Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 184

Search results for: cycling

184 An Analysis of Conditions for Efficiency Gains in Large ICEs Using Cycling

Authors: Bauer Peter, Murillo Jenny

Abstract:

This paper investigates the bounds of achievable fuel efficiency improvements in engines due to cycling between two operating points assuming a series hybrid configuration . It is shown that for linear bsfc dependencies (as a function of power), cycling is only beneficial if the average power needs are smaller than the power at the optimal bsfc value. Exact expressions for the fuel efficiency gains relative to the constant output power case are derived. This asymptotic analysis is then extended to the case where transient losses due to a change in the operating point are also considered. The case of the boundary bsfc trajectory where constant power application and cycling yield the same fuel consumption.is investigated. It is shown that the boundary bsfc locations of the second non-optimal operating points is hyperbolic. The analysis of the boundary case allows to evaluate whether for a particular engine, cycling can be beneficial. The introduced concepts are illustrated through a number of real world examples, i.e. large production Diesel engines in series hybrid configurations.

Keywords: cycling, efficiency, bsfc, series hybrid, diesel, operating point

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183 Significance of Bike-Frame Geometric Factors for Cycling Efficiency and Muscle Activation

Authors: Luen Chow Chan

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With the advocacy of green transportation and green traveling, cycling has become increasingly popular nowadays. Physiology and bike design are key factors for the influence of cycling efficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the significance of bike-frame geometric factors on cycling efficiency and muscle activation for different body sizes of non-professional Asian male cyclists. Participants who represented various body sizes, as measured by leg and back lengths, carried out cycling tests using a tailor-assembled road bike with different ergonomic design configurations including seat-height adjustments (i.e., 96%, 100%, and 104% of trochanteric height) and bike frame sizes (i.e., small and medium frames) for an assessable distance of 1 km. A specific power meter and self-developed adaptable surface electromyography (sEMG) were used to measure average pedaling power and cadence generated and muscle activation, respectively. The results showed that changing the seat height was far more significant than the body and bike frame sizes. The sEMG data evidently provided a better understanding of muscle activation as a function of different seat heights. Therefore, the interpretation of this study is that the major bike ergonomic design factor dominating the cycling efficiency of Asian participants with different body sizes was the seat height.

Keywords: bike frame sizes, cadence rate, pedaling power, seat height

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
182 Modeling and Analysis of a Cycling Prosthetic

Authors: John Tolentino, Yong Seok Park

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There are currently many people living with limb loss in the USA. The main causes for amputation can range from vascular disease, to trauma, or cancer. This number is expected increase over the next decade. Many patients have a single prosthetic for the first year but end up getting a second one to accommodate their changing physique. Afterwards, the prosthesis gets replaced every three to five years depending on how often it is used. This could cost the patient up to $500,000 throughout their lifetime. Complications do not end there, however. Due to the absence of nerves, it becomes more difficult to traverse terrain with a prosthetic. Moving on an incline or decline becomes difficult, thus curbs and stairs can be a challenge. Certain physical activities, such as cycling, could be even more strenuous. It will need to be relearned to accommodate for the change in weight, center of gravity, and transfer of energy from the leg to the pedal. The purpose of this research project is to develop a new, alternate below-knee cycling prosthetic using Dieter & Schmidt’s design process approach. It will be subjected to fatigue analysis under dynamic loading to observe the limitations as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the prosthetic. Benchmark comparisons will be made between existing prosthetics and the proposed one, examining the benefits and disadvantages. The resulting prosthetic will be 3D printed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polycarbonate (PC) plastic.

Keywords: 3D Printing, Cycling, Prosthetic design, Synthetic design.

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
181 Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict Intention to Commute by Bicycle: Case Study of Mexico City

Authors: Magda Cepeda, Frances Hodgson, Ann Jopson

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There are different barriers people face when choosing to cycle for commuting purposes. This study examined the role of psycho-social factors predicting the intention to cycle to commute in Mexico City. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour was developed and utilized with a simple random sample of 401 road users. We applied exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and after identifying five factors, a structural equation model was estimated to find the relationships among the variables. The results indicated that cycling attributes, attitudes to cycling, social comparison and social image and prestige were the most important factors influencing intention to cycle. Although the results from this study are specific to Mexico City, they indicate areas of interest to transportation planners in other regions especially in those cities where intention to cycle its linked to its perceived image and there is political ambition to instigate positive cycling cultures. Moreover, this study contributes to the current literature developing applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

Keywords: cycling, latent variable model, perception, theory of planned behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
180 Comparison of Bone Mineral Density of Lumbar Spines between High Level Cyclists and Sedentary

Authors: Mohammad Shabani

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The physical activities depending on the nature of the mechanical stresses they induce on bone sometimes have brought about different results. The purpose of this study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine between the high-level cyclists and sedentary. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 73 cyclists senior (age: 25.81 ± 4.35 years; height: 179.66 ± 6.31 cm; weight: 71.55 ± 6.31 kg) and 32 sedentary subjects (age: 28.28 ± 4.52 years; height: 176.56 ± 6.2 cm; weight: 74.47 ± 8.35 kg) participated voluntarily. All cyclists belonged to the different teams from the International Cycling Union and they trained competitively for 10 years. BMD of the lumbar spine of the subjects was measured using DXA X-ray (Lunar). Descriptive statistics calculations were performed using computer software data processing (Statview 5, SAS Institute Inc. USA). The comparison of two independent distributions (BMD high level cyclists and sedentary) was made by the Student T Test standard. Probability 0.05 (p≤0 / 05) was adopted as significance. Results: The result of this study showed that the BMD values of the lumbar spine of sedentary subjects were significantly higher for all measured segments. Conclusion and Discussion: Cycling is firstly a common sport and on the other hand endurance sport. It is now accepted that weight bearing exercises have an osteogenic effect compared to non-weight bearing exercises. Thus, endurance sports such as cycling, compared to the activities imposing intense force in short time, seem not to really be osteogenic. Therefore, it can be concluded that cycling provides low stimulates osteogenic because of specific biomechanical forces of the sport and its lack of impact.

Keywords: BMD, lumbar spine, high level cyclist, cycling

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179 A Novel Environmentally Benign Positive Electrode Material with Improved Energy Density for Lithium Ion Batteries

Authors: Wassima El Mofid, Svetlozar Ivanov, Andreas Bund

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The increasing requirements for high power and energy lithium ion batteries have led to the development of several classes of positive electrode materials. Among those one promising material is LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 due to its high reversible capacity and remarkable cycling performance. Further structural stabilization and improved electrochemical performance of this class of cathode materials can be achieved by cationic substitution to a transition metal such as Al, Mg, Cr, etc. The current study discusses a novel NMC type material obtained by simultaneous cationic substitution of the cobalt which is a toxic element, with aluminum and iron. A compound with the composition LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.15Al0.025Fe0.025O2 (NMCAF) was synthesized by the self-combustion method using sucrose as fuel. The material has a layered α-NaFeO2 type structure with a good hexagonal ordering. Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD patterns revealed a very low cationic mixing compared to the non-substituted material LiNi0.6Mn0,2Co0.2O2 suggesting a structural stabilization. Galvanostatic cycling measurements indicate improved electrochemical performance after the metal substitution. An initial discharge capacity of about 190 mAh.g−1 at slow rate (C/20), and a good cycling stability even at moderately faster rates (C/5 and C) have been observed. The long term cycling displayed a capacity retention of about 90% after 10 cycles.

Keywords: cationic substitution, lithium ion batteries, positive electrode material, self-combustion synthesis method

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
178 Modification of Li-Rich Layered Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 Cathode Material

Authors: Liu Li, Kim Seng Lee, Li Lu

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The high-energy-density Li-rich layered materials are promising cathode materials for the next-generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The relatively low rate capability is one of the major problems that limit their practical application. In this work, Li-rich layered Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 cathode material synthesized by coprecipitation method is further modified by F doping or surface treatment to enhance its cycling stability as well as rate capability.

Keywords: Li-ion battery, Li-rich layered cathode material, phase transformation, cycling stability, rate capacility

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
177 Study of Li-Rich Layered Cathode Materials for High-Energy Li-ion Batteries

Authors: Liu Li, Kim Seng Lee, Li Lu

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The high-energy-density Li-rich layered materials are promising cathode materials for the next-generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries. They have attracted a lot of attentions due mainly to their high reversible capacity of more than 250 mAh•g-1 at low charge-discharge current. However several drawbacks still hinder their applications, such as voltage decay caused by an undesired phase transformation during cycling and poor rate capability. To conquer these issues, the authors applied F modification methods on the pristine Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 to enhance its electrochemical performance.

Keywords: Li-ion battery, Li-rich layered cathode material, phase transformation, cycling stability, rate capability

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
176 MAOD Is Estimated by Sum of Contributions

Authors: David W. Hill, Linda W. Glass, Jakob L. Vingren

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Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD), the gold standard measure of anaerobic capacity, is the difference between the oxygen cost of exhaustive severe intensity exercise and the accumulated oxygen consumption (O2; mL·kg–1). In theory, MAOD can be estimated as the sum of independent estimates of the phosphocreatine and glycolysis contributions, which we refer to as PCr+glycolysis. Purpose: The purpose was to test the hypothesis that PCr+glycolysis provides a valid measure of anaerobic capacity in cycling and running. Methods: The participants were 27 women (mean ± SD, age 22 ±1 y, height 165 ± 7 cm, weight 63.4 ± 9.7 kg) and 25 men (age 22 ± 1 y, height 179 ± 6 cm, weight 80.8 ± 14.8 kg). They performed two exhaustive cycling and running tests, at speeds and work rates that were tolerable for ~5 min. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2; mL·kg–1·min–1) was measured in warmups, in the tests, and during 7 min of recovery. Fingerprick blood samples obtained after exercise were analysed to determine peak blood lactate concentration (PeakLac). The VO2 response in exercise was fitted to a model, with a fast ‘primary’ phase followed by a delayed ‘slow’ component, from which was calculated the accumulated O2 and the excess O2 attributable to the slow component. The VO2 response in recovery was fitted to a model with a fast phase and slow component, sharing a common time delay. Oxygen demand (in mL·kg–1·min–1) was determined by extrapolation from steady-state VO2 in warmups; the total oxygen cost (in mL·kg–1) was determined by multiplying this demand by time to exhaustion and adding the excess O2; then, MAOD was calculated as total oxygen cost minus accumulated O2. The phosphocreatine contribution (area under the fast phase of the post-exercise VO2) and the glycolytic contribution (converted from PeakLac) were summed to give PCr+glycolysis. There was not an interaction effect involving sex, so values for anaerobic capacity were examined using a two-way ANOVA, with repeated measures across method (PCr+glycolysis vs MAOD) and mode (cycling vs running). Results: There was a significant effect only for exercise mode. There was no difference between MAOD and PCr+glycolysis: values were 59 ± 6 mL·kg–1 and 61 ± 8 mL·kg–1 in cycling and 78 ± 7 mL·kg–1 and 75 ± 8 mL·kg–1 in running. Discussion: PCr+glycolysis is a valid measure of anaerobic capacity in cycling and running, and it is as valid for women as for men.

Keywords: alactic, anaerobic, cycling, ergometer, glycolysis, lactic, lactate, oxygen deficit, phosphocreatine, running, treadmill

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
175 A Method for Evaluating Gender Equity of Cycling from Rawls Justice Perspective

Authors: Zahra Hamidi

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Promoting cycling, as an affordable environmentally friendly mode of transport to replace private car use has been central to sustainable transport policies. Cycling is faster than walking and combined with public transport has the potential to extend the opportunities that people can access. In other words, cycling, besides direct positive health impacts, can improve people mobility and ultimately their quality of life. Transport literature well supports the close relationship between mobility, quality of life, and, well being. At the same time inequity in the distribution of access and mobility has been associated with the key aspects of injustice and social exclusion. The pattern of social exclusion and inequality in access are also often related to population characteristics such as age, gender, income, health, and ethnic background. Therefore, while investing in transport infrastructure it is important to consider the equity of provided access for different population groups. This paper proposes a method to evaluate the equity of cycling in a city from Rawls egalitarian perspective. Since this perspective is concerned with the difference between individuals and social groups, this method combines accessibility measures and Theil index of inequality that allows capturing the inequalities ‘within’ and ‘between’ groups. The paper specifically focuses on two population characteristics as gender and ethnic background. Following Rawls equity principles, this paper measures accessibility by bikes to a selection of urban activities that can be linked to the concept of the social primary goods. Moreover, as growing number of cities around the world have launched bike-sharing systems (BSS) this paper incorporates both private and public bikes networks in the estimation of accessibility levels. Additionally, the typology of bike lanes (separated from or shared with roads), the presence of a bike sharing system in the network, as well as bike facilities (e.g. parking racks) have been included in the developed accessibility measures. Application of this proposed method to a real case study, the city of Malmö, Sweden, shows its effectiveness and efficiency. Although the accessibility levels were estimated only based on gender and ethnic background characteristics of the population, the author suggests that the analysis can be applied to other contexts and further developed using other properties, such as age, income, or health.

Keywords: accessibility, cycling, equity, gender

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
174 An Integrated Tailoring Method for Thermal Cycling Tests of Spacecraft Electronics

Authors: Xin-Yan Ji, Jing Wang, Chang Liu, Yan-Qiang Bi, Zhong-Xu Xu, Xi-Yuan Li

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Thermal tests of electronic units are critically important for the reliability validation and performance demonstration of the spacecraft hard-wares. The tailoring equation in MIL-STD-1540 is based on fatigue of solder date. In the present paper, a new test condition tailoring expression is proposed to fit different thermo-mechanical fatigue and different subsystems, by introducing an integrated evaluating method for the fatigue acceleration exponent. The validate test has been accomplished and the data has been analyzed and compared with that from the MIL-STD-1540 tailoring equations. The results are encouraging and reasonable.

Keywords: thermal cycling test, thermal fatigue, tailoring equation, test condition planning

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173 Effective Design Factors for Bicycle-Friendly Streets

Authors: Zohreh Asadi-Shekari, Mehdi Moeinaddini, Muhammad Zaly Shah, Amran Hamzah

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Bicycle level of service (BLOS) is a measure for evaluating street conditions for cyclists. Currently, various methods are proposed for BLOS. These analytical methods however have some drawbacks: they usually assume cyclists as users that can share street facilities with motorized vehicles, it is not easy to link them to design process and they are not easy to follow. In addition, they only support a narrow range of cycling facilities and may not be applicable for all situations. Along this, the current paper introduces various effective design factors for bicycle-friendly streets. This study considers cyclists as users of streets who have special needs and facilities. Therefore, the key factors that influence BLOS based on different cycling facilities that are proposed by developed guidelines and literature are identified. The combination of these factors presents a complete set of effective design factors for bicycle-friendly streets. In addition, the weight of each factor in existing BLOS models is estimated and these effective factors are ranked based on these weights. These factors and their weights can be used in further studies to propose special bicycle-friendly street design model.

Keywords: bicycle level of service, bicycle-friendly streets, cycling facilities, rating system, urban streets

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
172 Impact of 6-Week Brain Endurance Training on Cognitive and Cycling Performance in Highly Trained Individuals

Authors: W. Staiano, S. Marcora

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Introduction: It has been proposed that acute negative effect of mental fatigue (MF) could potentially become a training stimulus for the brain (Brain endurance training (BET)) to adapt and improve its ability to attenuate MF states during sport competitions. Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of 6 weeks of BET on cognitive and cycling tests in a group of well-trained subjects. We hypothesised that combination of BET and standard physical training (SPT) would increase cognitive capacity and cycling performance by reducing rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and increase resilience to fatigue more than SPT alone. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial design, 26 well trained participants, after a familiarization session, cycled to exhaustion (TTE) at 80% peak power output (PPO) and, after 90 min rest, at 65% PPO, before and after random allocation to a 6 week BET or active placebo control. Cognitive performance was measured using 30 min of STROOP coloured task performed before cycling performance. During the training, BET group performed a series of cognitive tasks for a total of 30 sessions (5 sessions per week) with duration increasing from 30 to 60 min per session. Placebo engaged in a breathing relaxation training. Both groups were monitored for physical training and were naïve to the purpose of the study. Physiological and perceptual parameters of heart rate, lactate (LA) and RPE were recorded during cycling performances, while subjective workload (NASA TLX scale) was measured during the training. Results: Group (BET vs. Placebo) x Test (Pre-test vs. Post-test) mixed model ANOVA’s revealed significant interaction for performance at 80% PPO (p = .038) or 65% PPO (p = .011). In both tests, groups improved their TTE performance; however, BET group improved significantly more compared to placebo. No significant differences were found for heart rate during the TTE cycling tests. LA did not change significantly at rest in both groups. However, at completion of 65% TTE, it was significantly higher (p = 0.043) in the placebo condition compared to BET. RPE measured at ISO-time in BET was significantly lower (80% PPO, p = 0.041; 65% PPO p= 0.021) compared to placebo. Cognitive results in the STROOP task showed that reaction time in both groups decreased at post-test. However, BET decreased significantly (p = 0.01) more compared to placebo despite no differences accuracy. During training sessions, participants in the BET showed, through NASA TLX questionnaires, constantly significantly higher (p < 0.01) mental demand rates compared to placebo. No significant differences were found for physical demand. Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidences that combining BET and SPT seems to be more effective than SPT alone in increasing cognitive and cycling performance in well trained endurance participants. The cognitive overload produced during the 6-week training of BET can induce a reduction in perception of effort at a specific power, and thus improving cycling performance. Moreover, it provides evidence that including neurocognitive interventions will benefit athletes by increasing their mental resilience, without affecting their physical training load and routine.

Keywords: cognitive training, perception of effort, endurance performance, neuro-performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
171 A 20 Year Comparison of Australian Childhood Bicycle Injuries – Have We Made a Difference?

Authors: Bronwyn Griffin, Caroline Acton, Tona Gillen, Roy Kimble

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Background: Bicycle riding is a common recreational activity enjoyed by many children throughout Australia that has been associated with the usual caveat of benefits related to exercise and recreation. Given Australia was the first country in the world to introduce cyclist helmet laws in 1991, very few publications have reviewed paediatric cycling injuries (fatal or non-fatal) since. Objectives: To identify trends in children (0-16 years) who required admission for greater than 24 hours following a bicycle-related injury (fatal and non-fatal) in Queensland. Further, to discuss changes that have occurred in paediatric cycling injury trends in Queensland since a prominent local study/publication in 1995. This paper aims to establish evidence to inform interventions promoting safer riding to parents, children and communities. Methods: Data on paediatric (0-16 years) cycling injuries in Queensland resulting in hospital admission more than 24 hours across three tertiary paediatric hospitals in Brisbane between November 2008-June 2015 was compiled by the Paediatric Trauma Data Registry for non-fatal injuries. The Child Death Review Team at the Queensland Families and Childhood Commission provided data on fatalities in children <17years from (June 2004 –June 2015). Comparing trends to a local study published in 1995 Results: Between 2008-2015 there were 197 patients admitted for greater than 24 hours following a cycling injury. The median age was 11 years, with males more frequently involved (n=139, 87%) compared to females. Mean length of stay was three days, with 47 (28%) children admitted to PICU, location of injury was most often the street (n=63, 37%). Between 2004 –2015 there were 15 fatalities (Incidence rate 0.25/100,000); all were male, 14/15 occurred on the street, with eight stated to have not been wearing a helmet, 11/15 children came from the least advantaged socio-economic group (SEIFA) compared to a local publication in 1995, finding of 94 fatalities between (1981-1992). Conclusions: There has been a notable decrease in incidence of fatalities between the two time periods with incidence rates dropping from 1.75-0.25/100,000. More statistics need to be run to ascertain if this is a true reduction or perhaps a decrease in children riding bicycles. Injuries that occur on the street that come in contact with a car remain of serious concern. The purpose of this paper is not to discourage bicycle riding among child and adolescent populations, rather, inform parents and the wider community about the risks associated with cycling in order to reduce injuries associated with this sport, whilst promoting safe cycling.

Keywords: paediatric, cycling, trauma, prevention, emergency

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
170 Experimental Characterization of Fatigue Crack Initiation of AA320 Alloy under Combined Thermal Cycling (CTC) and Mechanical Loading (ML) during Four Point Rotating and Bending Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Rana Atta Ur Rahman, Daniel Juhre

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Initiation of crack during fatigue of casting alloys are noticed mainly on the basis of experimental results. Crack initiation and strength of fatigue of AA320 are summarized here. Load sequence effect is applied to notify initiation phase life. Crack initiation at notch root and fatigue life is calculated under single & two-step mechanical loading (ML) with and without combined thermal cycling (CTC). An Experimental setup is proposed to create the working temperature as per alloy applications. S-N curves are plotted, and a comparison is made between crack initiation leading to failure under different ML with & without thermal loading (TL).

Keywords: fatigue, initiation, SN curve, alloy

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169 Coumestrol Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells via Redox Cycling of Copper and ROS Generation: Implications of Copper Chelation Strategy in Cancer Treatment

Authors: Atif Zafar Khan, Swarnendra Singh, Imrana Naseem

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Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in women worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Therefore, there is a need to identify new chemotherapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells contain elevated copper levels which play an integral role in angiogenesis. Copper is an important metal ion associated with the chromatin DNA, particularly with guanine. Thus, targeting copper via copper-specific chelators in cancer cells can serve as effective anticancer strategy. Keeping in view these facts, we evaluated the anticancer activity and copper-dependent cytotoxic effect of coumestrol (phytoestrogen in soybean products) in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Coumestrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which was prevented by copper chelator neocuproine and ROS scavengers. Coumestrol treatment induced ROS generation coupled to DNA fragmentation, up-regulation of p53/p21, cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspases 9/3 activation. All these effects were suppressed by ROS scavengers and neocuproine. These results suggest that coumestrol targets elevated copper for redox cycling to generate ROS leading to DNA fragmentation. DNA damage leads to p53 up-regulation which directs the cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, coumestrol induces pro-oxidant cell death by chelating cellular copper to produce copper-coumestrol complexes that engages in redox cycling in breast cancer cells. Thus, targeting elevated copper levels might be a potential therapeutic strategy for selective cytotoxic action against malignant cells.

Keywords: apoptosis, breast cancer, copper chelation, coumestrol, reactive oxygens species, redox cycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
168 Personal Exposure to Respirable Particles and Other Selected Gases among Cyclists near and Away from Busy Roads of Perth Metropolitan Area

Authors: Anu Shrestha, Krassi Rumchev, Ben Mullins, Yun Zhao, Linda Selvey

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Cycling is often promoted as a means of reducing vehicular congestion, noise and greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in urban areas. It is also indorsed as a healthy means of transportation in terms of reducing the risk of developing a range of physical and psychological conditions. However, people who cycle regularly may not be aware that they can become exposed to high levels of Vehicular Air Pollutants (VAP) emitted by nearby traffics and therefore experience adverse health effects as a result. The study will highlight the present scenario of ambient air pollution level in different cycling routes in Perth and also highlight significant contribution to the understanding of health risks that cyclist may face from exposure to particulate air pollution. Methodology: This research was conducted in Perth, Western Austral and consisted of two groups of cyclists cycling near high (2 routes) and low (two routes) vehicular traffic roads, at high and low levels of exertion, during the cold and warm seasons. A sample size of 123 regular cyclists who cycled at least 80 km/week, aged 20-55, and non-smoker were selected for this study. There were altogether 100 male and 23 female who were asked to choose one or more routes among four different routes, and each participant cycled the route for warm or cold or both seasons. Cyclist who reported cardiovascular and other chronic health conditions (excluding asthma) were not invited into the study. Exposures to selected air pollutants were assessed by undertaking background and personal measurements alone with the measurement of heart and breathe rate of each participant. Finding: According to the preliminary study findings, the cyclists who used cycling route close to high traffic route were exposed to higher levels of measured air pollutants Nitrogen Oxide (NO₂) =0.12 ppm, sulfur dioxide (SO₂)=0.06 ppm and carbon monoxide (CO)=0.25 PPM compared to those who cycled away from busy roads. However, we measured high concentrations of particulate air pollution near one of the low traffic route which we associate with the close proximity to ferry station. Concluding Statement: As a conclusion, we recommend that cycling routes should be selected away from high traffic routes. If possible, we should also consider that if the cycling route is surrounded by the dense populated infrastructures, it can trap the pollutants and always facilitate in increasing inhalation of particle count among the cyclists.

Keywords: air pollution, carbon monoxide, cyclists' health, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, respirable particulate matters

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
167 Interval Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling and Nutritional Counseling Improves Lean Mass to Fat Mass Ratio and Decreases Cardiometabolic Disease Risk in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: David Dolbow, Daniel Credeur, Mujtaba Rahimi, Dobrivoje Stokic, Jennifer Lemacks, Andrew Courtner

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Introduction: Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population (66-75%), as individuals who suffer from paralysis undergo a dramatic decrease in muscle mass and a dramatic increase in adipose deposition. Obesity is a major public health concern which includes a doubling of the risk of heart disease, stroke and type II diabetes mellitus. It has been demonstrated that physical activity, and especially HIIT, can promote a healthy body composition and decrease the risk cardiometabolic disease in the able-bodied population. However, SCI typically limits voluntary exercise to the arms, but a high prevalence of shoulder pain in persons with chronic SCI (60-90%) can cause increased arm exercise to be problematic. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling has proven to be a safe and effective way to exercise paralyzed leg muscles in clinical and home settings, saving the often overworked arms. Yet, HIIT-FES cycling had not been investigated prior to the current study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the body composition changes with combined HIIT-FES cycling and nutritional counseling on individuals with SCI. Design: A matched (level of injury, time since injury, body mass index) and controlled trail. Setting: University exercise performance laboratory. Subjects: Ten individuals with chronic SCI (C5-T9) ASIA impairment classification (A & B) were divided into the treatment group (n=5) for 30 minutes of HIIT-FES cycling 3 times per week for 8 weeks and nutritional counseling over the phone for 30 minutes once per week for 8 weeks and the control group (n=5) who received nutritional counseling only. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the HIIT-FES group and the control group in mean body fat percentage change (-1.14 to +0.24) respectively, p = .030). There was also a statistically significant difference between the HIIT-FES and control groups in mean change in legs lean mass (+0.78 kg to -1.5 kg) respectively, p = 0.004. There was a nominal decrease in weight, BMI, total fat mass and a nominal increase in total lean mass for the HIIT-FES group over the control group. However, these changes were not found to be statistically significant. Additionally, there was a nominal decrease in the mean blood glucose levels for both groups 101.8 to 97.8 mg/dl for the HIIT-FES group and 94.6 to 93 mg/dl for the Nutrition only group, however, neither were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: HIIT-FES cycling combined with nutritional counseling can provide healthful body composition changes including decreased body fat percentage in just 8 weeks. Future study recommendations include a greater number of participants, a primer electrical stimulation exercise program to better ready participants for HIIT-FES cycling and a greater volume of training above 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 8 weeks.

Keywords: body composition, functional electrical stimulation cycling, high-intensity interval training, spinal cord injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
166 The Influence of the Moving Speeds of DNA Droplet on Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Jyh Jyh Chen, Fu H. Yang, Chen W. Wang, Yu M. Lin

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In this work, a reaction chamber is reciprocated among three temperature regions by using an oscillatory thermal cycling machine. Three cartridge heaters are collocated to heat three aluminum blocks in order to achieve PCR requirements in the reaction chamber. The effects of various chamber moving speeds among different temperature regions on the chamber temperature profiles are presented. To solve the evaporation effect of the sample in the PCR experiment, the mineral oil and the cover lid are used. The influences of various extension times on DNA amplification are also demonstrated. The target fragments of the amplification are 385-bp and 420-bp. The results show when the forward speed is set at 6 mm/s and the backward speed is 2.4 mm/s, the temperature required for the experiment can be achieved. It is successful to perform the amplification of DNA fragments in our device.

Keywords: oscillatory, polymerase chain reaction, reaction chamber, thermal cycling machine

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165 Phase Behavior Modelling of Libyan Near-Critical Gas-Condensate Field

Authors: M. Khazam, M. Altawil, A. Eljabri

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Fluid properties in states near a vapor-liquid critical region are the most difficult to measure and to predict with EoS models. The principal model difficulty is that near-critical property variations do not follow the same mathematics as at conditions far away from the critical region. Libyan NC98 field in Sirte basin is a typical example of near critical fluid characterized by high initial condensate gas ratio (CGR) greater than 160 bbl/MMscf and maximum liquid drop-out of 25%. The objective of this paper is to model NC98 phase behavior with the proper selection of EoS parameters and also to model reservoir depletion versus gas cycling option using measured PVT data and EoS Models. The outcomes of our study revealed that, for accurate gas and condensate recovery forecast during depletion, the most important PVT data to match are the gas phase Z-factor and C7+ fraction as functions of pressure. Reasonable match, within -3% error, was achieved for ultimate condensate recovery at abandonment pressure of 1500 psia. The smooth transition from gas-condensate to volatile oil was fairly simulated by the tuned PR-EoS. The predicted GOC was approximately at 14,380 ftss. The optimum gas cycling scheme, in order to maximize condensate recovery, should not be performed at pressures less than 5700 psia. The contribution of condensate vaporization for such field is marginal, within 8% to 14%, compared to gas-gas miscible displacement. Therefore, it is always recommended, if gas recycle scheme to be considered for this field, to start it at the early stage of field development.

Keywords: EoS models, gas-condensate, gas cycling, near critical fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
164 Improving Cyclability and Capacity of Lithium Oxygen Batteries via Low Rate Pre-Activation

Authors: Zhihong Luo, Guangbin Zhu, Lulu Guo, Zhujun Lyu, Kun Luo

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Cycling life has become the threshold for the prospective application of Li-O₂ batteries, and the protection of Li anode has recently regarded as the key factor to the performance. Herein, a simple low rate pre-activation (20 cycles at 0.5 Ag⁻¹ and a capacity of 200 mAh g⁻¹) was employed to effectively improve the performance and cyclability of Li-O₂ batteries. The charge/discharge cycles at 1 A g⁻¹ with a capacity of 1000 mAh g⁻¹ were maintained for up to 290 times versus 55 times for the cell without pre-activation. The ultimate battery capacity and high rate discharge property were also largely enhanced. Morphology, XRD and XPS analyses reveal that the performance improvement is in close association with the formation of the smooth and compact surface layer formed on the Li anode after low rate pre-activation, which apparently alleviated the corrosion of Li anode and the passivation of cathode during battery cycling, and the corresponding mechanism was also discussed.

Keywords: lithium oxygen battery, pre-activation, cyclability, capacity

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163 Haematological Responses on Amateur Cycling Stages Race

Authors: Renato André S. Silva, Nana L. F. Sampaio, Carlos J. G. Cruz, Bruno Vianna, Flávio O. Pires

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multiple stage bicycle races require high physiological loads from professional cyclists. Such demands can lead to immunosuppression and health problems. However, in this type of competition, little is known about its physiological effects on amateur athletes, who generally receive less medical support. Thus, this study analyzes the hematological effects of a multiple stage bicycle race on amateur cyclists. Seven Brazilian national amateur cyclists (34 ± 4.21 years) underwent a laboratory test to evaluate VO2Max (69.89 ± 7.43 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1). Six days later, these volunteers raced in the Tour of Goiás, participating in five races in four days (435 km) of competition. Arterial blood samples were collected one day before and one day after the competition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to evaluate the data distribution and Wilcoxon to compare the two moments (p <0.05) of data collection. The results show: Red cells ↓ 7.8% (5.1 ± 0.28 vs 4.7 ± 0.37 106 / mm 3, p = 0.01); Hemoglobin ↓ 7.9% (15.1 ± 0.31 vs 13.9 ± 0.27 g / dL, p = 0.01); Leukocytes ↑ 9.5% (4946 ± 553 versus 5416 ± 1075 / mm 3, p = 0.17); Platelets ↓ 7.0% (200.2 ± 51.5 vs 186.1 ± 39.5 / mm 3, p = 0.01); LDH ↑ 11% (164.4 ± 28.5 vs 182.5 ± 20.5 U / L, p = 0.17); CK ↑ 13.5% (290.7 ± 206.1 vs 330.1 ± 90.5 U / L, p = 0.39); CK-MB ↑ 2% (15.7 ± 3.9 vs. 20.1 ± 2.9 U / L, p = 0.06); Cortizol ↓ 13.5% (12.1 ± 2.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.9 μg / dL, p = 0.01); Total testosterone ↓ 7% (453.6 ± 120.1 vs 421.7 ± 74.3 ng / dL, p = 0.12); IGF-1 ↓ 15.1% (213.8 ± 18.8 vs 181.5 ± 34.7 ng / mL, p = 0.04). This means that there was significant reductions in O2 allocation / transport capacities, vascular injury disruption, and a fortuitous reduction of muscle skeletal anabolism along with maintenance and / or slight elevation of immune function, glucose and lipid energy and myocardial damage. Therefore, the results suggest that no abnormal health effect was identified among the athletes after participating in the Tour de Goiás.

Keywords: cycling, health effects, cycling stages races, haematology

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162 The Application of Dynamic Network Process to Environment Planning Support Systems

Authors: Wann-Ming Wey

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In recent years, in addition to face the external threats such as energy shortages and climate change, traffic congestion and environmental pollution have become anxious problems for many cities. Considering private automobile-oriented urban development had produced many negative environmental and social impacts, the transit-oriented development (TOD) has been considered as a sustainable urban model. TOD encourages public transport combined with friendly walking and cycling environment designs, however, non-motorized modes help improving human health, energy saving, and reducing carbon emissions. Due to environmental changes often affect the planners’ decision-making; this research applies dynamic network process (DNP) which includes the time dependent concept to promoting friendly walking and cycling environmental designs as an advanced planning support system for environment improvements. This research aims to discuss what kinds of design strategies can improve a friendly walking and cycling environment under TOD. First of all, we collate and analyze environment designing factors by reviewing the relevant literatures as well as divide into three aspects of “safety”, “convenience”, and “amenity” from fifteen environment designing factors. Furthermore, we utilize fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDT) expert questionnaire to filter out the more important designing criteria for the study case. Finally, we utilized DNP expert questionnaire to obtain the weights changes at different time points for each design criterion. Based on the changing trends of each criterion weight, we are able to develop appropriate designing strategies as the reference for planners to allocate resources in a dynamic environment. In order to illustrate the approach we propose in this research, Taipei city as one example has been used as an empirical study, and the results are in depth analyzed to explain the application of our proposed approach.

Keywords: environment planning support systems, walking and cycling, transit-oriented development (TOD), dynamic network process (DNP)

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161 Different Processing Methods to Obtain a Carbon Composite Element for Cycling

Authors: Maria Fonseca, Ana Branco, Joao Graca, Rui Mendes, Pedro Mimoso

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The present work is focused on the production of a carbon composite element for cycling through different techniques, namely, blow-molding and high-pressure resin transfer injection (HP-RTM). The main objective of this work is to compare both processes to produce carbon composite elements for the cycling industry. It is well known that the carbon composite components for cycling are produced mainly through blow-molding; however, this technique depends strongly on manual labour, resulting in a time-consuming production process. Comparatively, HP-RTM offers a more automated process which should lead to higher production rates. Nevertheless, a comparison of the elements produced through both techniques must be done, in order to assess if the final products comply with the required standards of the industry. The main difference between said techniques lies in the used material. Blow-moulding uses carbon prepreg (carbon fibres pre-impregnated with a resin system), and the material is laid up by hand, piece by piece, on a mould or on a hard male. After that, the material is cured at a high temperature. On the other hand, in the HP-RTM technique, dry carbon fibres are placed on a mould, and then resin is injected at high pressure. After some research regarding the best material systems (prepregs and braids) and suppliers, an element was designed (similar to a handlebar) to be constructed. The next step was to perform FEM simulations in order to determine what the best layup of the composite material was. The simulations were done for the prepreg material, and the obtained layup was transposed to the braids. The selected material was a prepreg with T700 carbon fibre (24K) and an epoxy resin system, for the blow-molding technique. For HP-RTM, carbon fibre elastic UD tubes and ± 45º braids were used, with both 3K and 6K filaments per tow, and the resin system was an epoxy as well. After the simulations for the prepreg material, the optimized layup was: [45°, -45°,45°, -45°,0°,0°]. For HP-RTM, the transposed layup was [ ± 45° (6k); 0° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); ± 45° (3k); ± 45° (3k)]. The mechanical tests showed that both elements can withstand the maximum load (in this case, 1000 N); however, the one produced through blow-molding can support higher loads (≈1300N against 1100N from HP-RTM). In what concerns to the fibre volume fraction (FVF), the HP-RTM element has a slightly higher value ( > 61% compared to 59% of the blow-molding technique). The optical microscopy has shown that both elements have a low void content. In conclusion, the elements produced using HP-RTM can compare to the ones produced through blow-molding, both in mechanical testing and in the visual aspect. Nevertheless, there is still space for improvement in the HP-RTM elements since the layup of the braids, and UD tubes could be optimized.

Keywords: HP-RTM, carbon composites, cycling, FEM

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160 An Investigation of the Operation and Performance of London Cycle Hire Scheme

Authors: Amer Ali, Jessica Cecchinelli, Antonis Charalambous

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Cycling is one of the most environmentally friendly, economic and healthy modes of transport but it needs more efficient cycle infrastructure and more effective safety measures. This paper represents an investigation into the performance and operation of the London Cycle Hire Scheme which started to operate in July 2010 using 5,000 cycles and 315 docking stations and currently has more than 10,000 cycles and over 700 docking stations across London which are available 24/7, 365 days a year. The study, which was conducted during the second half of 2014, consists of two parts; namely, the longitudinal review of the hire scheme between its introduction in 2010 and November 2014, and a field survey in November 2014 in the form of face-face interviews of the users of the cycle scheme to ascertain the existing limitations and difficulties experienced by those users and how it could be improved in terms of capability and safety. The study also includes a correlation between the usage of the cycle scheme and the corresponding weather conditions. The main findings are that on average the number of users (hiring frequency) had increased from just over two millions hires in 2010 to just less than ten millions in 2014. The field survey showed that 80% of the users are satisfied with the performance of the scheme whilst 50% of the users raised concern about the safety level of using the available cycle routes and infrastructure. The study also revealed that a high percentage of the cycle trips were relatively short (less than 30 minutes). Although the weather condition had some effect on cycling, the cost of using the cycle scheme and the main events in London had more effect on the number of cycle hires. The key conclusions are that despite the safety concern and the lack of infrastructure for continuous routes there was an encouraging number of people who opted for cycling as a clean, affordable, and healthy mode of transport. There is a need to expand the scheme by providing more cycles and docking stations and to support that by more well-designed and maintained cycle routes. More details about the development of London Cycle Hire Scheme during the last five years, its performance and the key issues revealed by the surveyed users will be reported in the full version of the paper.

Keywords: cycling mode of transport, london cycle hire scheme, safety, environmental and health benefits, user satisfaction

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159 DYVELOP Method Implementation for the Research Development in Small and Middle Enterprises

Authors: Jiří F. Urbánek, David Král

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Small and Middle Enterprises (SME) have a specific mission, characteristics, and behavior in global business competitive environments. They must respect policy, rules, requirements and standards in all their inherent and outer processes of supply - customer chains and networks. Paper aims and purposes are to introduce computational assistance, which enables us the using of prevailing operation system MS Office (SmartArt...) for mathematical models, using DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method. It is providing for SMS´s global environment the capability and profit to achieve its commitment regarding the effectiveness of the quality management system in customer requirements meeting and also the continual improvement of the organization’s and SME´s processes overall performance and efficiency, as well as its societal security via continual planning improvement. DYVELOP model´s maps - the Blazons are able mathematically - graphically express the relationships among entities, actors, and processes, including the discovering and modeling of the cycling cases and their phases. The blazons need live PowerPoint presentation for better comprehension of this paper mission – added value analysis. The crisis management of SMEs is obliged to use the cycles for successful coping of crisis situations.  Several times cycling of these cases is a necessary condition for the encompassment of the both the emergency event and the mitigation of organization´s damages. Uninterrupted and continuous cycling process is a good indicator and controlling actor of SME continuity and its sustainable development advanced possibilities.

Keywords: blazons, computational assistance, DYVELOP method, small and middle enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
158 Development of a System for Measuring the Three-axis Pedal Force in Cycling and Its Applications

Authors: Joo-Hack Lee, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack

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For cycling, the analysis of the pedal force is one of the important factors in the study of exercise ability assessment and overuse injuries. In past studies, a two-axis measurement sensor was used at the sagittal plane to measure the force only in the anterior, posterior, and vertical directions and to analyze the loss of force and the injury on the frontal plane due to the forces in the right and left directions. In this study, which is a basic study on diverse analyses of the pedal force that consider the forces on the sagittal plane and the frontal plane, a three-axis pedal force measurement sensor was developed to measure the anterior-posterior (Fx), medio-lateral (Fz), and vertical (Fy) forces. The sensor was fabricated with a size and shape similar to those of the general flat pedal, and had a 550g weight that allowed smooth pedaling. Its measurement range was ±1000 N for Fx and Fz and ±2000 N for Fy, and its non-linearity, hysteresis, and repeatability were approximately 0.5%. The data were sampled at 1000 Hz using a signal collector. To use the developed sensor, the pedaling efficiency (index of efficiency, IE) and the range of left and right (medio-lateral, ML) forces were measured with two seat heights (low and high). The results of the measurement showed that the IE was higher and the force range in the ML direction was lower with the high position than with the low position. The developed measurement sensor and its application results will be useful in understanding and explaining the complicated pedaling technique, and will enable diverse kinematic analyses of the pedal force on the sagittal plane and the frontal plane.

Keywords: cycling, pedal force, index of effectiveness, measuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 556
157 Potential of Detailed Environmental Data, Produced by Information and Communication Technology Tools, for Better Consideration of Microclimatology Issues in Urban Planning to Promote Active Mobility

Authors: Živa Ravnikar, Alfonso Bahillo Martinez, Barbara Goličnik Marušić

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Climate change mitigation has been formally adopted and announced by countries over the globe, where cities are targeting carbon neutrality through various more or less successful, systematic, and fragmentary actions. The article is based on the fact that environmental conditions affect human comfort and the usage of space. Urban planning can, with its sustainable solutions, not only support climate mitigation in terms of a planet reduction of global warming but as well enabling natural processes that in the immediate vicinity produce environmental conditions that encourage people to walk or cycle. However, the article draws attention to the importance of integrating climate consideration into urban planning, where detailed environmental data play a key role, enabling urban planners to improve or monitor environmental conditions on cycle paths. In a practical aspect, this paper tests a particular ICT tool, a prototype used for environmental data. Data gathering was performed along the cycling lanes in Ljubljana (Slovenia), where the main objective was to assess the tool's data applicable value within the planning of comfortable cycling lanes. The results suggest that such transportable devices for in-situ measurements can help a researcher interpret detailed environmental information, characterized by fine granularity and precise data spatial and temporal resolution. Data can be interpreted within human comfort zones, where graphical representation is in the form of a map, enabling the link of the environmental conditions with a spatial context. The paper also provides preliminary results in terms of the potential of such tools for identifying the correlations between environmental conditions and different spatial settings, which can help urban planners to prioritize interventions in places. The paper contributes to multidisciplinary approaches as it demonstrates the usefulness of such fine-grained data for better consideration of microclimatology in urban planning, which is a prerequisite for creating climate-comfortable cycling lanes promoting active mobility.

Keywords: information and communication technology tools, urban planning, human comfort, microclimate, cycling lanes

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156 Competing Interactions, and Magnetization Dynamics in Doped Rare-Earth Manganites Nanostructural System

Authors: Wiqar Hussain Shah

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The Structural, magnetic and transport behavior of La1-xCaxMnO3+ (x=0.48, 0.50, 0.52 and 0.55 and =0.015) compositions close to charge ordering, was studied through XRD, resistivity, DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. With time and thermal cycling (T<300 K) there is an irreversible transformation of the low-temperature phase from a partially ferromagnetic and metallic to one that is less ferromagnetic and highly resistive. For instance, an increase of resistivity can be observed by thermal cycling, where no effect is obtained for lower Ca concentration. The time changes in the magnetization are logarithmic in general and activation energies are consistent with those expected for electron transfer between Mn ions. The data suggest that oxygen non-stoichiometry results in mechanical strains in this two-phase system, leading to the development of irreversible metastable states, which relax towards the more stable charge-ordered and antiferromagnetic microdomains at the nano-meter size. This behavior is interpreted in terms of strains induced charge localization at the interface between FM/AFM domains in the antiferromagnetic matrix. Charge, orbital ordering and phase separation play a prominent role in the appearance of such properties, since they can be modified in a spectacular manner by external factor, making the different physical properties metastable. Here we describe two factors that deeply modify those properties, viz. the doping concentration and the thermal cycling. The metastable state is recovered by the high temperature annealing. We also measure the magnetic relaxation in the metastable state and also the revival of the metastable state (in a relaxed sample) due to high temperature (800 ) thermal treatment.

Keywords: Rare-earth maganites, nano-structural materials, doping effects on electrical, magnetic properties, competing interactions

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155 Polypyrrole as Bifunctional Materials for Advanced Li-S Batteries

Authors: Fang Li, Jiazhao Wang, Jianmin Ma

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The practical application of Li-S batteries is hampered due to poor cycling stability caused by electrolyte-dissolved lithium polysulfides. Dual functionalities such as strong chemical adsorption stability and high conductivity are highly desired for an ideal host material for a sulfur-based cathode. Polypyrrole (PPy), as a conductive polymer, was widely studied as matrixes for sulfur cathode due to its high conductivity and strong chemical interaction with soluble polysulfides. Thus, a novel cathode structure consisting of a free-standing sulfur-polypyrrole cathode and a polypyrrole coated separator was designed for flexible Li-S batteries. The PPy materials show strong interaction with dissoluble polysulfides, which could suppress the shuttle effect and improve the cycling stability. In addition, the synthesized PPy film with a rough surface acts as a current collector, which improves the adhesion of sulfur materials and restrain the volume expansion, enhancing the structural stability during the cycling process. For further enhancing the cycling stability, a PPy coated separator was also applied, which could make polysulfides into the cathode side to alleviate the shuttle effect. Moreover, the PPy layer coated on commercial separator is much lighter than other reported interlayers. A soft-packaged flexible Li-S battery has been designed and fabricated for testing the practical application of the designed cathode and separator, which could power a device consisting of 24 light-emitting diode (LED) lights. Moreover, the soft-packaged flexible battery can still show relatively stable cycling performance after repeated bending, indicating the potential application in flexible batteries. A novel vapor phase deposition method was also applied to prepare uniform polypyrrole layer coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite. The polypyrrole layer simultaneously acts as host and adsorbent for efficient suppression of polysulfides dissolution through strong chemical interaction. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the polypyrrole could trap lithium polysulfides through stronger bonding energy. In addition, the deflation of sulfur/graphene hydrogel during the vapor phase deposition process enhances the contact of sulfur with matrixes, resulting in high sulfur utilization and good rate capability. As a result, the synthesized polypyrrole coated sulfur/graphene aerogel composite delivers a specific discharge capacity of 1167 mAh g⁻¹ and 409.1 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.2 C and 5 C respectively. The capacity can maintain at 698 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.5 C after 500 cycles, showing an ultra-slow decay rate of 0.03% per cycle.

Keywords: polypyrrole, strong chemical interaction, long-term stability, Li-S batteries

Procedia PDF Downloads 58