Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: Malawi

45 Prediction of Malawi Rainfall from Global Sea Surface Temperature Using a Simple Multiple Regression Model

Authors: Chisomo Patrick Kumbuyo, Katsuyuki Shimizu, Hiroshi Yasuda, Yoshinobu Kitamura

Abstract:

This study deals with a way of predicting Malawi rainfall from global sea surface temperature (SST) using a simple multiple regression model. Monthly rainfall data from nine stations in Malawi grouped into two zones on the basis of inter-station rainfall correlations were used in the study. Zone 1 consisted of Karonga and Nkhatabay stations, located in northern Malawi; and Zone 2 consisted of Bolero, located in northern Malawi; Kasungu, Dedza, Salima, located in central Malawi; Mangochi, Makoka and Ngabu stations located in southern Malawi. Links between Malawi rainfall and SST based on statistical correlations were evaluated and significant results selected as predictors for the regression models. The predictors for Zone 1 model were identified from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans while those for Zone 2 were identified from the Pacific Ocean. The correlation between the fit of predicted and observed rainfall values of the models were satisfactory with r=0.81 and 0.54 for Zone 1 and 2 respectively (significant at less than 99.99%). The results of the models are in agreement with other findings that suggest that SST anomalies in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans have an influence on the rainfall patterns of Southern Africa.

Keywords: Malawi rainfall, forecast model, predictors, SST

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44 Ethnolinguistic Identity and Language Policies: Negotiating Identity and Diversity in Modern Linguistic Environment in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

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The question of language and identity in the post-colonial Africa has resulted in the policy inconsistencies and perceived wayward practices regarding language use. The need to reside and situate oneself in the global village has alienated local identities, with most countries, Malawi in particular promoting exogenous colonial language(s) at the expense of local languages that mirror people’s identities. This has brought a mismatch between language policy and implementation. The resultant effect has been alienation of the ‘Self’ from one’s indigenous identity and creation of the ‘other’ in the foreign identity, and the undermining of the linguistic rights of the minority language speakers. The need to negotiate the identity and modernity in the global village is thus imperative. The paper attempts to review the language situation in Malawi in light of the growing desire for international integration vis-à-vis the cultivation and maintenance of national ethnolinguistic identity. It further highlights the dilemma that the promotion of vernacular languages is facing in the modern Malawi. It also examines the Malawi language policy and its implementation. The failures, challenges, and inconsistencies are discussed in order to negotiate the position of minority languages in the modern Malawi. The paper notes that identity construction and maintenance within the framework of language policy in Malawi is undermined by attitudinal factors towards one’s culture and language. The paper then provides suggestions of negotiating identity in Malawi within the framework of globalisation through the placement of premiums on the minority languages.

Keywords: identity, language policy, minority languages, vernacular language

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43 Greening of the Hotel Industry in Malawi: An Examination of the Governance and Policing Tools

Authors: Lameck Zetu Khonje, Mulala Danny Simatele

Abstract:

Malawi’s economy is agriculture based. Recently the government earmarked the tourism sector as an important economic sector which could support the agriculture sector to bring about sustainable economic development and help socioeconomic wellbeing of the local people. Greening of the hotel industry is one of the proven ideal ways of creating a sustainable tourism industry which brings about sustainable economic development in a country like Malawi. This study uses qualitative methodology to examine the efficacy of the governance and policing tools that Malawi uses to guide the development and general practices of the hotel sector to ascertain whether these tools are for greening or not. Grounded Theory method is used whereby semi-structured interviews and field visits were conducted to collect data for the study. The results of the study show that there are loopholes in the governance system in Malawi. The results also reveal gaps within the policing tools such that the hotel industry is not properly guided on green issues. Furthermore, the results show that there is a lack of collaboration for the enforcement of the green practices in the hotel industry. It is also revealed that there is a lack of knowledge of green issues within the governance structures. Awareness campaigns and capacity building would improve greening of the hotel industry in Malawi.

Keywords: governance, greening, Grounded Theory, Malawi

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42 Forecasting Lake Malawi Water Level Fluctuations Using Stochastic Models

Authors: M. Mulumpwa, W. W. L. Jere, M. Lazaro, A. H. N. Mtethiwa

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The study considered Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) processes to select an appropriate stochastic model to forecast the monthly data from the Lake Malawi water levels for the period 1986 through 2015. The appropriate model was chosen based on SARIMA (p, d, q) (P, D, Q)S. The Autocorrelation function (ACF), Partial autocorrelation (PACF), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Box–Ljung statistics, correlogram and distribution of residual errors were estimated. The SARIMA (1, 1, 0) (1, 1, 1)12 was selected to forecast the monthly data of the Lake Malawi water levels from August, 2015 to December, 2021. The plotted time series showed that the Lake Malawi water levels are decreasing since 2010 to date but not as much as was the case in 1995 through 1997. The future forecast of the Lake Malawi water levels until 2021 showed a mean of 474.47 m ranging from 473.93 to 475.02 meters with a confidence interval of 80% and 90% against registered mean of 473.398 m in 1997 and 475.475 m in 1989 which was the lowest and highest water levels in the lake respectively since 1986. The forecast also showed that the water levels of Lake Malawi will drop by 0.57 meters as compared to the mean water levels recorded in the previous years. These results suggest that the Lake Malawi water level may not likely go lower than that recorded in 1997. Therefore, utilisation and management of water-related activities and programs among others on the lake should provide room for such scenarios. The findings suggest a need to manage the Lake Malawi jointly and prudently with other stakeholders starting from the catchment area. This will reduce impacts of anthropogenic activities on the lake’s water quality, water level, aquatic and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems thereby ensuring its resilience to climate change impacts.

Keywords: forecasting, Lake Malawi, water levels, water level fluctuation, climate change, anthropogenic activities

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41 Entrepreneurship and the Discovery and Exploitation of Business Opportunities: Empirical Evidence from the Malawian Tourism Sector

Authors: Aravind Mohan Krishnan

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This paper identifies a research gap in the literature on tourism entrepreneurship in Malawi, Africa, and investigates how entrepreneurs from the Malawian tourism sector discover and exploit business opportunities. In particular, the importance of prior experience and business networks in the opportunity development process is debated. Another area of empirical research examined here is the opportunity recognition-venture creation sequence. While Malawi presents fruitful business opportunities, exploiting these opportunities into fully realized business ideas is a real challenge due to the country’s difficult business environment and poor promotional and marketing efforts. The study concludes by calling for further research in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to develop our understanding of entrepreneurship in this (African) context.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, Malawi, opportunities, tourism

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40 Family Planning Use among Women Living with HIV in Malawi: Analysis from Malawi DHS-2010 Data

Authors: Dereje Habte, Jane Namasasu

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Background: The aim of the analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV-positive status in the practice of FP. Methods: The analysis was made among 489 non-pregnant, sexually active, fecund women living with HIV. Result: Of the 489 confirmed HIV positive women, 184 (37.6%) reported that they knew they are HIV positive. The number of women with current use and unmet need of any family planning method were found to be 251 (51.2%) and 107 (21.9%) respectively. Women’s knowledge of HIV-positive status (AOR: 2.32(1.54,3.50)), secondary and above education (AOR: 2.36(1.16,4.78)), presence of 3-4 (AOR: 2.60(1.08,6.28)) and more than four alive children (AOR: 3.03(1.18,7.82)) were significantly associated with current use of family planning. Conclusion: Women’s awareness of HIV-positive status was found to significantly predict family planning practice among women living with HIV.

Keywords: family planning, HIV, Malawi, women

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39 Intercultural Communication in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Malawi

Authors: Peter Mayeso Jiyajiya

Abstract:

This paper discusses how the teaching of English as a foreign language in Malawi can enhance intercultural communication competence in a multicultural society. It argues that incorporation of intercultural communication in the teaching of English as a foreign language would improve cultural awareness in communication in the multicultural Malawi. The teaching of English in Malawi is geared towards producing students who would communicate in the global world. This entails the use of proper pedagogical approaches and instructional materials that prepare the students toward intercultural awareness. In view of this, the language teachers were interviewed in order to determine their instructional approaches to intercultural communication. Instructional materials were further evaluated to assess how interculturality is incorporated. The study found out that teachers face perceptual and technical challenges that hinder them from exercising creativity to incorporate interculturality in their lessons. This is also compounded by lack of clear direction in the teaching materials on cultural elements. The paper, therefore, suggests a holistic approach to the teaching of English language in Malawian school in which the diversity of culture in classrooms must be considered an opportunity for addressing students’ cultural needs that may be lacking in the instructional materials.

Keywords: cultural awareness, grammar, foreign language, intercultural communication, language teaching

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38 Challenges for the Implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation in Rural Malawi

Authors: Save Kumwenda, Khumbo Kalulu, Kondwani Chidziwisano, Limbani Kalumbi, Vincent Doyle, Bagrey Ngwira

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Introduction: The Malawi Government in partnership with Non-Governmental Organizations adopted Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in 2008 as an approach in sanitation and hygiene promotion with an aim of declaring Malawi Open Defeacation Free (ODF) by 2015. While there is a significant body of research into CLTS available in public domain, there is little research done on challenges faced in implementing CLTS in Malawi. Methods: A cross-sectional qualitative study was carried out in three districts of Ntcheu, Balaka, and Phalombe. Data was collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key informant interviews (KII) and analysed manually. Results: In total, 96 people took part in FGDs and 9 people in KII. It was shown that choice of leaders after triggering was commonly done by chiefs, facilitators, and VHC without following CLTS principles as opposed to identifying individuals who showed leadership skills. Despite capacity building initiatives involving District Coordinating Teams, lack of resources to undertake follow-ups contributed to failure to sustain ODF in the community. It was also found that while most respondents appreciating the need for no subsidies, the elderly and those with disabilities felt the need for external support because do not have money for buying strong logs, slabs for durable toilet floor and also to hire people to build latrines for them. Conclusion: Effective implementation of CLTS requires comprehensive consideration of various issues that may affect its success.

Keywords: open defecation, community-led, sanitation, faecal matter, hygiene, Malawi

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37 Quality Analysis of Lake Malawi's Diplotaxodon Fish Species Processed in Solar Tent Dryer versus Open Sun Drying

Authors: James Banda, Jupiter Simbeye, Essau Chisale, Geoffrey Kanyerere, Kings Kamtambe

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Improved solar tent dryers for processing small fish species were designed to reduce post-harvest fish losses and improve supply of quality fish products in the southern part of Lake Malawi under CultiAF project. A comparative analysis of the quality of Diplotaxodon (Ndunduma) from Lake Malawi processed in solar tent dryer and open sun drying was conducted using proximate analysis, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation. Proximates for solar tent dried fish and open sun dried fish in terms of proteins, fats, moisture and ash were 63.3±0.15% and 63.3±0.34%, 19.6±0.09% and 19.9±0.25%, 8.3±0.12% and 17.0±0.01%, and 15.6±0.61% and 21.9±0.91% respectively. Crude protein and crude fat showed non-significant differences (p = 0.05), while moisture and ash content were significantly different (p = 001). Open sun dried fish had significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria counts (5.2×10⁶ CFU) than solar tent dried fish (3.9×10² CFU). Most isolated bacteria from solar tent dried and open sun dried fish were 1.0×10¹ and 7.2×10³ for Total coliform, 0 and 4.5 × 10³ for Escherishia coli, 0 and 7.5 × 10³ for Salmonella, 0 and 5.7×10² for shigella, 4.0×10¹ and 6.1×10³ for Staphylococcus, 1.0×10¹ and 7.0×10² for vibrio. Qualitative evaluation of sensory properties showed higher acceptability of 3.8 for solar tent dried fish than 1.7 for open sun dried fish. It is concluded that promotion of solar tent drying in processing small fish species in Malawi would support small-scale fish processors to produce quality fish in terms of nutritive value, reduced microbial contamination, sensory acceptability and reduced moisture content.

Keywords: diplotaxodon, Malawi, open sun drying, solar tent drying

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36 Time Fetching Water and Maternal Childcare Practices: Comparative Study of Women with Children Living in Ethiopia and Malawi

Authors: Davod Ahmadigheidari, Isabel Alvarez, Kate Sinclair, Marnie Davidson, Patrick Cortbaoui, Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez

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The burden of collecting water tends to disproportionately fall on women and girls in low-income countries. Specifically, women spend between one to eight hours per day fetching water for domestic use in Sub-Saharan Africa. While there has been research done on the global time burden for collecting water, it has been mainly focused on water quality parameters; leaving the relationship between water fetching and health outcomes understudied. There is little available evidence regarding the relationship between water fetching and maternal child care practices. The main objective of this study was to help fill the aforementioned gap in the literature. Data from two surveys in Ethiopia and Malawi conducted by CARE Canada in 2016-2017 were used. Descriptive statistics indicate that women were predominantly responsible for collecting water in both Ethiopia (87%) and Malawi (99%) respectively, with the majority spending more than 30 minutes per day on water collection. With regards to child care practices, in both countries, breastfeeding was relatively high (77% and 82%, respectively); and treatment for malnutrition was low (15% and 8%, respectively). However, the same consistency was not found for weighing; in Ethiopia only 16% took their children for weighting in contrast to 94% in Malawi. These three practices were summed to create one variable for regressions analyses. Unadjusted logistic regression findings showed that only in Ethiopia was time fetching water significantly associated with child care practices. Once adjusted for covariates, this relationship was no longer found to be significant. Adjusted logistic regressions also showed that the factors that did influence child care practices differed slightly between the two countries. In Ethiopia, a lack of access to community water supply (OR= 0.668; P=0.010), poor attitudes towards gender equality (OR= 0.608; P=0.001), no access to land and (OR=0.603; P=0.000), significantly decreased a women’s odd of using positive childcare practices. Notably, being young women between 15-24 years (OR=2.308; P=0.017), and 25-29 (OR=2.065; P=0.028) increased probability of using positive childcare practices. Whereas in Malawi, higher maternal age, low decision-making power, significantly decreased a women’s odd of using positive childcare practices. In conclusion, this study found that even though amount of time spent by women fetching water makes a difference for childcare practices, it is not significantly related to women’s child care practices when controlling the covariates. Importantly, women’s age contributes to child care practices in Ethiopia and Malawi.

Keywords: time fetching water, community water supply, women’s child care practices, Ethiopia, Malawi

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35 UNHCR and the International Refugee Protection: An Analysis of Its Actions in Protecting Mozambican Refugees in Malawi

Authors: Marcia Teresa Gildo

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The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is responsible to provide international protection and humanitarian assistance to refugees and to seek permanent solutions to their situation. To fulfil this mandate, the agency works in collaboration with its partners and governments. This paper aims to analyse the agency's actions to protect and provide assistance to Mozambican refugees in Malawi. Since July 2015, approximately 12.000 people have fled Mozambique to neighbouring Malawi due to the political-military conflict between the government of Mozambique and RENAMO (the country’s largest opposition party). This led to a series of military clashes between the two parties and the consequent flight of some Mozambicans to Malawi, in search of asylum. Most arrived from the province of Tete, in the central region of Mozambique, and, to a lesser extent, from the province of Zambezia. The asylum seekers arrived in small groups and settled in the village of Kapise in the Mwanza district of Thambani, as well as in Chikwawa and Nsanje districts in Malawi. UNHCR led an interinstitutional response action to manage the flow of Mozambican asylum seekers to Malawi. In view of these aspects and the ongoing challenge of protecting refugees and finding permanent solutions to their situation, UNHCR remains an indispensable international organization. However, there are significant gaps in the international refugee protection regime, and there have been many occasions when UNHCR has failed to fulfill its mandate. The analysis was carried out through qualitative research methods and techniques based essentially on consultation of books, newspapers and scientific articles, television and journalistic reports and interviews with the people who were involved in the process. From the data obtained, it was concluded that UNHCR worked in coordination with its partners and the government of Malawi to provide protection and emergency assistance to the refugees. However, existing funds covered only the immediate needs of refugees, more funds had to be allocated. That was made through an interinstitutional appeal. Although the funds allocated were not sufficient, they allowed the agency to protect and assist the refugees until a permanent solution was found. UNHCR also worked in coordination with the governments of Malawi and Mozambique so that a tripartite agreement was signed between the parties for the voluntary repatriation of Mozambican refugees, since security conditions were guaranteed and the refugees had expressed their willingness to return to their country of origin. UNHCR's actions to protect Mozambican refugees in Malawi have enabled humanitarian conditions to be respected and the rights of refugees to be guaranteed. Cooperation with the different actors involved in the response has allowed UNHCR to fulfil its mandate.

Keywords: assistance , cooperation, international protection, refugees

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34 Risk Management Practices In The Construction Industry In Malawi

Authors: Taonga Temwani Chibaka

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This qualitative research study was conducted to identify the common risk factors that affect the construction industry in Malawi in the building and infrastructure (civil works) projects. The study then evaluates the possible risk responses that are done to mitigate the various risk factors that were identified. I addition the research also established the barriers to risk management implementation with lastly mapping out as where the identified risk factors fall on which stage of the project and then also map out the knowledge areas that need to be worked on the cases on Malawian construction industry in order to mitigate most of the identified risk factors. The study involved the interviewing the professionals from the construction industry in Malawi where insights and ideas were collected, analysed and interpreted. The key study findings show that risks related to clients group are perceived as most critical followed by the contractor related, consultant related and then external group related factors respectively where preventive measures are the most applied risk response technique where the aim to avoid most of the risk factors from happening. Most of the risk factors identified were internal risks and in managerial category which suggested that risk planning was to be emphasized at pre-contract stage to minimize these risks since a bigger percentage of the risk factors were mapped out at implementation stage. Furthermore, barriers to risk management were identified and the key barriers were lack of awareness; lack of knowledge; lack of formal policies in place; regarded as costly and limited time which resulted in proposing that regulating authorities to purposefully introduce intense training on risk management to make known of this new knowledge area. The study then recommends that organisation should formally implement risk management where policies should be introduced to enforce all parties to undertake this. Risk planning was regarded as paramount and this to be done from pre-contract phase so as to mitigate 80% of the risk factors. Finally, training should be done on all project management knowledge areas.

Keywords: risk management, risk factors, risks, malawi

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33 Enhancing Police Accountability through the Malawi Independent Police Complaints Commission: Prospects and Challenges That Lie Ahead

Authors: Esther Gumboh

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The police play a critical role in society and are an integral aspect of the rule of law. Equally, respect for human rights is an integral part of professional policing. In view of the vast powers that the police enjoy and the attendant risk of abuse and resulting human rights violations, the need for police accountability and civilian police oversight is internationally and regionally recognised. Policing oversight springs from the duty to investigate human rights violations. Those implicated in perpetrating or covering up violations must be disciplined or prosecuted to ensure effective accountability. Police accountability is particularly important in Malawi given the dark history of policing in the country during the 30-year dictatorial era under President Kamuzu Banda. Described as one of the most repressive regimes in Africa, the Banda administration was characterised by gross state-sponsored violence, repressive policing and human rights violations. Indeed, the police were involved in various forms of human rights abuse including arbitrary arrests and unlawful detentions, torture, and excessive use of force in conducting arrests and public order policing. This situation flourished within a culture of police impunity bolstered in part by the absence of clear oversight mechanisms for police accountability. In turn, there was immense public mistrust of the police. Unsurprisingly, the criminal justice system was one of the priority areas for reform when Malawi adopted its first democratic Constitution in 1994. Section 153 of the Constitution envisions a police service that is, for all intents and purposes, there to provide for the protection of public safety and the rights of persons in Malawi according to the prescriptions of the Constitution and any other law. This position reflects the view that the duty to protect and promote human rights is not incompatible with effective policing. Despite this, the police continue to engage in questionable behaviour in public order policing, excessive use of force, deaths in police custody, ill-treatment, torture and other forms of abuse including sexual abuse. Perpetrators of abuses are occasionally punished, but investigations are often delayed, abandoned, or remain inconclusive. Police accountability remains largely elusive. Commendably, the law does subject the police to significant oversight both internally and externally. However, until 2010, Malawi lacked a wholly independent civilian oversight mechanism specifically mandated to monitor the activities of the Malawi Police Service and held it accountable. This void has since been filled by the Independent Complaints Commission established under the Police Act. This is a positive development that reiterates Malawi’s commitment to the investigation of human rights violations by the police and to ending police impunity. This contribution examines the legal framework for this Commission to project the effectiveness of the Commission. While the framework looks promising on various fronts, there are potential challenges that lie ahead. Malawi must pre-emptively deal with these challenges carefully if the Commission is to have any practical significance in transforming police accountability in the country. Drawing on lessons from other jurisdictions like South Africa, the paper makes recommendations for legislative reform to strengthen the Commission’s framework.

Keywords: civilian policing oversight, Malawi, police, police accountability, policing, policing oversight

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32 Economic Assessment of the Fish Solar Tent Dryers

Authors: Collen Kawiya

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In an effort of reducing post-harvest losses and improving the supply of quality fish products in Malawi, the fish solar tent dryers have been designed in the southern part of Lake Malawi for processing small fish species under the project of Cultivate Africa’s Future (CultiAF). This study was done to promote the adoption of the fish solar tent dryers by the many small scale fish processors in Malawi through the assessment of the economic viability of these dryers. With the use of the project’s baseline survey data, a business model for a constructed ‘ready for use’ solar tent dryer was developed where investment appraisal techniques were calculated in addition with the sensitivity analysis. The study also conducted a risk analysis through the use of the Monte Carlo simulation technique and a probabilistic net present value was found. The investment appraisal results showed that the net present value was US$8,756.85, the internal rate of return was 62% higher than the 16.32% cost of capital and the payback period was 1.64 years. The sensitivity analysis results showed that only two input variables influenced the fish solar dryer investment’s net present value. These are the dried fish selling prices that were correlating positively with the net present value and the fresh fish buying prices that were negatively correlating with the net present value. Risk analysis results showed that the chances that fish processors will make a loss from this type of investment are 17.56%. It was also observed that there exist only a 0.20 probability of experiencing a negative net present value from this type of investment. Lastly, the study found that the net present value of the fish solar tent dryer’s investment is still robust in spite of any changes in the levels of investors risk preferences. With these results, it is concluded that the fish solar tent dryers in Malawi are an economically viable investment because they are able to improve the returns in the fish processing activity. As such, fish processors need to adopt them by investing their money to construct and use them.

Keywords: investment appraisal, risk analysis, sensitivity analysis, solar tent drying

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31 Youthful Population Sexual Activity in Malawi: A Health Scenario

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman, N. Wilson

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Background: The sexual behaviour of youths is believed to play an important role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Method: The data from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010 and a sample of 16,217 youth’s age 15 to 24 years (with each household 27.2% female and 72.8% male) was the basis for analysis. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The result shows married youth were not interested in condom use (94.2%, p<0.05). Those who were living together were 69 times (OR=1.69, 95% CI, 1.26–2.26) more likely to be involved in early sexual activity compared to those who were not living together. Conclusion: This scientific paper will help other researchers, policy makers, and planners to create strategies to encourage these youths to make use of contraception.

Keywords: sexually transmitted infections (STIs), reproductive tract infections (RTIs), condom use, sexual partners, early sexual debut, youths

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30 Environmental Metabolic Rift and Tourism Development: A Look at the Impact of the Malawi Tourism Industry Development Pattern

Authors: Lameck Zetu Khonje, Mulala Danny Simatele

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The tourism industry in Malawi has grown tremendously during the past twenty-five years. This growth is attributed to the change in the political system which opened doors to international tourist and investment opportunities in the country which previously was under a strict repressive one-party political system. This research paper focuses on the developments that took place in the accommodation sector during the same period and the impact that it has partly caused on an environmental metabolic rift in the country which is now vulnerable to climate change-related catastrophes. Respondents from the government departments and the hotel sector were recruited for in-depth interviews. These interviews were conducted between July and November 2015 and follow up interviews were conducted between September and December 2017. Both results indicated there were minimal efforts pursued from the public sector to cartel capitalistic development tendencies in the accommodation sector. The results from the hotel revealed there were considerable efforts pursued driven by operating cost-cutting motive. Applying systems thinking the paper recommends that the policing machinery needs improvement to ensure that the industry also focuses on environmental wellbeing instead of profit maximization. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge on tourism development and climate change.

Keywords: accommodation sector, climate change, metabolic rift, Malawi, tourism industry

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29 Flood Risk Management in Low Income Countries: Balancing Risk and Development

Authors: Gavin Quibell, Martin Kleynhans, Margot Soler

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The Sendai Framework notes that disaster risk reduction is essential for sustainable development, and Disaster Risk Reduction is included in 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and 4 of the SDG targets. However, apart from promoting better governance and resourcing of disaster management agencies, little guidance is given how low-income nations can balance investments across the SDGs to achieve sustainable development in an increasingly climate vulnerable world with increasing prevalence of flood and drought disasters. As one of the world’s poorest nations, Malawi must balance investments across all the SDGs. This paper explores how Malawi’s National Guidelines for Community-based Flood Risk Management integrate sustainable development and flood management objectives at different administrative levels. While Malawi periodically suffers from large, widespread flooding, the greatest impacts are felt through the smaller annual floods and flash floods. The Guidelines address this through principles that recognize that while the protection of human life is the most important priority for flood risk management, addressing the impacts of floods on the rural poor and the economy requires different approaches. The National Guidelines are therefore underpinned by the following; 1. In the short-term investments in flood risk management must focus on breaking the poverty – vulnerability cycle; 2. In the long-term investments in the other SDGs will have the greatest flood risk management benefits; 3. If measures are in place to prevent loss of life and protect strategic infrastructure, it is better to protect more people against small and medium size floods than fewer people against larger floods; 4. Flood prevention measures should focus on small (1:5 return period) floods; 5. Flood protection measures should focus on small and medium floods (1:20 return period) while minimizing the risk of failure in larger floods; 6. The impacts of larger floods ( > 1:50) must be addressed through improved preparedness; 7. The impacts of climate change on flood frequencies are best addressed by focusing on growth not overdesign; and 8. Manage floods and droughts conjunctively. The National Guidelines weave these principles into Malawi’s approach to flood risk management through recommendations for planning and implementing flood prevention, protection and preparedness measures at district, traditional authority and village levels.

Keywords: flood risk management in low-income countries, sustainable development, investments in prevention, protection and preparedness, community-based flood risk management, Malawi

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28 Retrospective Demographic Analysis of Patients Lost to Follow-Up from Antiretroviral Therapy in Mulanje Mission Hospital, Malawi

Authors: Silas Webb, Joseph Hartland

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Background: Long-term retention of patients on ART has become a major health challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In 2010 a systematic review of 39 papers found that 30% of patients were no longer taking their ARTs two years after starting treatment. In the same review, it was noted that there was a paucity of data as to why patients become lost to follow-up (LTFU) in SSA. This project was performed in Mulanje Mission Hospital in Malawi as part of Swindon Academy’s Global Health eSSC. The HIV prevalence for Malawi is 10.3%, one of the highest rates in the world, however prevalence soars to 18% in the Mulanje. Therefore it is essential that patients at risk of being LTFU are identified early and managed appropriately to help them continue to participate in the service. Methodology: All patients on adult antiretroviral formulations at MMH, who were classified as ‘defaulters’ (patients missing a scheduled follow up visit by more than two months) over the last 12 months were included in the study. Demographic varibales were collected from Mastercards for data analysis. A comparison group of patients currently not lost to follow up was created by using all of the patients who attended the HIV clinic between 18th-22nd July 2016 who had never defaulted from ART. Data was analysed using the chi squared (χ²) test, as data collected was categorical, with alpha levels set at 0.05. Results: Overall, 136 patients had defaulted from ART over the past 12 months at MMH. Of these, 43 patients had missing Mastercards, so 93 defaulter datasets were analysed. In the comparison group 93 datasets were also analysed and statistical analysis done using Chi-Squared testing. A higher proportion of men in the defaulting group was noted (χ²=0.034) and defaulters tended to be younger (χ²=0.052). 94.6% of patients who defaulted were taking Tenofovir, Lamivudine and Efavirenz, the standard first line ART therapy in Malawi. The mean length of time on ART was 39.0 months (RR: -22.4-100.4) in the defaulters group and 47.3 months (RR: -19.71-114.23) in the control group, with a mean difference of 8.3 less months in the defaulters group (χ ²=0.056). Discussion: The findings in this study echo the literature, however this review expands on that and shows the demographic for the patient at most risk of defaulting and being LTFU would be: a young male who has missed more than 4 doses of ART and is within his first year of treatment. For the hospital, this data is important at it identifies significant areas for public health focus. For instance, fear of disclosure and stigma may be disproportionately affecting younger men, so interventions can be aimed specifically at them to improve their health outcomes. The mean length of time on medication was 8.3 months less in the defaulters group, with a p-value of 0.056, emphasising the need for more intensive follow-up in the early stages of treatment, when patients are at the highest risk of defaulting.

Keywords: anti-retroviral therapy, ART, HIV, lost to follow up, Malawi

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27 Understanding the Impact of Climate-Induced Rural-Urban Migration on the Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in Malawi

Authors: Innocent Pangapanga-Phiri, Eric Dada Mungatana

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This study estimates the effect of climate-induced rural-urban migrants (RUM) on maize productivity. It uses panel data gathered by the National Statistics Office and the World Bank to understand the effect of RUM on the technical efficiency of maize production in rural Malawi. The study runs the two-stage Tobit regression to isolate the real effect of rural-urban migration on the technical efficiency of maize production. The results show that RUM significantly reduces the technical efficiency of maize production. However, the interaction of RUM and climate-smart agriculture has a positive and significant influence on the technical efficiency of maize production, suggesting the need for re-investing migrants’ remittances in agricultural activities.

Keywords: climate-smart agriculture, farm productivity, rural-urban migration, panel stochastic frontier models, two-stage Tobit regression

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26 The Conundrum of Marital Rape in Malawi: The Past, the Present and the Future

Authors: Esther Gumboh

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While the definition of rape has evolved over the years and now differs from one jurisdiction to another, at the heart of the offence remains the absence of consent on the part of the victim. In simple terms, rape consists in non-consensual sexual intercourse. Therefore, the core issue is whether the accused acted with the consent of the victim. Once it is established that the act was consensual, a conviction of rape cannot be secured. Traditionally, rape within marriage was impossible because it was understood that a woman gave irrevocable consent to sex with her husband throughout the duration of the marriage. This position has since changed in most jurisdictions. Indeed, Malawian law now recognises the offence of marital rape. This is a victory for women’s rights and gender equality. Curiously, however, the definition of marital rape endorsed differs from the standard understanding of rape as non-consensual sex. Instead, the law has introduced the concept of unreasonableness of the refusal to engage in sex as a defence to an accused. This is an alarming position that undermines the protection sought to be derived from the criminalisation of rape within marriage. Moreover, in the Malawian context where rape remains an offence only men can commit against women, the current legal framework for marital rape perpetuates the societal misnomer that a married woman gives a once-off consent to sexual intercourse by virtue of marriage. This takes us back to the old common law position which many countries have moved away from. The present definition of marital rape under Malawian law also sits at odd with the nature of rape that is applicable to all other instances of non-consensual sexual intercourse. Consequently, the law fails to protect married women from unwanted sexual relations at the hands of their husbands. This paper critically examines the criminalisation of marital rape in Malawi. It commences with a historical account of the conceptualisation of rape and then looks at judgments that rejected the validity of marital rape. The discussion then moves to the debates that preceded the criminalisation of marital rape in Malawi and how the Law Commission reasoned to finally make a recommendation in its favour. Against this background, the paper analyses the legal framework for marital rape and what this means for the elements of the offence and defences that may be raised by an accused. In the final analysis, this contribution recommends that there is need to amend the definition of marital rape. Better still, the law should simply state that the fact of marriage is not a defence to a charge of rape, or, in other words, that there is no marital rape exemption. This would automatically mean that husbands are subjected to the same criminal law principles as their unmarried counterparts when it comes to non-consensual sexual intercourse with their wives.

Keywords: criminal law, gender, Malawi, marital rape, rape, sexual intercourse

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25 Utilising Indigenous Knowledge to Design Dykes in Malawi

Authors: Martin Kleynhans, Margot Soler, Gavin Quibell

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Malawi is one of the world’s poorest nations and consequently, the design of flood risk management infrastructure comes with a different set of challenges. There is a lack of good quality hydromet data, both in spatial terms and in the quality thereof and the challenge in the design of flood risk management infrastructure is compounded by the fact that maintenance is almost completely non-existent and that solutions have to be simple to be effective. Solutions should not require any further resources to remain functional after completion, and they should be resilient. They also have to be cost effective. The Lower Shire Valley of Malawi suffers from frequent flood events. Various flood risk management interventions have been designed across the valley during the course of the Shire River Basin Management Project – Phase I, and due to the data poor environment, indigenous knowledge was relied upon to a great extent for hydrological and hydraulic model calibration and verification. However, indigenous knowledge comes with the caveat that it is ‘fuzzy’ and that it can be manipulated for political reasons. The experience in the Lower Shire valley suggests that indigenous knowledge is unlikely to invent a problem where none exists, but that flood depths and extents may be exaggerated to secure prioritization of the intervention. Indigenous knowledge relies on the memory of a community and cannot foresee events that exceed past experience, that could occur differently to those that have occurred in the past, or where flood management interventions change the flow regime. This complicates communication of planned interventions to local inhabitants. Indigenous knowledge is, for the most part, intuitive, but flooding can sometimes be counter intuitive, and the rural poor may have a lower trust of technology. Due to a near complete lack of maintenance of infrastructure, infrastructure has to be designed with no moving parts and no requirement for energy inputs. This precludes pumps, valves, flap gates and sophisticated warning systems. Designs of dykes during this project included ‘flood warning spillways’, that double up as pedestrian and animal crossing points, which provide warning of impending dangerous water levels behind dykes to residents before water levels that could cause a possible dyke failure are reached. Locally available materials and erosion protection using vegetation were used wherever possible to keep costs down.

Keywords: design of dykes in low-income countries, flood warning spillways, indigenous knowledge, Malawi

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24 Can Empowering Women Farmers Reduce Household Food Insecurity? Evidence from Malawi

Authors: Christopher Manyamba

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Women in Malawi produce perform between 50-70 percent of all agricultural tasks and yet the majority remain food insecure. The aim of his paper is to build on existing mixed evidence that indicates that empowering women in agriculture is conducive to improving food security. The WEAI is used to provide evidence on the relationship between women’s empowerment in agriculture and household food security. A multinomial logistic regression is applied to the Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) components and the Household Hunger Scale. The overall results show that the WEAI can be used to determine household food insecurity; however it has to be contextually adapted. Assets ownership, credit, group membership and leisure time are positively associated with food security. Contrary to other literature, empowerment in having control and decisions on income indicate negative association with household food security. These results could potentially better inform public, private and civil society stakeholders’ dialogues in creating the most effective and sustainable interventions to help women attain long-term food security.

Keywords: food security, gender, empowerment, agriculture index, framework for African food security, household hunger scale

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23 Effect of Manure Treatment on Furrow Erosion: A Case Study of Sagawika Irrigation Scheme in Kasungu, Malawi

Authors: Abel Mahowe

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Furrow erosion is the major problem menacing sustainability of irrigation in Malawi and polluting water bodies resulting in death of many aquatic animals. Many rivers in Malawi are drying due to some poor practices that are being practiced around these water bodies, furrow erosion is one of the cause of sedimentation in these rivers although it has gradual effect on deteriorating of these rivers hence neglected, but has got long term disastrous effect on water bodies. Many aquatic animals also suffer when these sediments are taken into these water bodies. An assessment of effect of manure treatment on furrow erosion was carried out in Sagawika irrigation scheme located in Kasungu District north part of Malawi. The soil on the field was clay loam and had just been tilled. The average furrow slope of 0.2% and was divided into two blocks, A and B. Each block had 20V-shaped furrow having a length of 10 m. Three different manure were used to construct these furrows by mixing it with soil which was moderately moist and 5 furrows from each block were constructed without manure. In each block 5furrow were made using a specific type of manure, and one set of five furrows in each block was made without manure treatment. The types of manure that were used were goat manure, pig manure, and manure from crop residuals. The manure application late was 5 kg/m. The furrow was constructed at a spacing of 0.6 m. Tomato was planted in the two blocks at spacing of 0.15 m between rows and 0.15 m between planting stations. Irrigation water was led from feeder canal into the irrigation furrows using siphons. The siphons discharge into each furrow was set at 1.86 L/S. The ¾ rule was used to determine the cut-off time for the irrigation cycles in order to reduce the run-off at the tail end. During each irrigation cycle, samples of the runoff water were collected at one-minute intervals and analyzed for total sediment concentration for use in estimating the total soil sediment loss. The results of the study have shown that a significant amount of soil is lost in soils without many organic matters, there was a low level of erosion in furrows that were constructed using manure treatment within the blocks. In addition, the results have shown that manure also differs in their ability to control erosion since pig manure proved to have greater abilities in binding the soil together than other manure since they were reduction in the amount of sediments at the tail end of furrows constructed by this type of manure. The results prove that manure contains organic matters which helps soil particles to bind together hence resisting the erosive force of water. The use of manure when constructing furrows in soil with less organic matter can highly reduce erosion hence reducing also pollution of water bodies and improve the conditions of aquatic animals.

Keywords: aquatic, erosion, furrow, soil

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22 Surgical Skills in Mulanje

Authors: Nick Toossi, Joseph Hartland

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Background: Malawi is an example of a low resource setting which faces a chronic shortage of doctors and other medical staff. This shortfall is made up for by clinical officers (COs), who are para-medicals trained for 4 years. The literature suggests to improve outcomes surgical skills training specifically should be promoted for COs in district and mission hospitals. Accordingly, the primary author was tasked with developing a basic surgical skills teaching package for COs of Mulanje Mission Hospital (MMH), Malawi, as part of a 4th year medical student External Student Selected Component field trip. MMH is a hospital based in the South of Malawi near the base of Mulanje Mountain and works in an extremely isolated environment with some of the poorest communities in the country. Traveling to Malawi the medical student author performed an educational needs assessment to develop and deliver a bespoke basic surgical skills teaching package. Methodology: An initial needs assessment identified the following domains: basic surgical skills (instrument naming & handling, knot tying, suturing principles and suturing techniques) and perineal repair. Five COs took part in a teaching package involving an interactive group simulation session, overseen by senior clinical officers and surgical trainees from the UK. Non-organic and animal models were used for simulation practice. This included the use of surgical skills boards to practice knot tying and ox tongue to simulate perineal repair. All participants spoke and read English. The impact of the session was analysed in two different ways. The first was via a pre and post Single Best Answer test and the second a questionnaire including likert’s scales and free text response questions. Results: There was a positive trend in pre and post test scores on competition of the course. There was increase in the mean confidence of learners before and after the delivery of teaching in basic surgical skills and simulated perineal repair, especially in ‘instrument naming and handling’. Whilst positively received it was discovered that learners desire more frequent surgical skills teaching sessions in order to improve and revise skills. Feedback suggests that the learners were not confident in retaining the skills without regular input. Discussion: Skills and confidence were improved as a result of the teaching provided. Learner's written feedback suggested there was an overall appetite for regular surgical skills teaching in the clinical environment and further opportunities to allow for deliberate self-practice. Surgical mentorship schemes facilitating supervised theatre time among trainees and lead surgeons along with improving access to surgical models/textbooks were some of the simple suggestions to improve surgical skills and confidence among COs. Although, this study is limited by population size it is reflective of the small, isolated and low resource environment in which this healthcare is delivered. This project does suggest that current surgical skills packages used in the UK could be adapted for employment in low resource settings, but it is consistency and sustainability that staff seek above all in their on-going education.

Keywords: clinical officers, education, Malawi, surgical skills

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21 Understanding the Effect of Fall Armyworm and Integrated Pest Management Practices on the Farm Productivity and Food Security in Malawi

Authors: Innocent Pangapanga, Eric Mungatana

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Fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda), an invasive lepidopteran pest, has caused substantial yield loss since its first detection in September 2016, thereby threatening the farm productivity food security and poverty reduction initiatives in Malawi. Several stakeholders, including households, have adopted chemical pesticides to control FAW without accounting for its costs on welfare, health and the environment. Thus, this study has used panel data endogenous switching regression model to investigate the impact of FAW and the integrated pest management (IPM) –related practices on-farm productivity and food security. The study finds that FAW substantively reduces farm productivity by seven (7) percent and influences the adoption of IPM –related practices, namely, intercropping, mulching, and agroforestry, by 6 percent, ceteris paribus. Interestingly, multiple adoptions of the IPM -related practices noticeably increase farm productivity by 21 percent. After accounting for potential endogeneity through the endogenous switching regression model, the IPM practices further demonstrate tenfold more improvement on food security, implying the role of the IPM –related practices in containing the effect of FAW at the household level.

Keywords: hunger, invasive fall army worms, integrated pest management practices, farm productivity, endogenous switching regression

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20 Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses Among Pregnant Women at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi

Authors: Charles Bijjah Nkhata, Memory Nekati Mvula, Milton Masautso Kalongonda, Martha Masamba, Isaac Thom Shawa

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Viral Hepatitis is a serious public health concern globally with deaths estimated at 1.4 million annually due to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B and C are the most common viruses that cause liver damage. However, the majority of infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. Viral Hepatitis has contributed to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is no updated data on the Epidemiology of hepatitis B and C among pregnant mothers in Malawi. To assess the epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C viruses among pregnant women at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. Specific Objectives • To determine sero-prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in pregnant women at QECH. • To investigate risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infection in pregnant women. • To determine the distribution of HBsAg and Anti-HCV infection among pregnant women of different age group. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women at QECH in last quarter of 2021. Of the 114 pregnant women, 96 participants were consented and enrolled using a convenient sampling technique. 12 participants were dropped due to various reasons; therefore 84 completed the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and behavior characteristics to assess the risk of exposure. Serum was processed from venous blood samples and tested for HBsAg and Anti-HCV markers utilizing Rapid screening assays for screening and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for confirmatory. A total of 84 pregnant consenting pregnant women participated in the study, with 1.2% (n=1/84) testing positive for HBsAg and nobody had detectable anti-HCV antibodies. There was no significant link between HBV and HCV in any of the socio-demographic data or putative risk variables. The findings indicate a viral hepatitis prevalence lower than the set range by the WHO. This suggests that HBV and HCV are rare in pregnant women at QECH. Nevertheless, accessible screening for all pregnant women should be provided. The prevention of MTCT is key for reduction and prevention of the global burden of chronic viral Hepatitis.

Keywords: viral hepatitis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, pregnancy, malawi, liver disease, mother to child transmission

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19 Creation of a Clinical Tool for Diagnosis and Treatment of Skin Disease in HIV Positive Patients in Malawi

Authors: Alice Huffman, Joseph Hartland, Sam Gibbs

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Dermatology is often a neglected specialty in low-resource settings, despite the high morbidity associated with skin disease. This becomes even more significant when associated with HIV infection, as dermatological conditions are more common and aggressive in HIV positive patients. African countries have the highest HIV infection rates and skin conditions are frequently misdiagnosed and mismanaged, because of a lack of dermatological training and educational material. The frequent lack of diagnostic tests in the African setting renders basic clinical skills all the more vital. This project aimed to improve diagnosis and treatment of skin disease in the HIV population in a district hospital in Malawi. A basic dermatological clinical tool was developed and produced in collaboration with local staff and based on available literature and data collected from clinics. The aim was to improve diagnostic accuracy and provide guidance for the treatment of skin disease in HIV positive patients. A literature search within Embase, Medline and Google scholar was performed and supplemented through data obtained from attending 5 Antiretroviral clinics. From the literature, conditions were selected for inclusion in the resource if they were described as specific, more prevalent, or extensive in the HIV population or have more adverse outcomes if they develop in HIV patients. Resource-appropriate treatment options were decided using Malawian Ministry of Health guidelines and textbooks specific to African dermatology. After the collection of data and discussion with local clinical and pharmacy staff a list of 15 skin conditions was included and a booklet created using the simple layout of a picture, a diagnostic description of the disease and treatment options. Clinical photographs were collected from local clinics (with full consent of the patient) or from the book ‘Common Skin Diseases in Africa’ (permission granted if fully acknowledged and used in a not-for-profit capacity). This tool was evaluated by the local staff, alongside an educational teaching session on skin disease. This project aimed to reduce uncertainty in diagnosis and provide guidance for appropriate treatment in HIV patients by gathering information into one practical and manageable resource. To further this project, we hope to review the effectiveness of the tool in practice.

Keywords: dermatology, HIV, Malawi, skin disease

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18 Understanding the Endogenous Impact of Tropical Cyclones Floods and Sustainable Landscape Management Innovations on Farm Productivity in Malawi

Authors: Innocent Pangapanga, Eric Mungatana

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Tropical cyclones–related floods (TCRFs) in Malawi have devastating effects on smallholder agriculture, thereby threatening the food security agenda, which is already constrained by poor agricultural innovations, low use of improved varieties, and unaffordable inorganic fertilizers, and fragmenting landholding sizes. Accordingly, households have engineered and indigenously implemented sustainable landscape management (SLM) innovations to contain the adverse effects of TCRFs on farm productivity. This study, therefore, interrogated the efficacy of SLM adoption on farm productivity under varying TCRFs, while controlling for the potential selection bias and unobservable heterogeneity through the application of the Endogenous Switching Regression Model. In this study, we further investigated factors driving SLM adoption. Substantively, we found TCRFs reducing farm productivity by 31 percent, on the one hand, and influencing the adoption of SLM innovations by 27 percent, on the other hand. The study also observed that households that interacted SLM with TCRFs were more likely to enhance farm productivity by 24 percent than their counterparts. Interestingly, the study results further demonstrated that multiple adoptions of SLM-related innovations, including intercropping, agroforestry, and organic manure, enhanced farm productivity by 126 percent, suggesting promoting SLM adoption as a package to appropriately inform existing sustainable development goals’ agricultural productivity initiatives under intensifying TCRFs in the country.

Keywords: tropical cyclones–related floods, sustainable landscape management innovations, farm productivity, endogeneity, endogenous switching regression model, panel data, smallholder agriculture

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17 Modeling Waiting and Service Time for Patients: A Case Study of Matawale Health Centre, Zomba, Malawi

Authors: Moses Aron, Elias Mwakilama, Jimmy Namangale

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Spending more time on long queues for a basic service remains a common challenge to most developing countries, including Malawi. For health sector in particular, Out-Patient Department (OPD) experiences long queues. This puts the lives of patients at risk. However, using queuing analysis to under the nature of the problems and efficiency of service systems, such problems can be abated. Based on a kind of service, literature proposes different possible queuing models. However, unlike using generalized assumed models proposed by literature, use of real time case study data can help in deeper understanding the particular problem model and how such a model can vary from one day to the other and also from each case to another. As such, this study uses data obtained from one urban HC for BP, Pediatric and General OPD cases to investigate an average queuing time for patients within the system. It seeks to highlight the proper queuing model by investigating the kind of distributions functions over patient’s arrival time, inter-arrival time, waiting time and service time. Comparable with the standard set values by WHO, the study found that patients at this HC spend more waiting times than service times. On model investigation, different days presented different models ranging from an assumed M/M/1, M/M/2 to M/Er/2. As such, through sensitivity analysis, in general, a commonly assumed M/M/1 model failed to fit the data but rather an M/Er/2 demonstrated to fit well. An M/Er/3 model seemed to be good in terms of measuring resource utilization, proposing a need to increase medical personnel at this HC. However, an M/Er/4 showed to cause more idleness of human resources.

Keywords: health care, out-patient department, queuing model, sensitivity analysis

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16 Determining Sources of Sediments at Nkula Dam in the Middle Shire River, Malawi, Using Mineral Magnetic Approach

Authors: M. K. Mzuza, W. Zhang, L. S. Chapola, M. Tembo

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Shire River is the largest and longest river in Malawi emptying its water into the Zambezi River in Mozambique. Siltation is now a major problem in the Shire River due to catchment degradation. This study analysed soil samples from tributaries of the Shire River to determine sources of sediments that cause siltation using the mineral magnetic approach. Bulk sediments and separated particle size fractions of representative samples were collected from tributaries on the western and eastern sides of the Shire River, and Nkula Dam. Eastern tributaries showed relatively higher ferrimagnetic mineral contents and ferrimagnetic to anti ferromagnetic ratios than western tributaries. Sediments from both sides of the Shire River were distinguished by χARM, SIRM versus χlf and S-100 versus SIRM. Findings in this study showed that most of the sediments originated from the western part of the Shire River. Tributaries on the eastern side of the Shire River had higher values for concentration related parameters (χlf, χfd, χARM, SIRM, HIRM, S-100, and χARM/SIRM) than tributaries on the western side. Bulky and detailed magnetic measurements carried out on particle size fractions provided additional confirmation of magnetic contrasts between the two sides of the river suggesting differences in lithology, topography, climate and weather regimes in the catchments. This study demonstrated that the magnetic approach can provide a reliable means of understanding major sediment sources of Nkula Dam and similar situations. It can also help to assess future variations in sediment composition resulting from catchment changes

Keywords: ferrimagnetic minerals, Shire River, tributaries rivers, particle size , topography

Procedia PDF Downloads 397