Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2878

Search results for: hearing loss

2878 The Usefulness and Future of Hearing Aids Technologies and Their Impact on Hearing

Authors: Amirreza Razzaghipour Sorkhab

Abstract:

Hearing loss is one of the greatest common chronic health situations of older people. Hearing aids are the common treatment, and they recover the quality of life in older adults. Even so, comparatively few older adults with simple, mild to moderate, adult-onset, sensorineural hearing loss use hearing aids. It shouldn’t be expected that more expensive hearing aids always produce better outcomes. Given the importance of quality pledge, approaches of quantifying hearing aid fitting achievement are needed. Studies showed an important reduction in handicap following 3 weeks of hearing aid use, signifying the feasibility of using the Hearing Hindrance Inventory for the Elderly as an outcome measure for hearing aid success after a brief interval of hearing aid use. The results showed important development of the quality of life after three months of using a hearing aid in all members and improvement of their most important problems, i.e., the communication and exchange of data. Hearing loss can impair the conversation of information and so decreases the quality of life. Hearing aids have progressivemeaningfully over the past decade, chiefly due to the growing of digital technology. The next decade should see an even greater number of innovations to hearing aid technology. Development in digital hearing aids will be driven by investigate advances in the next fields such as wireless technology, hearing science, and cognitive scienceMoreover, emerging trends such as connectivity and individuation will also drive new technology. We hope that the advancement of technology will be enough to meet the needs of people with hearing aids.

Keywords: hearing loss, hearing aid, hearing aid technology, health

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2877 Healthcare in COVID-19 and It’s Impact on Children with Cochlear Implants

Authors: Amirreza Razzaghipour, Mahdi Khalili

Abstract:

References from the World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control for deceleration the spread of the Novel COVID-19, comprises social estrangement, frequent handwashing, and covering your mouth when around others. As hearing healthcare specialists, the influence of existenceinvoluntary to boundary social interactions on persons with hearing impairment was significant for us to understand. We found ourselves delaying cochlear implant (CI) surgeries. All children, and chiefly those with hearing loss, are susceptible to reductions in spoken communication. Hearing plans, such as cochlear implants, provide children with hearing loss access to spoken communication and provision language development. when provided early and used consistently, these supplies help children with hearing loss to engage in spoken connections. Cochlear implant (CI) is a standard medical-surgical treatment for bilateral severe to profound hearing loss with no advantage with the hearing aid. Hearing is one of the most important senses in humans. Pediatric hearing loss establishes one of the most important public health challenges. Children with hearing loss are recognized early and habilitated via hearing aids or with cochlear implants (CIs). Suitable care and maintenance as well as continuous auditory verbal therapy (AVT) are also essential in reaching for the successful attainment of language acquisition. Children with hearing loss posture important challenges to their parents, particularly when there is limited admission to their hearing care providers. The disruption in the routine of their hearing and therapy follow-up services has had substantial effects on the children as well as their parents.

Keywords: healthcare, covid-19, cochlear implants, spoken communication, hearing loss

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2876 Resilience among Children with and without Hearing Loss: A Comparative Study in Pakistan

Authors: Bushra Akram, Amina Tariq

Abstract:

Objective: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to compare the level of resilience among children with and without hearing loss. Methodology: In this descriptive cross sectional study total 500 children (with hearing loss = 250 and without hearing loss = 250) were recruited conveniently. Children with hearing loss were recruited from the special schools whereas children without hearing loss were selected from regular schools located in cities of Gujrat and Jhelum of Pakistan. Respondents’ age ranged from 9-14 years. Resiliency scale named RSCA (Resiliency Scales for children and adolescents) developed by Sandra Prince Embury (2006) was used. RSCA consist of three core theoretical areas: MAS (Sense of Mastery Scale), REL (Sense of Relatedness Scale) and REA (Emotional Reactivity Scale). Results: Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in the resilience level of participants with and without hearing loss. The mean comparison showed that the children with hearing loss showed lower scores on MAS (X̅ = 43.32, SD = 7.55) as well as on REL (X̅ = 49.96, SD = 7.65) as compared to their counterparts on MAS (X̅ = 53.96, SD = 9.90, t= -7.31***) and on REL (X̅ = 68.43, SD = 14.57,t= -10.18***). However children with hearing loss showed higher scores on REA (X̅ = 42.12, SD = 5.84) as compared to hearing participants (X̅ = 28.84, SD = 13.97, t = -8.20***). The findings revealed no significance difference in the resilience level of hearing and deaf children on the basis of their gender and age. Research Outcomes and Future Scope: Children with hearing loss showed a lower level of resilience, therefore, needs a program to develop resilience for better social-emotional adjustment and enhancement of their psychological well-being. In the end, the researcher gave recommendations for future research.

Keywords: children with hearing loss, psychological Wellbeing, resiliency scales for children and adolescents, resilience

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2875 Newborn Hearing Screening: Experience from a Center in South part of Iran

Authors: Marzieh Amiri, Zahra Iranpour Mobarakeh, Fatemeh Mehrbakhsh, Mehran Amiri

Abstract:

Introduction: Early diagnosis and intervention of congenital hearing loss is necessary to minimize the adverse effects of hearing loss. The aim of the present study was to report the results of newborn hearing screening in a centerin the south part of Iran, Fasa. Material and methods: In this study, the data related to 6,144 newbornsduring September 2018 up to September2021, was analyzed. Hearing screening was performed using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) tests. Results: From all 6144 newborns,3752 and 2392referred to the center from urban and rural part of Fasa, respectively. There were 2958 female and 3186 male in this study. Of 6144 newborns, 6098 ones passed the screening tests, and 46 neonates were referred to a diagnostic audiology clinic. Finally, nine neonates were diagnosed with congenital hearing loss (seven with sensorineural hearing loss and two with conductive hearing loss). The severity of all the hearing impaired neonates was moderate and above. The most important risk factors were family history of hearing loss, low gestational age, NICU hospitalization, and hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusion: Our results showed that the prevalence of hearing loss was 1.46 per 1000 infants. Boosting public knowledge by providing families with proper education appears to be helpful in preventing the negative effects of delayed implementation of health screening programs.

Keywords: newborn hearing screening, hearing loss, risk factor, prevalence

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2874 Techniques to Characterize Subpopulations among Hearing Impaired Patients and Its Impact for Hearing Aid Fitting

Authors: Vijaya K. Narne, Gerard Loquet, Tobias Piechowiak, Dorte Hammershoi, Jesper H. Schmidt

Abstract:

BEAR, which stands for better hearing rehabilitation is a large-scale project in Denmark designed and executed by three national universities, three hospitals, and the hearing aid industry with the aim to improve hearing aid fitting. A total of 1963 hearing impaired people were included and were segmented into subgroups based on hearing-loss, demographics, audiological and questionnaires data (i.e., the speech, spatial and qualities of hearing scale [SSQ-12] and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing-Aids [IOI-HA]). With the aim to provide a better hearing-aid fit to individual patients, we applied modern machine learning techniques with traditional audiograms rule-based systems. Results show that age, speech discrimination scores, and audiogram configurations were evolved as important parameters in characterizing sub-population from the data-set. The attempt to characterize sub-population reveal a clearer picture about the individual hearing difficulties encountered and the benefits derived from more individualized hearing aids.

Keywords: hearing loss, audiological data, machine learning, hearing aids

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2873 Prevalence and Patterns of Hearing Loss among the Elderly with Hypertension in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Ayo Osisanya, Promise Ebuka Okonkwo

Abstract:

Reduced hearing sensitivity among the elderly has been attributed to some risk factors and influence of age-related degenerative conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder, and hypertension. Hearing loss; especially the age-related type (presbycusis), has been reported as one of the global burden affecting the general well-being and quality of life of the elderly with hypertension. Thus, hearing loss has been observed to be associated with hypertension and functional decline in elderly, as this condition makes them experience poor communication, fatigue, reduced social functions, mood-swing, and withdrawal syndrome. Emerging research outcomes indicate a strong relationship between hypertension and reduced auditory performance among the elderly. Therefore, this study determined the prevalence, types, and patterns of hearing loss associated with hypertension, with a bid to suggesting comprehensive management strategies and a model of creating awareness towards promoting good healthy living among the elderly in Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-two elderly, aged 65–85 with hypertension were purposively selected from patients undergoing treatment for hypertension in some tertiary hospitals in southwest Nigeria for the study. Participants were suggested to Pure-Tone Audiometry (PTA) through the use of Maico 53 Diagnostic Audiometer to determine the degree, types ad patterns of hearing loss among the elderly with hypertension. Results showed that 148 (86.05%) elderly with hypertension presented with different degrees, types, and patterns of hearing loss. Out of this number, 123 (83.11%) presented with bilateral hearing loss, while 25 (16.89%) had unilateral hearing loss. Degree of hearing loss, 74 moderate hearing loss, 118 moderately severe and 50 severe hearing loss. 36% of the hearing loss appeared as flat audiometric configuration, 24% were slopping, 19% were rising, while 21% were tough-shaped audiometric configurations. The findings showed high prevalence of hearing loss among the elderly with hypertension in Southwest, Nigeria. Based on the findings, management of elderly with hypertension should include regular audiological rehabilitation and total adherence to hearing conservation principles, otological management, regulation of blood pressure and adequate counselling / follow-up services.

Keywords: auditory performance, elderly, hearing loss, hypertension

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2872 Hearing Conservation Aspects of Soldier’s Exposure to Harmfull Noise within Military Armored Vehicles

Authors: Fink Nir

Abstract:

Soldiers within armored vehicles are exposed to continuous noise reaching levels as high as 120 dB. The use of hearing protection devices (HPD) may attenuate noise by as 25 dB, but attenuated noise reaching the ear is still harmful and may result in hearing loss. Hearing conservation programs in the military suggest methods to manage the harmful effects of noise. These include noise absorption within vehicles, evaluating HPD's performance, limiting time exposure, and providing guidance.

Keywords: armored vehicle noise, hearing loss, hearing protection devices, military noise, noise attenuation

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2871 Long-Term Otitis Media with Effusion and Related Hearing Loss and Its Impact on Developmental Outcomes

Authors: Aleema Rahman

Abstract:

Introduction: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of long-term otitis media with effusion (OME) and hearing loss in a prospective longitudinal cohort studyand to study the relationship between the condition and educational and psychosocial outcomes. Methods: Analysis of data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) will be undertaken. ALSPAC is a longitudinal birth cohort study carried out in the UK, which has collected detailed measures of hearing on ~7000 children from the age of seven. A descriptive analysis of the data will be undertaken to estimate the prevalence of OME and hearing loss (defined as having average hearing levels > 20dB and type B tympanogram) at 7, 9, 11, and 15 years as well as that of long-term OME and hearing loss. Logistic and linear regression analyses will be conducted to examine associations between long-term OME and hearing loss and educational outcomes (grades obtained from standardised national attainment tests) and psychosocial outcomes such as anxiety, social fears, and depression at ages 10-11 and 15-16 years. Results: Results will be presented in terms of the prevalence of OME and hearing loss in the population at each age. The prevalence of long-term OME and hearing loss, defined as having OME and hearing loss at two or more time points, will also be reported. Furthermore, any associations between long-term OME and hearing loss and the educational and psychosocial outcomes will be presented. Analyses will take into account demographic factors such as sex and social deprivation and relevant confounders, including socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and IQ. Discussion: Findings from this study will provide new epidemiological information on the prevalence of long-term OME and hearing loss. The research will provide new knowledge on the impact of OME for the small group of children who do not grow out of condition by age 7 but continue to have hearing loss and need clinical care through later childhood. The study could have clinical implications and may influence service delivery for this group of children.

Keywords: educational attainment, hearing loss, otitis media with effusion, psychosocial development

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2870 Speech Identification Test for Individuals with High-Frequency Sloping Hearing Loss in Telugu

Authors: S. B. Rathna Kumar, Sandya K. Varudhini, Aparna Ravichandran

Abstract:

Telugu is a south central Dravidian language spoken in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India. The available speech identification tests in Telugu have been developed to determine the communication problems of individuals having a flat frequency hearing loss. These conventional speech audiometric tests would provide redundant information when used on individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss because of better hearing sensitivity in the low- and mid-frequency regions. Hence, conventional speech identification tests do not indicate the true nature of the communication problem of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss. It is highly possible that a person with a high-frequency sloping hearing loss may get maximum scores if conventional speech identification tests are used. Hence, there is a need to develop speech identification test materials that are specifically designed to assess the speech identification performance of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss. The present study aimed to develop speech identification test for individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss in Telugu. Individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss have difficulty in perception of voiceless consonants whose spectral energy is above 1000 Hz. Hence, the word lists constructed with phonemes having mid- and high-frequency spectral energy will estimate speech identification performance better for such individuals. The phonemes /k/, /g/, /c/, /ṭ/ /t/, /p/, /s/, /ś/, /ṣ/ and /h/are preferred for the construction of words as these phonemes have spectral energy distributed in the frequencies above 1000 KHz predominantly. The present study developed two word lists in Telugu (each word list contained 25 words) for evaluating speech identification performance of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss. The performance of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss was evaluated using both conventional and high-frequency word lists under recorded voice condition. The results revealed that the developed word lists were found to be more sensitive in identifying the true nature of the communication problem of individuals with high-frequency sloping hearing loss.

Keywords: speech identification test, high-frequency sloping hearing loss, recorded voice condition, Telugu

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2869 Auditory Effects among 18-45 Years Old Workers of a Textile Plant in Seeduwa, Sri Lanka

Authors: P. G. S. Madushani, L. D. Illeperuma

Abstract:

Abstract Noise is one of the most common physical hazards in industrial settings. The prevalence of Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is on the rise with increasedduration of exposure and the increase in the severity of hearing loss. The purpose of the study was to determine auditory effects among textile workers and to establish associations between the degree of hearing loss and exposure duration, degree of hearing loss and noise level and the proportion of hearing related complaints. A cross sectional descriptive study using purposive sampling was carried out. An interviewer administered questionnaire and Distortion Product Oto Acoustic Emission (DPOAE) hearing screening on 127 (72 female and 55 male) textile workers of the selected textile plant in Seeduwa, Sri Lanka was done (Age: M= 31.16, SD=7.75). Noise measurements were done in six sections of the factory and average noise levels were obtained. Diagnostic hearing evaluations were done for 60 (57.75%) subjects, referred from the DPOAE hearing screening test. The degree of hearing loss and the exposure duration had a significant association in the high frequency region of 4 kHz to 8 kHz (p < 0.05). Noise levels fluctuated between 90.3±0.8 dBA and 50.6. ±0.52 dBA. 30.83% of workers reported having NIHL. Most of the workers (33.9%) complained difficulty in conversing in noisy backgrounds. Other complaints as tinnitus, dizziness, ear fullness and headache were reported in less than 30%. workers who were exposed to noise for more than 15 years were affected with NIHL in the high frequency region. Administrative controls and engineering controls need to be implemented to manage hazardous noise levels in industrial settings. Hearing Conservation Programs should be initiated and implemented for textile workers.

Keywords: textile industry, NIHL, degree of hearing loss, noise levels, auditory effects

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2868 Mutations in the GJB2 Gene Are the Cause of an Important Number of Non-Syndromic Deafness Cases

Authors: Habib Onsori, Somayeh Akrami, Mohammad Rahmati

Abstract:

Deafness is the most common sensory disorder with the frequency of 1/1000 in many populations. Mutations in the GJB2 (CX26) gene at the DFNB1 locus on chromosome 13q12 are associated with congenital hearing loss. Approximately 80% of congenital hearing loss cases are recessively inherited and 15% dominantly inherited. Mutations of the GJB2 gene, encoding gap junction protein Connexin 26 (Cx26), are the most common cause of hereditary congenital hearing loss in many countries. This report presents two cases of different mutations from Iranian patients with bilateral hearing loss. DNA studies were performed for the GJB2 gene by PCR and sequencing methods. In one of them, direct sequencing of the gene showed a heterozygous T→C transition at nucleotide 604 resulting in a cysteine to arginine amino acid substitution at codon 202 (C202R) in the fourth extracellular domain (TM4) of the protein. The analyses indicate that the C202R mutation appeared de novo in the proband with a possible dominant effect (GenBank: KF 638275). In the other one, DNA sequencing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Cx26 gene that is strongly associated with congenital non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL). So screening the mutations for hearing loss individuals referring to genetics counseling centers before marriage and or pregnancy is recommended.

Keywords: CX26, deafness, GJB2, mutation

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2867 Dietary Patterns and Hearing Loss in Older People

Authors: N. E. Gallagher, C. E. Neville, N. Lyner, J. Yarnell, C. C. Patterson, J. E. Gallacher, Y. Ben-Shlomo, A. Fehily, J. V. Woodside

Abstract:

Hearing loss is highly prevalent in older people and can reduce quality of life substantially. Emerging research suggests that potentially modifiable risk factors, including risk factors previously related to cardiovascular disease risk, may be associated with a decreased or increased incidence of hearing loss. This has prompted investigation into the possibility that certain nutrients, foods or dietary patterns may also be associated with incidence of hearing loss. The aim of this study was to determine any associations between dietary patterns and hearing loss in men enrolled in the Caerphilly study. The Caerphilly prospective cohort study began in 1979-1983 with recruitment of 2512 men aged 45-59 years. Dietary data was collected using a self-administered, semi-quantitative, 56-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (1979-1983), and 7-day weighed food intake (WI) in a 30% sub-sample, while pure-tone unaided audiometric threshold was assessed at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz, between 1984 and 1988. Principal components analysis (PCA) was carried out to determine a posteriori dietary patterns and multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations with hearing level (pure tone average (PTA) of frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz in decibels (dB)) for linear regression and with hearing loss (PTA>25dB) for logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were determined using PCA on the FFQ data- Traditional, Healthy, High sugar/Alcohol avoider. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, both linear and logistic regression analyses showed a significant and inverse association between the Healthy pattern and hearing loss (P<0.001) and linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the High sugar/Alcohol avoider pattern and hearing loss (P=0.04). Three similar dietary patterns were determined using PCA on the WI data- Traditional, Healthy, High sugar/Alcohol avoider. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, logistic regression analyses showed a significant and inverse association between the Healthy pattern and hearing loss (P=0.02) and a significant association between the Traditional pattern and hearing loss (P=0.04). A Healthy dietary pattern was found to be significantly inversely associated with hearing loss in middle-aged men in the Caerphilly study. Furthermore, a High sugar/Alcohol avoider pattern (FFQ) and a Traditional pattern (WI) were associated with poorer hearing levels. Consequently, the role of dietary factors in hearing loss remains to be fully established and warrants further investigation.

Keywords: ageing, diet, dietary patterns, hearing loss

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2866 Factors That Contribute to Noise Induced Hearing Loss Amongst Employees at the Platinum Mine in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Livhuwani Muthelo, R. N. Malema, T. M. Mothiba

Abstract:

Long term exposure to excessive noise in the mining industry increases the risk of noise induced hearing loss, with consequences for employee’s health, productivity and the overall quality of life. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that contribute to Noise Induced Hearing Loss amongst employees at the Platinum mine in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Study method: A qualitative, phenomenological, exploratory, descriptive, contextual design was applied in order to explore and describe the contributory factors. Purposive non-probability sampling was used to select 10 male employees who were diagnosed with NIHL in the year 2014 in four mine shafts, and 10 managers who were involved in a Hearing Conservation Programme. The data were collected using semi-structured one-on-one interviews. A qualitative data analysis of Tesch’s approach was followed. Results: The following themes emerged: Experiences and challenges faced by employees in the work environment, hearing protective device factors and management and leadership factors. Hearing loss was caused by partial application of guidelines, policies, and procedures from the Department of Minerals and Energy. Conclusion: The study results indicate that although there are guidelines, policies, and procedures available, failure in the implementation of one element will affect the development and maintenance of employees hearing mechanism. It is recommended that the mine management should apply the guidelines, policies, and procedures and promptly repair the broken hearing protective devices.

Keywords: employees, factors, noise induced hearing loss, noise exposure

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2865 Hearing Conservation Program for Vector Control Workers: Short-Term Outcomes from a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Rama Krishna Supramanian, Marzuki Isahak, Noran Naqiah Hairi

Abstract:

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the highest recorded occupational diseases, despite being preventable. Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) is designed to protect workers hearing and prevent them from developing hearing impairment due to occupational noise exposures. However, there is still a lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of this program. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) in preventing or reducing audiometric threshold changes among vector control workers. This study adopts a cluster randomized controlled trial study design, with district health offices as the unit of randomization. Nine district health offices were randomly selected and 183 vector control workers were randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention included a safety and health policy, noise exposure assessment, noise control, distribution of appropriate hearing protection devices, training and education program and audiometric testing. The control group only underwent audiometric testing. Audiometric threshold changes observed in the intervention group showed improvement in the hearing threshold level for all frequencies except 500 Hz and 8000 Hz for the left ear. The hearing threshold changes range from 1.4 dB to 5.2 dB with largest improvement at higher frequencies mainly 4000 Hz and 6000 Hz. Meanwhile for the right ear, the mean hearing threshold level remained similar at 4000 Hz and 6000 Hz after 3 months of intervention. The Hearing Conservation Program (HCP) is effective in preserving the hearing of vector control workers involved in fogging activity as well as increasing their knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).

Keywords: adult, hearing conservation program, noise-induced hearing loss, vector control worker

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2864 Challenges in Early Diagnosis of Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA) in Pediatric Population: A Single Case Report

Authors: Asha Manoharan, Sooraj A. O, Anju K. G

Abstract:

Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) refers to the presence of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct. The Audiological symptoms of EVA are fluctuating and progressive in nature and the diagnosis of EVAS can be confirmed only with radiological evaluation. Hence it is difficult to differentiate EVA from conditions like Meniere’s disease, semi-circular dehiscence, etc based on audiological findings alone. EVA in adults is easy to identify due to distinct vestibular symptoms. In children, EVA can remain either unidentified or misdiagnosed until the vestibular symptoms are evident. Motor developmental delay, especially the ones involving a change of body alignment, has been reported in the pediatric population with EVA. So, it should be made mandatory to recommend radiological evaluation in young children with fluctuating hearing loss reporting with motor developmental delay. This single case study of a baby with Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA) primarily aimed to address the following: a) Challenges while diagnosing young patients with EVA and fluctuating hearing loss, b) Importance of radiological evaluation in audiological diagnosis in the pediatric population, c) Need for regular monitoring of hearing, hearing aid performance, and cochlear implant mapping closely for potential fluctuations in such populations, d) Importance of reviewing developmental, language milestones in very young children with fluctuating hearing loss.

Keywords: enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA), motor delay, radiological evaluation, fluctuating hearing loss, cochlear implant

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2863 Ear Protectors and Their Action in Protecting Hearing System of Workers against Occupational Noise

Authors: F. Forouharmajd, S. Pourabdian, N. Ziayi Ghahnavieh

Abstract:

For many years, the ear protectors have been used to preventing the audio and non-audio effects of received noise from occupation environments. Despite performing hearing protection programs, there are many people which still suffer from noise-induced hearing loss. This study was conducted with the aim of determination of human hearing system response to received noise and the effectiveness of ear protectors on preventing of noise-induced hearing loss. Sound pressure microphones were placed in a simulated ear canal. The severity of noise measured inside and outside of ear canal. The noise reduction values due to installing ear protectors were calculated in the octave band frequencies and LabVIEW programmer. The results of noise measurement inside and outside of ear canal showed a different in received sound levels by ear canal. The effectiveness of ear protectors has been considerably reduced for the low frequency limits. A change in resonance frequency also was observed after using ear protectors. The study indicated the ear canal structure may affect the received noise and it may lead a difference between the received sound from the measured sound by a sound level meter, and hearing system. It means the human hearing system may probably respond different from a sound level meter. Hearing protectors’ efficiency declines by increasing the noise levels, and thus, they are not suitable to protect workers against industrial noise particularly low frequency noise. Hearing protectors may be solely a reason to damaging of hearing system in a special frequency via changing of human hearing system acoustical structure. We need developing the subjective method of hearing protectors testing, because their evaluation is not designed based on industrial noise or in the field.

Keywords: ear protector, hearing system, occupational noise, workers

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2862 Effect of Low-Intensity Laser on Severe Tinnitus in Idiopathic Sudden Hearing Loss Patients

Authors: Z. Mowafy Emam Mowafy, Ahmed R. Sayed, M. El Sayed Mohmmed Hassan

Abstract:

Purpose: to evaluate the effect of low intensity laser on severe tinnitus in idiopathic sudden hearing loss patients. Methods of evaluation (Visual analogue scale and tinnitus handicap inventory scale):- Thirty patients who had unilateral tinnitus with sensorineural hearing loss were participated in the study. Subjects aged from 40 to 50 were randomly divided into two equal groups: group (A): composed of 15 patients who received the routine medical care (Systemic steroids) in addition to the low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) while group (B): composed of 15 patients who received only the routine medical care. Continuous 632.8nm He-Ne laser was used with 5mW power for 15 min\day, 3 days per week for 3 months. Results and conclusion: Results showed that application of the LILT had a valuable effect on severe tinnitus in idiopathic sudden hearing loss patients as evidenced by the highly decreased visual analogue scale and tinnitus handicap inventory scale.

Keywords: idiopathic sudden hearing loss, low intensity laser, tinnitus, tinnitus handicap inventory scale and visual analogue scale

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2861 The Use of Hearing Protection Devices and Hearing Loss in Steel Industry Workers in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand

Authors: Petcharat Kerdonfag, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Winai Wadwongtham

Abstract:

Background: Although there have not been effective treatments for Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL), it can be definitely preventable with promoting the use of Hearing Protection devices (HPDs) among workers who have been exposed to excessive noise for a long period. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to explore the use of HPDs among steel industrial workers in the high noise level zone in Samut Prakan province, Thailand and to examine the relationships of the HPDs use and hearing loss. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, eligible ninety-three participants were recruited in the designated zone of higher noise (> 85dBA) of two factories, using simple random sampling. The use of HPDs was gathered by the self-record form, examined and confirmed by the researcher team. Hearing loss was assessed by the audiometric screening at the regional Samut Prakan hospital. If an average threshold level exceeds 25 dBA at high frequency (4 and 6 Hz) in each ear, participants would be lost of hearing. Data were collected from October to December, 2016. All participants were examined by the same examiners for the validity. An Audiometric testing was performed with the participants who have been exposed to high noise levels at least 14 hours from workplace. Results: Sixty participants (64.5%) had secondary level of education. The average mean score of percent time of using HPDs was 60.5% (SD = 25.34). Sixty-seven participants (72.0%) had abnormal hearing which they have still needed to increase lower percent time of using HPDs (Mean = 37.01, SD = 23.81) than those having normal hearing (Mean = 45.77, SD = 28.44). However, there was no difference in the mean average of percent time of using HPDs between these two groups.Conclusion: The findings of this study have confirmed that the steel industrial workers still need to be motivated to use HPDs regularly. Future research should pay more attentions for creating a meaningful innovation to steel industrial workers.

Keywords: hearing protection devices, noise induced hearing loss, audiometric testing, steel industry

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2860 Difficulties Encountered in the Process of Supporting Reading Skills of a Student with Hearing Loss Whose Inclusion Was Ongoing and Solution Proposals

Authors: Ezgi Tozak, H. Pelin Karasu, Umit Girgin

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In this study, difficulties encountered in the process of supporting the reading skills of a student with hearing loss whose inclusion was ongoing and the solutions improved during the practice process were examined. The study design was action research. Participants of this study, which was conducted between the dates of 29 September 2016 and 22 February 2017, consisted of a student with hearing loss, a classroom teacher, a teacher in the rehabilitation center, researcher/teacher and validity committee members. The data were obtained through observations, validity committee meeting, interviews, documents, and the researcher diary. Research findings show that in the process of supporting reading skills of the student with hearing loss, the student's knowledge of concepts was limited, and the student had difficulties in feeling and identification of sounds, reading and understanding words-sentences and retelling what he/she listened to. With the purpose of overcoming these difficulties in the implementation process, activities were prepared towards concepts, sound education, reading and understanding words and sentences, and retelling what you listen to; these activities were supported with visual materials and real objects and repeated with diversities.

Keywords: inclusion, reading process, supportive education, student with hearing loss

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2859 Hearing Threshold Levels among Steel Industry Workers in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand

Authors: Petcharat  Kerdonfag, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Winai Wadwongtham

Abstract:

Industrial noise is usually considered as the main impact of the environmental health and safety because its exposure can cause permanently serious hearing damage. Despite providing strictly hearing protection standards and campaigning extensively encouraging public health awareness among industrial workers in Thailand, hazard noise-induced hearing loss has dramatically been massive obstacles for workers’ health. The aims of the study were to explore and specify the hearing threshold levels among steel industrial workers responsible in which higher noise levels of work zone and to examine the relationships of hearing loss and workers’ age and the length of employment in Samut Prakan province, Thailand. Cross-sectional study design was done. Ninety-three steel industrial workers in the designated zone of higher noise (> 85dBA) with more than 1 year of employment from two factories by simple random sampling and available to participate in were assessed by the audiometric screening at regional Samut Prakan hospital. Data of doing screening were collected from October to December, 2016 by the occupational medicine physician and a qualified occupational nurse. All participants were examined by the same examiners for the validity. An Audiometric testing was performed at least 14 hours after the last noise exposure from the workplace. Workers’ age and the length of employment were gathered by the developed occupational record form. Results: The range of workers’ age was from 23 to 59 years, (Mean = 41.67, SD = 9.69) and the length of employment was from 1 to 39 years, (Mean = 13.99, SD = 9.88). Fifty three (60.0%) out of all participants have been exposing to the hazard of noise in the workplace for more than 10 years. Twenty-three (24.7%) of them have been exposing to the hazard of noise less than or equal to 5 years. Seventeen (18.3%) of them have been exposing to the hazard of noise for 5 to 10 years. Using the cut point of less than or equal to 25 dBA of hearing thresholds, the average means of hearing thresholds for participants at 4, 6, and 8 kHz were 31.34, 29.62, and 25.64 dB, respectively for the right ear and 40.15, 32.20, and 25.48 dB for the left ear, respectively. The more developing age of workers in the work zone with hazard of noise, the more the hearing thresholds would be increasing at frequencies of 4, 6, and 8 kHz (p =.012, p =.026, p =.024) for the right ear, respectively and for the left ear only at the frequency 4 kHz (p =.009). Conclusion: The participants’ age in the hazard of noise work zone was significantly associated with the hearing loss in different levels while the length of participants’ employment was not significantly associated with the hearing loss. Thus hearing threshold levels among industrial workers would be regularly assessed and needed to be protected at the beginning of working.

Keywords: hearing threshold levels, hazard of noise, hearing loss, audiometric testing

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2858 Hearing Aids Maintenance Training for Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children with the Help of Motion Graphic Tools

Authors: M. Mokhtarzadeh, M. Taheri Qomi, M. Nikafrooz, A. Atashafrooz

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using motion graphics as a learning medium on training hearing aids maintenance skills to hearing-impaired children. The statistical population of this study consisted of all children with hearing loss in Ahvaz city, at age 4 to 7 years old. As the sample, 60, whom were selected by multistage random sampling, were randomly assigned to two groups; experimental (30 children) and control (30 children) groups. The research method was experimental and the design was pretest-posttest with the control group. The intervention consisted of a 2-minute motion graphics clip to train hearing aids maintenance skills. Data were collected using a 9-question researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of covariance. Results showed that the training of hearing aids maintenance skills with motion graphics was significantly effective for those children. The results of this study can be used by educators, teachers, professionals, and parents to train children with disabilities or normal students.

Keywords: hearing aids, hearing aids maintenance skill, hearing impaired children, motion graphics

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2857 An Examination of Social Isolation and Loneliness in Adults with Hearing Loss

Authors: Christine Maleesha Withanachchi, Eithne Heffernan, Derek Hoare

Abstract:

Background: Social isolation (SI} is a major consequence of hearing loss (HL}. Isolation can lead to serious health problems (e.g., dementia and depression). Hearing Aids (HA) is the primary intervention for HL. However, these are less effective in social situations. Interventions are needed for SI in adults with hearing loss (AHL). Objectives: Investigated the relationship between HL and SI. Explored the views of AHL and hearing healthcare professionals (HHP) towards interventions for isolation. Methods: Individual and group semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were conducted at the Nottingham Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). Six AHL and seven HHP were recruited via maximum variation sampling. The interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Social impacts of HL: Most participants described that HL hurt them. This was in the form of social withdrawal, strain on relationships, and identity loss. Downstream effects of HL: Most audiologists acknowledged that isolation from HL could lead to depression. HL can also lead to exhaustion and unemployment. Impact of stigma: There are negative connotations around HL and HA (e.g. old age) and there is difficulty talking about isolation. The complexity of SI: There can be difficulty separating SI due to HL from SI due to other contributing factors (e.g. comorbidities). Potential intervention for isolation: Participants were unfamiliar with interventions for isolation and few, if any, were targeted for AHL specifically. Most participants thought an intervention should be patient-centered and run by an AHL in the community. Opinions differed regarding whether it should hear specific or generic. Implementation of intervention: Challenges to the implementation of an intervention for SI exist due to the sensitivity of the subject. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that SI is a major consequence of HL and uncovered novel findings related to its interventions. Uptake of interventions offered to AHL to reduce loneliness and social isolation is expected to be better if led by AHL in the community as opposed to HHP led interventions in the hospital or clinic settings.

Keywords: adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, interventions, social isolation

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2856 Barriers to Marital Expectation among Individuals with Hearing Impairment in Oyo State

Authors: Adebomi M. Oyewumi, Sunday Amaize

Abstract:

The study was designed to examine the barriers to marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred participants made up forty-four (44) males and fifty-six (56) females, all with varying degrees of hearing impairment. Eight research questions were raised and answered. The instrument used was Marital Expectations Scale with reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics tools of frequency count and simple percentage as well as inferential statistics tools of T-TEST and ANOVA. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship existing among the main identified barriers (environmental barrier, communication barrier, hearing loss, unemployment and poor sexuality education) to the marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment. The joint contribution of the independent variables (identified barriers) to the dependent variable (marital expectations) was significant, F = 5.842, P < 0.05, accounting for about 89% of the variance. The relative contribution of the identified barriers to marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment is as follows: environmental barrier (β = 0.808, t = 5.176, P < 0.05), communication barrier (β = 0.533, t = 3.305, P < 0.05), hearing loss (β = 0.550, t = 2.233, P < 0.05), unemployment (β = 0.431, t = 2.102, P < 0.05), poor sexuality education (β = 0.361, t = 1.985, P < 0.05). Environmental barrier proved to be the most potent contributor to the poor marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that society dismantles the nagging environmental barrier through positive identification with individuals suffering from hearing impairment. In this connection, members of society should change their negative attitudes and do away with all the wrong notions about the marital ability of individuals with hearing impairment.

Keywords: environmental barrier, hearing impairment, marriage, marital expectations

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2855 In silico Analysis of a Causative Mutation in Cadherin-23 Gene Identified in an Omani Family with Hearing Loss

Authors: Mohammed N. Al Kindi, Mazin Al Khabouri, Khalsa Al Lamki, Tommasso Pappuci, Giovani Romeo, Nadia Al Wardy

Abstract:

Hereditary hearing loss is a heterogeneous group of complex disorders with an overall incidence of one in every five hundred newborns presented as syndromic and non-syndromic forms. Cadherin-related 23 (CDH23) is one of the listed deafness causative genes. CDH23 is found to be expressed in the stereocilia of hair cells and the retina photoreceptor cells. Defective CDH23 has been associated mostly with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in either syndromic (USH1D) or non-syndromic SNHL (DFNB12). An Omani family diagnosed clinically with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss was genetically analysed by whole exome sequencing technique. A novel homozygous missense variant, c.A7451C (p.D2484A), in exon 53 of CDH23 was detected. One hundred and thirty control samples were analysed where all were negative for the detected variant. The variant was analysed in silico for pathogenicity verification using several mutation prediction software. The variant proved to be a pathogenic mutation and is reported for the first time in Oman and worldwide. It is concluded that in silico mutation prediction analysis might be used as a useful molecular diagnostics tool benefiting both genetic counseling and mutation verification. The aspartic acid 2484 alanine missense substitution might be the main disease-causing mutation that damages CDH23 function and could be used as a genetic hearing loss marker for this particular Omani family.

Keywords: Cdh23, d2484a, in silico, Oman

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2854 What Children Do and Do Not Like about Taking Part in Sport: Using Focus Groups to Investigate Thoughts and Feelings of Children with Hearing Loss

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare, P. Leighton

Abstract:

Limited participation in physical activity and sport has been linked to poorer mental and physical health in children. Studies have shown that children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sport are also more likely to continue their participation into their adult life. Deaf or hard of hearing children should have the same opportunities to participate in sport and receive the benefits as their hearing peers. Anecdotal evidence suggests this isn’t always the case. This is concerning given there are 45,000 children in the UK with permanent hearing loss. The aim of this study was to understand what encourages or discourages deaf or hard of hearing children to take part in sports. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethics committee. We conducted eight focus groups with deaf or hard of hearing children aged 10 to 15 years. A total of 45 children (19 male, 26 female) recruited from local schools and sports clubs took part. Information was gathered on the children’s thoughts and feelings about participation in sport. This included whether they played sports and who with, whether they did or did not like sport, and why they got involved in sport. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Several key themes were identified as being associated with levels of sports participation. These included friendships, family and communication. Deaf or hard of hearing children with active siblings had participated in more sports. Communication was a common theme throughout regardless of the type of hearing-assistive technology a child used. Children found communication easier during sport if they were allowed to use their technology and had particular difficulty during sports such as swimming. Children expressed a desire not to have to identify themselves at a club as having a hearing loss. This affected their confidence when participating in sport. Not surprisingly, children who are deaf or hard of hearing are more likely to participate in sport if they have a good support network of parents, coaches and friends. The key barriers to participation for these children are communication, lack of visual information, lack of opportunity and a lack of awareness. By addressing these issues more deaf and hard of hearing children will take part in sport and will continue their participation.

Keywords: barrier, children, deaf, participation, hard of hearing, sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
2853 Pediatric Hearing Aid Use: A Study Based on Data Logging Information

Authors: Mina Salamatmanesh, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Tim Ramsay, Josee Lagacé, Lindsey Sikora, JoAnne Whittingham

Abstract:

Introduction: Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common disorders that presents at birth and in early childhood. Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been adopted based on the assumption that with early identification of HL, children will have access to optimal amplification and intervention at younger ages, therefore, taking advantage of the brain’s maximal plasticity. One particular challenge for parents in the early years is achieving consistent hearing aid (HA) use which is critical to the child’s development and constitutes the first step in the rehabilitation process. This study examined the consistency of hearing aid use in young children based on data logging information documented during audiology sessions in the first three years after hearing aid fitting. Methodology: The first 100 children who were diagnosed with bilateral HL before 72 months of age since 2003 to 2015 in a pediatric audiology clinic and who had at least two hearing aid follow-up sessions with available data logging information were included in the study. Data from each audiology session (age of child at the session, average hours of use per day (for each ear) in the first three years after HA fitting) were collected. Clinical characteristics (degree of hearing loss, age of HA fitting) were also documented to further understanding of factors that impact HA use. Results: Preliminary analysis of the results of the first 20 children shows that all of them (100%) have at least one data logging session recorded in the clinical audiology system (Noah). Of the 20 children, 17(85%) have three data logging events recorded in the first three years after HA fitting. Based on the statistical analysis of the first 20 cases, the median hours of use in the first follow-up session after the hearing aid fitting in the right ear is 3.9 hours with an interquartile range (IQR) of 10.2h. For the left ear the median is 4.4 and the IQR is 9.7h. In the first session 47% of the children use their hearing aids ≤5 hours, 12% use them between 5 to 10 hours and 22% use them ≥10 hours a day. However, these children showed increased use by the third follow-up session with a median (IQR) of 9.1 hours for the right ear and 2.5, and of 8.2 hours for left ear (IQR) IQR is 5.6 By the third follow-up session, 14% of children used hearing aids ≤5 hours, while 38% of children used them ≥10 hours. Based on the primary results, factors like age and level of HL significantly impact the hours of use. Conclusion: The use of data logging information to assess the actual hours of HA provides an opportunity to examine the: a) challenges of families of young children with HAs, b) factors that impact use in very young children. Data logging when used collaboratively with parents, can be a powerful tool to identify problems and to encourage and assist families in maximizing their child’s hearing potential.

Keywords: hearing loss, hearing aid, data logging, hours of use

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2852 Influence of Genetic Counseling in Family Dynamics in Patients with Deafness in Merida, Yucatán, Mexico

Authors: Damaris Estrella Castillo, Zacil ha Vilchis Zapata, Leydi Peraza Gómez

Abstract:

Hearing loss is an etiologically heterogeneous condition, where almost 60% is genetic in origin, 20% is due to environmental factors, and 20% have unknown causes. However, it is now known that the gene, GJB2, which encodes the connexin 26 protein, accounts for a large percentage of non-syndromic genetic hearing loss, and variants in this gene have been identified to be a common cause of hereditary hearing loss in many populations. The literature reports that the etiology in deafness helps improve family functioning but low-income countries this is difficult. Therefore, it is difficult to contribute the right of families to know about the genetic risk in future pregnancies as well as determining the certainty of being a carrier or affected. In order to assess the impact of genetic counseling and the functionality, 100 families with at least one child with profound hearing loss, were evaluated by specialists in audiology, clinical genetics and psychology. Targeted mutation analysis for one of the two known large deletions of upstream of GJB2/GJB6 gene (35delG; and including GJB2 regulatory sequences and GJB6) were performed in patients with diagnosis of non-syndromic hearing loss. Genetic counseling was given to all parents and primary caregivers, and APGAR family test was applied before and after the counseling. We analyzed a total of 300 members (children, parents) to determine the presence of the GJB2 gene mutation. Twelve patients (carriers and affected) were positive for the mutation, from 5 different families. The subsequent family APGAR testing and genetic counseling, showed that 14% perceived their families as functional, 62 % and 24 % moderately functional dysfunctional. This shows the importance of genetic counseling in the perception of family function that can directly impact the quality of life of these families.

Keywords: family dynamics, deafness, APGAR, counseling

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2851 The Role of Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in the Repair of Damaged Inner Ear in Albino Rats

Authors: Ahmed Gaber Abdel Raheem, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is largely caused by the degeneration of the cochlea. Therapeutic options for SNHL are limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. The cell transplantation approach to the regeneration of hair cells has gained considerable attention because stem cells are believed to accumulate in the damaged sites and have the potential for the repair of damaged tissues. The aim of the work: was to assess the use of bone marrow transplantation in repair of damaged inner ear hair cells in rats after the damage had been inflicted by Amikacin injection. Material and Methods: Thirty albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. Each group ten rats. Group I: used as control. Group II: Were given Amikacin- intratympanic injection till complete loss of hearing function. This could be assessed by Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAEs) and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR). GroupIII: were given intra-peritoneal injection of bone marrow stem cell after complete loss of hearing caused by Amikacin. Clinical assessment was done using DPOAEs and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR), before and after bone marrow injection. Histological assessment of the inner ear was done by light and electron microscope. Also, Detection of stem cells in the inner ear by immunohistochemistry. Results: Histological examination of the specimens showed promising improvement in the structure of cochlea that may be responsible for the improvement of hearing function in rats detected by DPOAEs and / or ABR. Conclusion: Bone marrow stem cells transplantation might be useful for the treatment of SNHL.

Keywords: amikacin, hair cells, sensorineural hearing loss, stem cells

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2850 Survey of Prevalence of Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Hawkers and Shopkeepers in Noisy Areas of Mumbai City

Authors: Hitesh Kshayap, Shantanu Arya, Ajay Basod, Sachin Sakhuja

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This study was undertaken to measure the overall noise levels in different locations/zones and to estimate the prevalence of Noise induced hearing loss in Hawkers & Shopkeepers in Mumbai, India. The Hearing Test developed by American Academy Of Otolaryngology, translated from English to Hindi, and validated is used as a screening tool for hearing sensitivity was employed. The tool is having 14 items. Each item is scored on a scale 0, 1, 2 and 3. The score 6 and above indicated some difficulty or definite difficulty in hearing in daily activities and low score indicated lesser difficulty or normal hearing. The subjects who scored 6 or above or having tinnitus were made to undergo hearing evaluation by Pure tone audiometer. Further, the environmental noise levels were measured from Morning to Evening at road side at different Location/Hawking zones in Mumbai city using SLM9 Agronic 8928B & K type Digital Sound Level Meter) in dB (A). The maximum noise level of 100.0 dB (A) was recorded during evening hours from Chattrapati Shivaji Terminal to Colaba with overall noise level of 79.0 dB (A). However, the minimum noise level in this area was 72.6 dB (A) at any given point of time. Further, 54.6 dB (A) was recorded as minimum noise level during 8-9 am at Sion Circle. Further, commencement of flyovers with 2-tier traffic, sky walks, increasing number of vehicular traffic at road, high rise buildings and other commercial & urbanization activities in the Mumbai city most probably have resulted in increasing the overall environmental noise levels. Trees which acted as noise absorbers have been cut owing to rapid construction. The study involved 100 participants in the age range of 18 to 40 years of age, with the mean age of 29 years (S.D. =6.49). 46 participants having tinnitus or have obtained the score of 6 were made to undergo Pure Tone Audiometry and it was found that the prevalence rate of hearing loss in hawkers & shopkeepers is 19% (10% Hawkers and 9 % Shopkeepers). The results found indicates that 29 (42.6%) out of 64 Hawkers and 17 (47.2%) out of 36 Shopkeepers who underwent PTA had no significant difference in percentage of Noise Induced Hearing loss. The study results also reveal that participants who exhibited tinnitus 19 (41.30%) out of 46 were having mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss between 3000Hz to 6000Hz. The Pure tone Audiogram pattern revealed Hearing loss at 4000 Hz and 6000 Hz while hearing at adjacent frequencies were nearly normal. 7 hawkers and 8 shopkeepers had mild notch while 3 hawkers and 1 shopkeeper had a moderate degree of notch. It is thus inferred that tinnitus is a strong indicator for presence of hearing loss and 4/6 KHz notch is a strong marker for road/traffic/ environmental noise as an occupational hazard for hawkers and shopkeepers. Mass awareness about these occupational hazards, regular hearing check up, early intervention along with sustainable development juxtaposed with social and urban forestry can help in this regard.

Keywords: NIHL, noise, sound level meter, tinnitus

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2849 Phonological Characteristics of Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children

Authors: Akbar Darouie, Mamak Joulaie

Abstract:

In regard of phonological skills development importance and its influence on other aspects of language, this study has been performed. Determination of some phonological indexes in children with hearing impairment and comparison with hearing children was the objective. A sample of convenience was selected from a rehabilitation center and a kindergarten in Karaj, Iran. Participants consisted of 12 hearing impaired and 12 hearing children (age range: 5 years and 6 months to 6 years and 6 months old). Hearing impaired children suffered from severe to profound hearing loss while three of them were cochlear implanted and the others were wearing hearing aids. Conversational speech of these children was recorded and 50 first utterances were selected to analyze. Percentage of consonant correct (PCC) and vowel correct (PVC), initial and final consonant omission error, cluster consonant omission error and syllabic structure variety were compared in two groups. Data were analyzed with t test (version 16th SPSS). Comparison between PCC and PVC averages in two groups showed a significant difference (P< 0/01). There was a significant difference about final consonant emission error (P<0/001) and initial consonant emission error (P<0/01) too. Also, the differences between two groups on cluster consonant omission were significant (P<0/001). Therefore, some changes were seen in syllabic structures in children with hearing impairment compared to typical group. This study demonstrates some phonological differences in Farsi language between two groups of children. Therefore, it seems, in clinical practices we must notice this issue.

Keywords: hearing impairment, phonology, vowel, consonant

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