‘feedback’ button of all kinds of mobile apps. Yet it is much more changeling to analyze these feedback texts and to catch the true feelings of a consumer regarding either a problem or a complimentary of consumers who hands out the feedback. Especially to the Chinese content, it is possible that; in one context the Chinese feedback expresses positive feedback, but in the other context, the same Chinese feedback may be a negative one. For example, in Chinese, the feedback 'operating with loudness' works well with both refrigerator and stereo system. Apparently, this feedback towards a refrigerator shows negative feedback; however, the same feedback is positive towards a stereo system. By introducing Bradley, M. and Lang, P.'s Affective Norms for English Text (ANET) theory and Bucci W.’s Referential Activity (RA) theory, we, usability researchers at Pingan, are able to decipher the feedback and to find the hidden feelings behind the content. We subtract 2 disciplines ‘valence’ and ‘dominance’ out of 3 of ANET and 2 disciplines ‘concreteness’ and ‘specificity’ out of 4 of RA to organize our own rating system with a scale of 1 to 5 points. This rating system enables us to judge the feelings/emotion behind each feedback, and it works well with both single word/phrase and a whole paragraph. The result of the rating reflects the strength of the feeling/emotion of the consumer when he/she is typing the feedback. In our daily work, we first require a consumer to answer the net promoter score (NPS) before writing the feedback, so we can determine the feedback is positive or negative. Secondly, we code the feedback content according to company problematic list, which contains 200 problematic items. In this way, we are able to collect the data that how many feedbacks left by the consumer belong to one typical problem. Thirdly, we rate each feedback based on the rating system mentioned above to illustrate the strength of the feeling/emotion when our consumer writes the feedback. In this way, we actually obtain two kinds of data 1) the portion, which means how many feedbacks are ascribed into one problematic item and 2) the severity, how strong the negative feeling/emotion is when the consumer is writing this feedback. By crossing these two, and introducing the portion into X-axis and severity into Y-axis, we are able to find which typical problem gets the high score in both portion and severity. The higher the score of a problem has, the more urgent a problem is supposed to be solved as it means more people write stronger negative feelings in feedbacks regarding this problem. Moreover, by introducing hidden Markov model to program our rating system, we are able to computerize the scoring system and are able to process thousands of feedback in a short period of time, which is efficient and accurate enough for the industrial purpose.

Keywords: computerized scoring system, feeling/emotion of consumer feedback, referential activity, text mining

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328 A Study of New Window Typology for Palestinian Residential Building for More Sustainable Building

Authors: Nisreen Ardda

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Fenestrations are one of the main building envelope elements that play an important role in home social-ecological l factors. They play a vital role in providing natural lighting and ventilation, visual, thermal, and acoustical comfort, and also provide weather-tightness, privacy, a feeling of openness. In most home buildings, fenestrations are controlled manually by the occupants, which significantly impacts occupants' comfort and energy use. Culture plays a central role in the Palestinians window operation behavior. Improved windows design that provides the desired privacy while maintaining the appropriate function of fenestration (natural lighting, thermal comfort, and visual openness) is becoming a necessity. Therefore, this paper proposes a window typology to achieve the social and environmental factors in residential buildings in the West Bank. The window typology and reference building were designed in Rivet 2021, and natural ventilation was carried out in Design Builder 4.3.0.039. The results showed that the proposed typology provides the desired privacy and the feeling of openness without compromising natural ventilation as the existing window did.

Keywords: window design, passive design, sustainable built environment, building material

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327 Investigating the Impact of Task Demand and Duration on Passage of Time Judgements and Duration Estimates

Authors: Jesika A. Walker, Mohammed Aswad, Guy Lacroix, Denis Cousineau

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There is a fundamental disconnect between the experience of time passing and the chronometric units by which time is quantified. Specifically, there appears to be no relationship between the passage of time judgments (PoTJs) and verbal duration estimates at short durations (e.g., < 2000 milliseconds). When a duration is longer than several minutes, however, evidence suggests that a slower feeling of time passing is predictive of overestimation. Might the length of a task moderate the relation between PoTJs and duration estimates? Similarly, the estimation paradigm (prospective vs. retrospective) and the mental effort demanded of a task (task demand) have both been found to influence duration estimates. However, only a handful of experiments have investigated these effects for tasks of long durations, and the results have been mixed. Thus, might the length of a task also moderate the effects of the estimation paradigm and task demand on duration estimates? To investigate these questions, 273 participants performed either an easy or difficult visual and memory search task for either eight or 58 minutes, under prospective or retrospective instructions. Afterward, participants provided a duration estimate in minutes, followed by a PoTJ on a Likert scale (1 = very slow, 7 = very fast). A 2 (prospective vs. retrospective) × 2 (eight minutes vs. 58 minutes) × 2 (high vs. low difficulty) between-subjects ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between task demand and task duration on PoTJs, p = .02. Specifically, time felt faster in the more challenging task, but only in the eight-minute condition, p < .01. Duration estimates were transformed into RATIOs (estimate/actual duration) to standardize estimates across durations. An ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between estimation paradigm and task duration, p = .03. Specifically, participants overestimated the task more if they were given prospective instructions, but only in the eight-minute task. Surprisingly, there was no effect of task difficulty on duration estimates. Thus, the demands of a task may influence ‘feeling of time’ and ‘estimation time’ differently, contributing to the existing theory that these two forms of time judgement rely on separate underlying cognitive mechanisms. Finally, a significant main effect of task duration was found for both PoTJs and duration estimates (ps < .001). Participants underestimated the 58-minute task (m = 42.5 minutes) and overestimated the eight-minute task (m = 10.7 minutes). Yet, they reported the 58-minute task as passing significantly slower on a Likert scale (m = 2.5) compared to the eight-minute task (m = 4.1). In fact, a significant correlation was found between PoTJ and duration estimation (r = .27, p <.001). This experiment thus provides evidence for a compensatory effect at longer durations, in which people underestimate a ‘slow feeling condition and overestimate a ‘fast feeling condition. The results are discussed in relation to heuristics that might alter the relationship between these two variables when conditions range from several minutes up to almost an hour.

Keywords: duration estimates, long durations, passage of time judgements, task demands

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326 Experiences of Being a Manager in the Municipal Sector in Rural Northern Sweden

Authors: S. Asplund, J. Åhlin, S. Åström, B. M. Lindgren

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The aim of this qualitative study was to describe experiences of work-related stress among highly stressed municipal employees in rural northern Sweden. We interviewed 15 employees in the municipal sector in rural northern Sweden using a semi-structured guide and subjected the interviews to qualitative content analysis. Under the main theme of Suffering Though Endless Chaos, we summarized four themes: facing incompatible interests and high demands due to lack of time and resources; feeling powerless, trapped, and ignored due to lack of control; feeling insufficient, insecure, and guilty due to challenging relations and high expectations; and struggling with consequences such as health problems, spillover effects on family life, and difficulty coping. Findings from this study suggest the importance of acknowledging suffering among municipal employees in a stressful work environment. An imbalance between job demands and resources is affecting both the health and family lives of employees and also their ability to work. It seems important to improve the work environment through supportive leadership, job control, and reasonable job demands to prevent stress, reduce suffering, and create a healthy organization.

Keywords: manager, municipal sector, occupational health, qualitative content analysis

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325 Explaining Irregularity in Music by Entropy and Information Content

Authors: Lorena Mihelac, Janez Povh

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In 2017, we conducted a research study using data consisting of 160 musical excerpts from different musical styles, to analyze the impact of entropy of the harmony on the acceptability of music. In measuring the entropy of harmony, we were interested in unigrams (individual chords in the harmonic progression) and bigrams (the connection of two adjacent chords). In this study, it has been found that 53 musical excerpts out from 160 were evaluated by participants as very complex, although the entropy of the harmonic progression (unigrams and bigrams) was calculated as low. We have explained this by particularities of chord progression, which impact the listener's feeling of complexity and acceptability. We have evaluated the same data twice with new participants in 2018 and with the same participants for the third time in 2019. These three evaluations have shown that the same 53 musical excerpts, found to be difficult and complex in the study conducted in 2017, are exhibiting a high feeling of complexity again. It was proposed that the content of these musical excerpts, defined as “irregular,” is not meeting the listener's expectancy and the basic perceptual principles, creating a higher feeling of difficulty and complexity. As the “irregularities” in these 53 musical excerpts seem to be perceived by the participants without being aware of it, affecting the pleasantness and the feeling of complexity, they have been defined as “subliminal irregularities” and the 53 musical excerpts as “irregular.” In our recent study (2019) of the same data (used in previous research works), we have proposed a new measure of the complexity of harmony, “regularity,” based on the irregularities in the harmonic progression and other plausible particularities in the musical structure found in previous studies. We have in this study also proposed a list of 10 different particularities for which we were assuming that they are impacting the participant’s perception of complexity in harmony. These ten particularities have been tested in this paper, by extending the analysis in our 53 irregular musical excerpts from harmony to melody. In the examining of melody, we have used the computational model “Information Dynamics of Music” (IDyOM) and two information-theoretic measures: entropy - the uncertainty of the prediction before the next event is heard, and information content - the unexpectedness of an event in a sequence. In order to describe the features of melody in these musical examples, we have used four different viewpoints: pitch, interval, duration, scale degree. The results have shown that the texture of melody (e.g., multiple voices, homorhythmic structure) and structure of melody (e.g., huge interval leaps, syncopated rhythm, implied harmony in compound melodies) in these musical excerpts are impacting the participant’s perception of complexity. High information content values were found in compound melodies in which implied harmonies seem to have suggested additional harmonies, affecting the participant’s perception of the chord progression in harmony by creating a sense of an ambiguous musical structure.

Keywords: entropy and information content, harmony, subliminal (ir)regularity, IDyOM

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324 Development of Beeswax-Discharge Writing Material for Visually Impaired Persons

Authors: K. Doi, T. Nishimura, H. Fujimoto, T. Tanaka

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It has been known that visually impaired persons have some problems in getting visual information. Therefore, information accessibility for the visually impaired persons is very important in a current information society. Some application software with read-aloud function for using personal computer and smartphone are getting more and more popular among visually impaired persons in the world. On the other hand, it is also very important for being able to learn how to read and write characters such as Braille and Visual character. Braille typewriter has been widely used in learning Braille. And also raised-line drawing kits as writing material has been used for decades for especially acquired visually impaired persons. However, there are some drawbacks such as the drawn line cannot be erased. Moreover, visibility of drawing lines is not so good for visually impaired with low vision. We had significant number of requests for developing new writing material for especially acquired visually impaired persons instead of raised-line drawing kits. For conducting development research of novel writing material, we could receive a research grant from ministry of health, labor and welfare in Japanese government. In this research, we developed writing material typed pens and pencils with Beeswax-discharge instead of conventional raised-line drawing kits. This writing material was equipped with cartridge heater for melting beeswax and its heat controller. When this pen users held down the pen tip on the regular paper such as fine paper and so on, the melted beeswax could be discharged from pen tip with valve structure. The beeswax was discharged at 100 gf of holding down force based on results of our previous trial study. The shape of pen tip was semispherical for becoming low friction between pen tip and surface of paper. We conducted one basic experiment to evaluate influence of the curvature of pen tip on ease to write. Concretely, the conditions of curvature was 0.15, 0.35, 0.50, 1.00 mm. The following four interval scales were used as indexes of subjective assessment during writing such as feeling of smooth motion of pen, feeling of comfortable writing, sense of security and feeling of writing fatigue. Ten subjects were asked to participate in this experiment. The results reveal that subjects could draw easily when the radius of the pen tip was 1.00 mm, and lines drawn with beeswax-discharge writing material were easy to perceive.

Keywords: beeswax-discharge writing material, raised-line drawing kits, visually impaired persons, pen tip

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323 The Problems of Women over 65 with Incontinence Diagnosis: A Case Study in Turkey

Authors: Birsel Canan Demirbag, Kıymet Yesilcicek Calik, Hacer Kobya Bulut

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Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the problems of women over 65 with incontinence diagnosis. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with women over 65 with incontinence diagnosis in four Family Health Centers in a city in Eastern Black Sea region between November 1, and December 20, 2015. 203, 107, 178, 180 women over 65 were registered in these centers and 262 had incontinence diagnosis at least once and had an ongoing complaint. 177 women were volunteers for the study. During home visits and using face-to-face survey methodology, participants were given socio-demographic characteristics survey, Sandvik severity scale, Incontinence Quality of Life Scale, Urogenital Distress Inventory and a questionnaire including challenges experienced due to incontinence developed by the researcher. Data were analyzed with SPSS program using percentages, numbers, Chi-square, Man-Whitney U and t test with 95% confidence interval and a significance level p <0.05. Findings: 67 ± 1.4 was the mean age, 2.05 ± 0.04 was parity, 44.5 ± 2.12 was menopause age, 66.3% were primary school graduates, 45.7% had deceased spouse, 44.4% lived in a large family, 67.2% had their own room, 77.8% had income, 89.2% could meet self- care, 73.2% had a diagnosis of mixed incontinence, 87.5% suffered for 6-20 years % 78.2 had diuretics, antidepressants and heart medicines, 20.5% had urinary fecal cases, 80.5% had bladder training at least once, 90.1% didn’t have bladder diary calendar/control training programs, 31.1% had hysterectomy for prolapse, 97.1'i% was treated with lower urinary tract infection at least once, 66.3% saw a doctor to get drug in the last three months, 76.2 could not go out alone, 99.2 % had at least one chronic disease, 87.6 % had constipation complain, 2.9% had chronic cough., 45.1% fell due to a sudden rise for toilet. Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Average score was (QOL) 54.3 ± 21.1, Sandvik score was 12.1 ± 2.5, Urogenital Distress Inventory was 47.7 ± 9.2. Difficulties experienced due to incontinence were 99.5% feeling of unhappiness, 67.1% constant feeling of urine smell due to failing to change briefs frequently, % 87.2 move away from social life, 89.7 unable to use pad, 99.2% feeling of disturbing households / other individuals, 87.5% feel dizziness/fall due to sudden rise, 87.4% feeling of others’ imperceptions about the situation, % 94.3 insomnia, 78.2 lack of assistance, 84.7% couldn’t afford urine protection briefs. Results: With this study, it was found out that there were a lot of unsolved issues at individual and community level affecting the life quality of women with incontinence. In accordance with this common problem in women, to facilitate daily life it is obvious that regular home care training programs at institutional level in our country will be effective.

Keywords: health problems, incontinence, incontinence quality of life questionnaire, old age, urinary urogenital distress inventory, Sandviken severity, women

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322 An Attempt to Get Communication Design Students to Reflect: A Content Analysis of Students’ Learning Journals

Authors: C. K. Peter Chuah

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Essentially, the intention of reflective journal is meant for students to develop higher-order thinking skills and to provide a 'space' to make their learning experience and thinking, making and feeling visible, i.e., it provides students an opportunity to evaluate their learning critically by focusing on the rationale behind their thinking, making and feeling. In addition, reflective journal also gets the students to focus on how could things be done differently—the possibility, alternative point of views, and opportunities for change. It is hoped that by getting communication design students to reflect at various intervals, they could move away from mere working on the design project and pay more attention to what they thought they have learned in relation to the development of their design ability. Unfortunately, a closer examination—through content analysis—of the learning journals submitted by a group of design students revealed that most of the reflections were descriptive and tended to be a summary of what occurred in the learning experience. While many students were able to describe what they did, very few were able to explain how they were able to do something critically. It can be concluded that to get design students to reflect is a fairly easy task, but to get them to reflect critically could be very challenging. To ensure that design students could benefit from the use of reflective journal as a tool to develop their critical thinking skills, a more systematic and structured approach to the introduction of critical thinking and reflective journal should be built into the design curriculum to provide as much practice and sufficient feedback as other studio subjects.

Keywords: communication design education, critical thinking, reflection, reflective journal

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
321 Place Attachment as Basic Condition for Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction in East African Wetland Users

Authors: Sophie-Bo Heinkel, Andrea Rechenburg, Thomas Kistemann

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The current status of wellbeing and life satisfaction of subsistence farmers in a wetland in Uganda and the contributing role of place attachment has been assessed. The aim of this study is to shed light on environmental factors supporting wellbeing in a wetland setting. Furthermore, it has been assessed, how the emotional bonding to the wetland as ‘place’ influences the peoples’ wellbeing and life satisfaction. The results shed light on the human-environment-relationship. A survey was carried out in three communities in urban and rural areas in a wetland basin in Uganda. A sample (n=235) provided information about the attachment to the wetland, the participants’ relation to the place of their residence and their emotional wellbeing. The Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) was assessed as well as the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem scale (RSE). Furthermore, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was applied as well as the Place Attachment Inventory (PAI), which consists of the two intertwined dimensions of place identity and place dependence. Beside this, binary indicators as ‘feeling save’ and ‘feeling comfortable’ and ‘enjoying to live at the place of residence’ have been assessed. A bivariate correlation analysis revealed a high interconnectivity between all metric scales. Especially, the subscale ‘place identity’ showed significances with all other scales. A cluster analysis revealed three groups, which differed in the perception of place-related indicators and their attachment to the wetland as well as the status of wellbeing. First, a cluster whose majority is dissatisfied with their lives, but mainly had a good status of emotional well-being. This group does not feel attached to the wetland and lives in a town. Comparably less persons of this group feel safe and comfortable at their place of residence. In the second cluster, persons feel highly attached to the wetland and identify with it. This group was characterized by the high number of persons preferring their current place of residence and do not consider moving. All persons feel well and satisfied with their lives. The third group of persons is mainly living in rural areas and feels highly attached to the wetland. They are satisfied with their lives, but only a small minority is in a good emotional state of wellbeing. The emotional attachment to a place influences life satisfaction and, indirectly, the emotional wellbeing. In the present study it could be shown that subsistence farmers are attached to the wetland, as it is the source of their livelihood. While those living in areas with a good infrastructure are less dependent on the wetland and, therefore, less attached to. This feeling also was mirrored in the perception of a place as being safe and comfortable. The identification with a place is crucial for the feeling of being at “home”. Subsistence farmers feel attached to the ecosystem, but they also might be exposed to environmental and social stressors influencing their short-term emotional wellbeing. The provision of place identity is an ecosystem service provided by wetlands, which supports the status of wellbeing in human beings.

Keywords: mental health, positive environments, quality of life, wellbeing

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320 Participation in Decision Making and Work Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Ethical Climate

Authors: Ali Muhammad

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The study examines the consequences of decision making in Kuwait work organization. The framework used in this study proposes that participation in decision making improves organizational ethical climate, which in turn increases employee’s trust in supervisor and trust in the organization. Furthermore, the model suggests that allowing employees to voice their opinions positively effects their perceptions of organizational justice. Providing employees with the opportunity to participate in decision making (voice), enhances their perceptions of the fairness of those decisions. Allowing employees to express their opinions and feeling about decisions being made show that the organization respect appreciates their views. This feeling of respect and appreciation reflects positively on employee’s perception of justice. Survey data were collected from a sample of 292 employees working in Kuwaiti work organizations. Pearson correlation, non-parametric tests, and structural equation models were used to analyze the data. Results of the analysis show that participation in decision making enhances employee perception of ethical climate, which in turn increases perception organizational justice and organizational trust. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: participation in decision making, organizational trust, trust in supervisor, organizational justice, ethical climate

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319 The Untreated Burden of Parkinson’s Disease: A Patient Perspective

Authors: John Acord, Ankita Batla, Kiran Khepar, Maude Schmidt, Charlotte Allen, Russ Bradford

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Objectives: Despite the availability oftreatment options, Parkinson’s disease (PD) continues to impact heavily on a patient’s quality of life (QoL), as many symptoms that bother the patient remain unexplored and untreated in clinical settings. The aims of this research were to understand the burden of PDsymptoms from a patient perspective, particularly those which are the most persistent and debilitating, and to determine if current treatments and treatment algorithms adequately focus on their resolution. Methods: A13-question, online, patient-reported survey was created based on the MDS-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS)and symptoms listed on Parkinson’s Disease Patient Advocacy Groups websites, and then validated by 10 Parkinson’s patients. In the survey, patients were asked to choose both their most common and their most bothersome symptoms, whether they had received treatment for those and, if so, had it been effective in resolving those symptoms. Results: The most bothersome symptoms reported by the 111 participants who completed the survey were sleep problems (61%), feeling tired (56%), slowness of movements (54%), and pain in some parts of the body (49%). However, while 86% of patients reported receiving dopamine or dopamine like drugs to treat their PD, far fewer reported receiving targeted therapies for additional symptoms. For example, of the patients who reported having sleep problems, only 33% received some form of treatment for this symptom. This was also true for feeling tired (30% received treatment for this symptom), slowness of movements (62% received treatment for this symptom), and pain in some parts of the body (61% received treatment for this symptom). Additionally, 65% of patients reported that the symptoms they experienced were not adequately controlled by the treatments they received, and 9% reported that their current treatments had no effect on their symptoms whatsoever. Conclusion: The survey outcomes highlight that the majority of patients involved in the study received treatment focused on their disease, however, symptom-based treatments were less well represented. Consequently, patient-reported symptoms such as sleep problems and feeling tired tended to receive more fragmented intervention than ‘classical’ PD symptoms, such as slowness of movement, even though they were reported as being amongst the most bothersome symptoms for patients. This research highlights the need to explore symptom burden from the patient’s perspective and offer Customised treatment/support for both motor and non-motor symptoms maximize patients’ quality of life.

Keywords: survey, patient reported symptom burden, unmet needs, parkinson's disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 176