Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: biomechanics

85 Finite Element Method as a Solution Procedure for Problems in Tissue Biomechanics

Authors: Momoh Omeiza Sheidu


Finite element method as a method of providing solutions to problems in computational bio mechanics provides a framework for modeling the function of tissues that integrates structurally from cell to organ system and functionally across the physiological processes that affect tissue mechanics or are regulated by mechanical forces. In this paper, we present an integrative finite element strategy for solution to problems in tissue bio mechanics as a case study.

Keywords: finite element, biomechanics, modeling, computational biomechanics

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84 Multiscale Model of Blast Explosion Human Injury Biomechanics

Authors: Raj K. Gupta, X. Gary Tan, Andrzej Przekwas


Bomb blasts from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) account for vast majority of terrorist attacks worldwide. Injuries caused by IEDs result from a combination of the primary blast wave, penetrating fragments, and human body accelerations and impacts. This paper presents a multiscale computational model of coupled blast physics, whole human body biodynamics and injury biomechanics of sensitive organs. The disparity of the involved space- and time-scales is used to conduct sequential modeling of an IED explosion event, CFD simulation of blast loads on the human body and FEM modeling of body biodynamics and injury biomechanics. The paper presents simulation results for blast-induced brain injury coupling macro-scale brain biomechanics and micro-scale response of sensitive neuro-axonal structures. Validation results on animal models and physical surrogates are discussed. Results of our model can be used to 'replicate' filed blast loadings in laboratory controlled experiments using animal models and in vitro neuro-cultures.

Keywords: blast waves, improvised explosive devices, injury biomechanics, mathematical models, traumatic brain injury

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83 Comparison of Intraocular Pressure Measurement Prior and Following Full Intracorneal Ring Implantation in Patient with Keratoconus by Three Different Instruments

Authors: Seyed Aliasghar Mosavi, Mostafa Naderi, Khosrow Jadidi, Amir Hashem Mohammadi


To study the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after implantation of intrastromal corneal ring (MyoRing) in patients with keratoconus. Setting: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Methods: We compared the IOP of 13 eyes which underwent MyoRing implantation prior and six months post operation using Goldman applanation (as gold standard), Icare, and Corvis ST (uncorrected, corrected and corrected with cornea biomechanics). Results: The resulting intraocular pressure measurements prior to surgery, Icare, Corvis (corrected with cornea biomechanics) overestimated the IOP, however measurements by Corvis uncorrected underestimate the IOP. The resulting intraocular pressure measurements after surgery, Icare, Corvis (corrected with cornea biomechanics) overestimated the IOP but measurements by Corvis uncorrected underestimate the IOP. Conclusion: Consistent intraocular pressure measurements on eyes with Myoring in keratoconus can be obtained with the Goldman applanation tonometer as the gold standard measurement. We were not able to obtain consistent results when we measured the IOP by Icare and Corvis prior and after surgery.

Keywords: intraocular pressure, MyoRing, Keratoconus, Goldmann applanation, Icare, Corvis ST

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82 Biomechanics of Atalantoaxial Complex for Various Posterior Fixation Techniques

Authors: Arun C. O., Shrijith M. B., Thakur Rajesh Singh


The study aims to analyze and understand the biomechanical stability of the atlantoaxial complex under different posterior fixation techniques using the finite element method in the Indian context. The conventional cadaveric studies performed show heterogeneity in biomechanical properties. The finite element method being a versatile numerical tool, is being wisely used for biomechanics analysis of atlantoaxial complex. However, the biomechanics of posterior fixation techniques for an Indian subject is missing in the literature. It is essential to study in this context as the bone density and geometry of vertebrae vary from region to region, thereby requiring different screw lengths and it can affect the range of motion(ROM), stresses generated. The current study uses CT images for developing a 3D finite element model with C1-C2 geometry without ligaments. Instrumentation is added to this geometry to develop four models for four fixation techniques, namely C1-C2 TA, C1LM-C2PS, C1LM-C2Pars, C1LM-C2TL. To simulate Flexion, extension, lateral bending, axial rotation, 1.5 Nm is applied to C1 while the bottom nodes of C2 are fixed. Then Range of Motion (ROM) is compared with the unstable model(without ligaments). All the fixation techniques showed more than 97 percent reduction in the Range of Motion. The von-mises stresses developed in the screw constructs are obtained. From the studies, it is observed that Transarticular technique is most stable in Lateral Bending, C1LM-C2 Translaminar is found most stable in Flexion/extension. The Von-Mises stresses developed minimum in Trasarticular technique in lateral bending and axial rotation, whereas stress developed in C2 pars construct minimum in Flexion/ Extension. On average, the TA technique is stable in all motions and also stresses in constructs are less in TA. Tarnsarticular technique is found to be the best fixation technique for Indian subjects among the 4 methods.

Keywords: biomechanics, cervical spine, finite element model, posterior fixation

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81 Esports: A Biomechanics and Performance Perspective

Authors: Alex S. Talan


The introduction of scientific terms for esports can directly affect the quality of the training process. This is a critically important scientific task since esports is a rapidly developing global sport that has only recently begun to receive scientific and methodological consideration. In this report, we evaluate esports from a biomechanical perspective. First, we examine the relationship between physical performance and esports gaming techniques, with consideration toward engineering more effective physical and in-game training methodologies for amateur and professional esports competitors. In addition, we advocate that applying biomechanical research methodologies has the added potential to improve physical performance and endurance in esports athletes. With the budding attention on the esports enterprise globally, scientific research into esports would benefit from standardizing terminologies and methodological approaches that are specifically tailored to assess esports training efficacy to enhance individual and team performance within the esports community.

Keywords: cybersport, esports, biomechanics, sports technique, training standards, dental occlusion, sports engineering, sitting pose

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80 The Effect of Ankle Taping on the Biomechanics of Countermovement Jump in Elite Taekwondo Athletes with Chronic Ankle Instability

Authors: Parastoo ShamsehKohan, Maziar Meghdadi


Ankle taping has historically been the most common technique used to prevent ankle sprains or to protect a previously injured ankle when a taekwondo player returns to competition. However, researchers have been unable to reach a consensus as to the effectiveness of ankle taping and its ability to maintain its effectiveness during exercise. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to observe the impacts of ankle taping on the biomechanics of countermovement jump in elite taekwondo athletes with chronic ankle instability. 16 women taekwondo athletes participated in this study. Taping was used on both the dominant and non-dominant ankle. The tests were carried out both un-taped and taped. Except for the propulsion phase, the results showed an increase in temporal variability after taping (un-taped ankle: 18.4 ± 9.4, taped ankle: 17.0 ± 11.2, P-value: 0.750). Despite the fact that the phases of the countermovement jump curve were determined and then classified based on their duration, magnitude, area (impulse), and shape (shape factor). According to the findings, the variability values in all items decreased, and the subjects performed their jumps with less variation in the post-test. However, no statistically significant differences in the temporal variability of CMJ phases were found in the evaluations.

Keywords: ankle instability, countermovement jump, force, taping, variability

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79 Viscoelastic Response of the Human Corneal Stroma Induced by Riboflavin/UVA Cross-Linking

Authors: C. Labate, M. P. De Santo, G. Lombardo, R. Barberi, M. Lombardo, N. M. Ziebarth


In the past decades, the importance of corneal biomechanics in the normal and pathological functions of the eye has gained its credibility. In fact, the mechanical properties of biological tissues are essential to their physiological function. We are convinced that an improved understanding of the nanomechanics of corneal tissue is important to understand the basic molecular interactions between collagen fibrils. Ultimately, this information will help in the development of new techniques to cure ocular diseases and in the development of biomimetic materials. Therefore, nanotechnology techniques are powerful tools and, in particular, Atomic Force Microscopy has demonstrated its ability to reliably characterize the biomechanics of biological tissues either at the micro- or nano-level. In the last years, we have investigated the mechanical anisotropy of the human corneal stroma at both the tissue and molecular levels. In particular, we have focused on corneal cross-linking, an established procedure aimed at slowing down or halting the progression of the disease known as keratoconus. We have obtained the first evidence that riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking induces both an increase of the elastic response and a decrease of the viscous response of the most anterior stroma at the scale of stromal molecular interactions.

Keywords: atomic force spectroscopy, corneal stroma, cross-linking, viscoelasticity

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78 Comparing the Knee Kinetics and Kinematics during Non-Steady Movements in Recovered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Badminton Players against an Uninjured Cohort: Case-Control Study

Authors: Anuj Pathare, Aleksandra Birn-Jeffery


Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament(ACL) helps stabilize the knee joint minimizing tibial anterior translation. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is common in racquet sports and often occurs due to sudden acceleration, deceleration or changes of direction. This mechanism in badminton most commonly occurs during landing after an overhead stroke. Knee biomechanics during dynamic movements such as walking, running and stair negotiation, do not return to normal for more than a year after an ACL reconstruction. This change in the biomechanics may lead to re-injury whilst performing non-steady movements during sports, where these injuries are most prevalent. Aims: To compare if the knee kinetics and kinematics in ACL injury recovered athletes return to the same level as those from an uninjured cohort during standard movements used for clinical assessment and badminton shots. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine: Knee valgus during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Degree of internal or external rotation during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Maximum knee flexion during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump and net shot. Methods: This case-control study included 14 participants with three ACL injury recovered athletes and 11 uninjured participants. The participants performed various functional tasks including vertical drop jump, single leg squat; the forehand net shot and the forehand drop shot. The data was analysed using the two-way ANOVA test, and the reliability of the data was evaluated using the Intra Class Coefficient. Results: The data showed a significant decrease in the range of knee rotation in ACL injured participants as compared to the uninjured cohort (F₇,₅₅₆=2.37; p=0.021). There was also a decrease in the maximum knee flexion angles and an increase in knee valgus angles in ACL injured participants although they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the knee rotation angles in the ACL injured participants which could be a potential cause for re-injury in these athletes in the future. Although the results for decrease in maximum knee flexion angles and increase in knee valgus angles were not significant, this may be due to a limited sample of ACL injured participants; there is potential for it to be identified as a variable of interest in the rehabilitation of ACL injuries. These changes in the knee biomechanics could be vital in the rehabilitation of ACL injured athletes in the future, and an inclusion of sports based tasks, e.g., Net shot along with standard protocol movements for ACL assessment would provide a better measure of the rehabilitation of the athlete.

Keywords: ACL, biomechanics, knee injury, racquet sport

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77 Altered Lower Extremity Biomechanical Risk Factor Related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Athlete with Functional Ankle Instability

Authors: Mohammad Karimizadehardakani, Hooman Minoonejad, Reza Rajabi, Ali Sharifnejad


Background: Ankle sprain is one of the most important risk factor of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Also, functional ankle instability (FAI) population has alterations in lower extremity sagittal plane biomechanics during landing task. We want to examine whether biomechanical alterations demonstrated by FAI patients are associated with the mechanism of ACL injury during high risk and sport related tasks. Methods: Sixteen basketball player with FAI and 16 non-injured control performed a single-leg cross drop landing. Knee sagittal and frontal (ATSF) was calculated. Independent t-tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson correlation were used for analysis data. Result: Subject with FAI showed more peak ATFS, posterior ground reaction force (GRF) and less knee flexion, compared to the controls (P= 0.001, P= 0.004, P= 0.011). Knee flexion (r= −0.824, P = 0.011) and posterior GRF (r= 0.901, P = .001) were correlated with ATSF; Posterior GRF was factor that most explained the variance in ATSF (R2= 0.645; P = .001) in the FAI group. Conclusions: Result of our study showed there is a potential biomechanical relationship between the presence of FAI and risk factors associated with ACL injury mechanism.

Keywords: functional ankle instability, anterior cruciate ligament, biomechanics, risk factor

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76 Review and Analyze on the Journal of Sport Science

Authors: Zhan Dong, Qiu Jianrong, Li Qinghui, Zhang Lei


The quantity and quality of the papers published on sport science from 2001 to 2013 had been counted and analysed and compared with the papers published on the journal from 1990 to 2000. The result showed that: 1. In the sports medicine field, the proportion of basic/application was abnormal. Basic research was far more than the application research. The papers on researching of imitating altitude training was the main part. Gene research made great progress.The research on sport injury and medical supervision were lower and lower. Research on sports prescription had made much progress, especially in the patients of heart infarction. 2. In building up people’s health field, the research on the old people had been more and more compared with the 10 years before, but it was not enough. 3. In the field of sports psychology, the research on disable people had been more compared with the 10 years before. Solved the problem of the sportmen before the game. 4. In the field of sports biomechanics, it showed that methods had made great progress compared with the 10 years before. Sport biomechanics combined with sports medicine, helped the sportsmen in good condition in the game. 5. In the exercise training field, the experts pay more attention to the outstanding sportsmen, and the researches emphasized that biology knowledge is the main basic for them to the research.

Keywords: sport medicine, sport injury, medical supervision

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75 WILCKO-PERIO, Periodontally Accelerated Orthodontics

Authors: Kruttika Bhuse


Aim: Synergism between periodontists and orthodontists (periodontal accelerated osteogenic orthodontics- PAOO) creates crucial opportunities to enhance clinical outcomes of combined therapies regarding both disciplines and has made adult orthodontics a reality. Thus, understanding the biomechanics of bone remodelling may increase the clinical applications of corticotomy facilitated orthodontics with or without alveolar augmentation. Wilckodontics can be an attractive treatment option and be a “win-win” situation for both the dental surgeon and patient by reducing the orthodontic treatment time in adults. Materials and methods: In this review, data related to the clinical aspects, steps of procedure, biomechanics of bone, indications and contraindications and final outcome of wilckodontic shall be discussed. 50 supporting articles from various international journals and 70 clinical cases were reviewed to get a better understanding to design this wilckodontic - meta analysis. Various journals like the Journal Of Clinical And Diagnostic Research, Journal Of Indian Society Of Periodontology, Journal Of Periodontology, Pubmed, Boston Orthodontic University Journal, Good Practice Orthodontics Volume 2, have been referred to attain valuable information on wilckodontics which was then compiled in this single review study. Result: As a promising adjuvant technique based on the transient nature of demineralization-remineralisation process in healthy tissues, wilckodontics consists of regional acceleratory phenomenon by alveolar corticotomy and bone grafting of labial and palatal/lingual surfaces, followed by orthodontic force. The surgical wounding of alveolar bone potentiates tissue reorganization and healing by a way of transient burst of localized hard and soft tissue remodelling.This phenomenon causes bone healing to occur 10-50 times faster than normal bone turnover. Conclusion: This meta analysis helps understanding that the biomechanics of bone remodelling may increase the clinical applications of corticotomy facilitated orthodontics with or without alveolar augmentation. The main benefits being reduced orthodontic treatment time, increased bone volume and post-orthodontic stability.

Keywords: periodontal osteogenic accelerated orthodontics, alveolar corticotomy, bone augmentation, win-win situation

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74 A Literature Review of Ergonomics Sitting Studies to Characterize Safe and Unsafe Sitting Behaviors

Authors: Yoonjin Lee, Dongwook Hwang, Juhee Park, Woojin Park


As undesirable sitting posture is known to be a major cause of musculoskeletal disorder of office workers, sitting has attracted attention on occupational health. However, there seems to be no consensus on what are safe and unsafe sitting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safe and unsafe behaviors based on scientific findings of sitting behavior. Three objectives were as follows; to identify different sitting behaviors measure used in ergonomics studies on safe sitting, for each measure identified, to find available findings or recommendations on safe and unsafe sitting behaviors along with relevant empirical grounds, and to synthesize the findings or recommendations to provide characterizations of safe and unsafe behaviors. A systematic review of electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science) was conducted for extensive search of sitting behavior. Key terms included awkward sitting position, sedentary sitting, dynamic sitting, sitting posture, sitting posture, and sitting biomechanics, etc. Each article was systemically abstracted to extract a list of studied sitting behaviors, measures used to study the sitting behavior, and presence of empirical evidence of safety of the sitting behaviors. Finally, characterization of safe and unsafe sitting behavior was conducted based on knowledge with empirical evidence. This characterization is expected to provide useful knowledge for evaluation of sitting behavior and about postures to be measured in development of sensing chair.

Keywords: sitting position, sitting biomechanics, sitting behavior, unsafe sitting

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73 Examination of Porcine Gastric Biomechanics in the Antrum Region

Authors: Sif J. Friis, Mette Poulsen, Torben Strom Hansen, Peter Herskind, Jens V. Nygaard


Gastric biomechanics governs a large range of scientific and engineering fields, from gastric health issues to interaction mechanisms between external devices and the tissue. Determination of mechanical properties of the stomach is, thus, crucial, both for understanding gastric pathologies as well as for the development of medical concepts and device designs. Although the field of gastric biomechanics is emerging, advances within medical devices interacting with the gastric tissue could greatly benefit from an increased understanding of tissue anisotropy and heterogeneity. Thus, in this study, uniaxial tensile tests of gastric tissue were executed in order to study biomechanical properties within the same individual as well as across individuals. With biomechanical tests in the strain domain, tissue from the antrum region of six porcine stomachs was tested using eight samples from each stomach (n = 48). The samples were cut so that they followed dominant fiber orientations. Accordingly, from each stomach, four samples were longitudinally oriented, and four samples were circumferentially oriented. A step-wise stress relaxation test with five incremental steps up to 25 % strain with 200 s rest periods for each step was performed, followed by a 25 % strain ramp test with three different strain rates. Theoretical analysis of the data provided stress-strain/time curves as well as 20 material parameters (e.g., stiffness coefficients, dissipative energy densities, and relaxation time coefficients) used for statistical comparisons between samples from the same stomach as well as in between stomachs. Results showed that, for the 20 material parameters, heterogeneity across individuals, when extracting samples from the same area, was in the same order of variation as the samples within the same stomach. For samples from the same stomach, the mean deviation percentage for all 20 parameters was 21 % and 18 % for longitudinal and circumferential orientations, compared to 25 % and 19 %, respectively, for samples across individuals. This observation was also supported by a nonparametric one-way ANOVA analysis, where results showed that the 20 material parameters from each of the six stomachs came from the same distribution with a level of statistical significance of P > 0.05. Direction-dependency was also examined, and it was found that the maximum stress for longitudinal samples was significantly higher than for circumferential samples. However, there were no significant differences in the 20 material parameters, with the exception of the equilibrium stiffness coefficient (P = 0.0039) and two other stiffness coefficients found from the relaxation tests (P = 0.0065, 0.0374). Nor did the stomach tissue show any significant differences between the three strain-rates used in the ramp test. Heterogeneity within the same region has not been examined earlier, yet, the importance of the sampling area has been demonstrated in this study. All material parameters found are essential to understand the passive mechanics of the stomach and may be used for mathematical and computational modeling. Additionally, an extension of the protocol used may be relevant for compiling a comparative study between the human stomach and the pig stomach.

Keywords: antrum region, gastric biomechanics, loading-unloading, stress relaxation, uniaxial tensile testing

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72 Biomechanical Study of a Type II Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior Lesion in the Glenohumeral Joint Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Javier A. Maldonado E., Duvert A. Puentes T., Diego F. Villegas B.


The SLAP lesion (Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior) involves the labrum, causing pain and mobility problems in the glenohumeral joint. This injury is common in athletes practicing sports that requires throwing or those who receive traumatic impacts on the shoulder area. This paper determines the biomechanical behavior of soft tissues of the glenohumeral joint when type II SLAP lesion is present. This pathology is characterized for a tear in the superior labrum which is simulated in a 3D model of the shoulder joint. A 3D model of the glenohumeral joint was obtained using the free software Slice. Then, a Finite Element analysis was done using a general purpose software which simulates a compression test with external rotation. First, a validation was done assuming a healthy joint shoulder with a previous study. Once the initial model was validated, a lesion of the labrum built using a CAD software and the same test was done again. The results obtained were stress and strain distribution of the synovial capsule and the injured labrum. ANOVA was done for the healthy and injured glenohumeral joint finding significant differences between them. This study will help orthopedic surgeons to know the biomechanics involving this type of lesion and also the other surrounding structures affected by loading the injured joint.

Keywords: biomechanics, computational model, finite elements, glenohumeral joint, superior labral anterior to posterior lesion

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71 Thermography Evaluation on Facial Temperature Recovery after Elastic Gum

Authors: A. Dionísio, L. Roseiro, J. Fonseca, P. Nicolau


Thermography is a non-radiating and contact-free technology which can be used to monitor skin temperature. The efficiency and safety of thermography technology make it a useful tool for detecting and locating thermal changes in skin surface, characterized by increases or decreases in temperature. This work intends to be a contribution for the use of thermography as a methodology for evaluation of skin temperature in the context of orofacial biomechanics. The study aims to identify the oscillations of skin temperature in the left and right hemiface regions of the masseter muscle, during and after thermal stimulus, and estimate the time required to restore the initial temperature after the application of the stimulus. Using a FLIR T430sc camera, a data acquisition protocol was followed with a group of eight volunteers, aged between 22 and 27 years. The tests were performed in a controlled environment with the volunteers in a comfortably static position. The thermal stimulus involves the use of an ice volume with controlled size and contact surface. The skin surface temperature was recorded in two distinct situations, namely without further stimulus and with the additions of a stimulus obtained by a chewing gum. The data obtained were treated using FLIR Research IR Max software. The time required to recover the initial temperature ranged from 20 to 52 minutes when no stimulus was added and varied between 8 and 26 minutes with the chewing gum stimulus. These results show that recovery is faster with the addition of the stimulus and may guide clinicians regarding the pre and post-operative times with ice therapy, in the presence or absence of mechanical stimulus that increases muscle functions (e.g. phonetics or mastication).

Keywords: thermography, orofacial biomechanics, skin temperature, ice therapy

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70 The Curvature of Bending Analysis and Motion of Soft Robotic Fingers by Full 3D Printing with MC-Cells Technique for Hand Rehabilitation

Authors: Chaiyawat Musikapan, Ratchatin Chancharoen, Saknan Bongsebandhu-Phubhakdi


For many recent years, soft robotic fingers were used for supporting the patients who had survived the neurological diseases that resulted in muscular disorders and neural network damages, such as stroke and Parkinson’s disease, and inflammatory symptoms such as De Quervain and trigger finger. Generally, the major hand function is significant to manipulate objects in activities of daily living (ADL). In this work, we proposed the model of soft actuator that manufactured by full 3D printing without the molding process and one material for use. Furthermore, we designed the model with a technique of multi cavitation cells (MC-Cells). Then, we demonstrated the curvature bending, fluidic pressure and force that generated to the model for assistive finger flexor and hand grasping. Also, the soft actuators were characterized in mathematics solving by the length of chord and arc length. In addition, we used an adaptive push-button switch machine to measure the force in our experiment. Consequently, we evaluated biomechanics efficiency by the range of motion (ROM) that affected to metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) and distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Finally, the model achieved to exhibit the corresponding fluidic pressure with force and ROM to assist the finger flexor and hand grasping.

Keywords: biomechanics efficiency, curvature bending, hand functional assistance, multi cavitation cells (MC-Cells), range of motion (ROM)

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69 Optimization Parameters Using Response Surface Method on Biomechanical Analysis for Malaysian Soccer Players

Authors: M. F. M. Ali, A. R. Ismail, B. M. Deros


Soccer is very popular and ranked as the top sports in the world as well as in Malaysia. Although soccer sport in Malaysia is currently professionalized, but it’s plunging achievements within recent years continue and are not to be proud of. After review, the Malaysian soccer players are still weak in terms of kicking techniques. The instep kick is a technique, which is often used in soccer for the purpose of short passes and making a scoring. This study presents the 3D biomechanics analysis on a soccer player during performing instep kick. This study was conducted to determine the optimization value for approach angle, distance of supporting leg from the ball and ball internal pressure respect to the knee angular velocity of the ball on the kicking leg. Six subjects from different categories using dominant right leg and free from any injury were selected to take part in this study. Subjects were asked to perform one step instep kick according to the setting for the variables with different parameter. Data analysis was performed using 3 Dimensional “Qualisys Track Manager” system and will focused on the bottom of the body from the waist to the ankle. For this purpose, the marker will be attached to the bottom of the body before the kicking is perform by the subjects. Statistical analysis was conducted by using Minitab software using Response Surface Method through Box-Behnken design. The results of this study found the optimization values for all three parameters, namely the approach angle, 53.6º, distance of supporting leg from the ball, 8.84sm and ball internal pressure, 0.9bar with knee angular velocity, 779.27 degrees/sec have been produced.

Keywords: biomechanics, instep kick, soccer, optimization

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68 Biomechanics of Ceramic on Ceramic vs. Ceramic on Xlpe Total Hip Arthroplasties During Gait

Authors: Athanasios Triantafyllou, Georgios Papagiannis, Vassilios Nikolaou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, George C. Babis


In vitro measurements are widely used in order to predict THAs wear rate implementing gait kinematic and kinetic parameters. Clinical tests of materials and designs are crucial to prove the accuracy and validate such measurements. The purpose of this study is to examine the affection of THA gait kinematics and kinetics on wear during gait, the essential functional activity of humans, by comparing in vivo gait data to in vitro results. Our study hypothesis is that both implants will present the same hip joint kinematics and kinetics during gait. 127 unilateral primary cementless total hip arthroplasties were included in the research. Independent t-tests were used to identify a statistically significant difference in kinetic and kinematic data extracted from 3D gait analysis. No statistically significant differences observed at mean peak abduction, flexion and extension moments between the two groups (P.abduction= 0,125, P.flexion= 0,218, P.extension= 0,082). The kinematic measurements show no statistically significant differences too (Prom flexion-extension= 0,687, Prom abduction-adduction= 0,679). THA kinematics and kinetics during gait are important biomechanical parameters directly associated with implants wear. In vitro studies report less wear in CoC than CoXLPE when tested with the same gait cycle kinematic protocol. Our findings confirm that both implants behave identically in terms of kinematics in the clinical environment, thus strengthening in vitro results of CoC advantage. Correlated to all other significant factors that affect THA wear could address in a complete prism the wear on CoC and CoXLPE.

Keywords: total hip arthroplasty biomechanics, THA gait analysis, ceramic on ceramic kinematics, ceramic on XLPE kinetics, total hip replacement wear

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67 Development and Validation of Work Movement Task Analysis: Part 1

Authors: Mohd Zubairy Bin Shamsudin


Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSDs) is one of the occupational health problems encountered by workers over the world. In Malaysia, there is increasing in trend over the years, particularly in the manufacturing sectors. Current method to observe workplace WMSDs is self-report questionnaire, observation and direct measurement. Observational method is most frequently used by the researcher and practitioner because of the simplified, quick and versatile when it applies to the worksite. However, there are some limitations identified e.g. some approach does not cover a wide spectrum of biomechanics activity and not sufficiently sensitive to assess the actual risks. This paper elucidates the development of Work Movement Task Analysis (WMTA), which is an observational tool for industrial practitioners’ especially untrained personnel to assess WMSDs risk factors and provide a basis for suitable intervention. First stage of the development protocol involved literature reviews, practitioner survey, tool validation and reliability. A total of six themes/comments were received in face validity stage. New revision of WMTA consisted of four sections of postural (neck, back, shoulder, arms, and legs) and associated risk factors; movement, load, coupling and basic environmental factors (lighting, noise, odorless, heat and slippery floor). For inter-rater reliability study shows substantial agreement among rater with K = 0.70. Meanwhile, WMTA validation shows significant association between WMTA score and self-reported pain or discomfort for the back, shoulder&arms and knee&legs with p<0.05. This tool is expected to provide new workplace ergonomic observational tool to assess WMSDs for the next stage of the case study.

Keywords: assessment, biomechanics, musculoskeletal disorders, observational tools

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66 Variations in the Angulation of the First Sacral Spinous Process Angle Associated with Sacrocaudal Fusion in Greyhounds

Authors: Sa'ad M. Ismail, Hung-Hsun Yen, Christina M. Murray, Helen M. S. Davies


In the dog, the median sacral crest is formed by the fusion of three sacral spinous processes. In greyhounds with standard sacrums, this fusion in the median sacral crest consists of the fusion of three sacral spinous processes while it consists of four in greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion. In the present study, variations in the angulation of the first sacral spinous process in association with different types of sacrocaudal fusion in the greyhound were investigated. Sacrums were collected from 207 greyhounds (102 sacrums; type A (unfused) and 105 with different types of sacrocaudal fusion; types: B, C and D). Sacrums were cleaned by boiling and dried and then were placed on their ventral surface on a flat surface and photographed from the left side using a digital camera at a fixed distance. The first sacral spinous process angle (1st SPA) was defined as the angle formed between the cranial border of the cranial ridge of the first sacral spinous process and the line extending across the most dorsal surface points of the spinous processes of the S1, S2, and S3. Image-Pro Express Version 5.0 imaging software was used to draw and measure the angles. Two photographs were taken for each sacrum and two repeat measurements were also taken of each angle. The mean value of the 1st SPA in greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion was less (98.99°, SD ± 11, n = 105) than those in greyhounds with standard sacrums (99.77°, SD ± 9.18, n = 102) but was not significantly different (P < 0.05). Among greyhounds with different types of sacrocaudal fusion the mean value of the 1st SPA was as follows: type B; 97.73°, SD ± 10.94, n = 39, type C: 101.42°, SD ± 10.51, n = 52, and type D: 94.22°, SD ± 11.30, n = 12. For all types of fusion these angles were significantly different from each other (P < 0.05). Comparing the mean value of the1st SPA in standard sacrums (Type A) with that for each type of fusion separately showed that the only significantly different angulation (P < 0.05) was between standard sacrums and sacrums with sacrocaudal fusion sacrum type D (only body fusion between the S1 and Ca1). Different types of sacrocaudal fusion were associated with variations in the angle of the first sacral spinous process. These variations may affect the alignment and biomechanics of the sacral area and the pattern of movement and/or the force produced by both hind limbs to the cranial parts of the body and may alter the loading of other parts of the body. We concluded that any variations in the sacrum anatomical features might change the function of the sacrum or surrounding anatomical structures during movement.

Keywords: angulation of first sacral spinous process, biomechanics, greyhound, locomotion, sacrocaudal fusion

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65 Anthropometric Analysis for the Design of Workstations in the Interior Spaces of the Manufacturing Industry in Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez


This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: anthropometry, biomechanics, design, ergonomics, productivity

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64 Anthropometric Profile as a Factor of Impact on Employee Productivity in Manufacturing Industry of Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez


This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: anthropometry, biomechanics, design, ergonomics, productivity

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63 Inertial Motion Capture System for Biomechanical Analysis in Rehabilitation and Sports

Authors: Mario Sandro F. Rocha, Carlos S. Ande, Anderson A. Oliveira, Felipe M. Bersotti, Lucas O. Venzel


The inertial motion capture systems (mocap) are among the most suitable tools for quantitative clinical analysis in rehabilitation and sports medicine. The inertial measuring units (IMUs), composed by accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, are able to measure spatial orientations and calculate displacements with sufficient precision for applications in biomechanical analysis of movement. Furthermore, this type of system is relatively affordable and has the advantages of portability and independence from external references. In this work, we present the last version of our inertial motion capture system, based on the foregoing technology, with a unity interface designed for rehabilitation and sports. In our hardware architecture, only one serial port is required. First, the board client must be connected to the computer by a USB cable. Next, an available serial port is configured and opened to establish the communication between the client and the application, and then the client starts scanning for the active MOCAP_S servers around. The servers play the role of the inertial measuring units that capture the movements of the body and send the data to the client, which in turn create a package composed by the ID of the server, the current timestamp, and the motion capture data defined in the client pre-configuration of the capture session. In the current version, we can measure the game rotation vector (grv) and linear acceleration (lacc), and we also have a step detector that can be abled or disabled. The grv data are processed and directly linked to the bones of the 3D model, and, along with the data of lacc and step detector, they are also used to perform the calculations of displacements and other variables shown on the graphical user interface. Our user interface was designed to calculate and present variables that are important for rehabilitation and sports, such as cadence, speed, total gait cycle, gait cycle length, obliquity and rotation, and center of gravity displacement. Our goal is to present a low-cost portable and wearable system with a friendly interface for application in biomechanics and sports, which also performs as a product of high precision and low consumption of energy.

Keywords: biomechanics, inertial sensors, motion capture, rehabilitation

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62 Reliability of Lateral Single-Leg Drop Landing Test on Patients after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis

Authors: Johnson C. Y. Pang, Rachel S. W. Tsang, Kara K. L. Reeves, Allan C. L. Fu


BACKGROUND The landing biomechanics are often assessed in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to evaluate rehabilitation outcomes, prevent recurrent injury and enhance sports performance. The highest peak knee valgus angle was reported in lateral landing which was closely associated with non-contact ACL injuries. A single-leg drop landing test (SLDLT) is commonly used as a screening test for the dynamic stability of knee, However, the reliability and validity of the test in patients received ACLR is uncertain. PURPOSE This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of lateral SLDLT in both intra- and inter-sessions on the kinematics of lower limbs after received ACLR. METHODS Twelve subjects (4 females and 8 males) who received ACLR with a mean age of 29.4 (SD±1.66) were recruited. Five trials of lateral SLDLT were performed from 30cm-height platform in a biomechanics laboratory. Then the five trials were repeated on both legs for comparison. The first 100ms was analyzed since this period was the most vulnerable to injury. The mean values of normalized vertical ground reaction force (NVGRF) and local maxima of the hip, knee and ankle angles in all three planes were analyzed. The same operator repeated the above procedure one week later for the inter-sessions reliability. RESULTS For kinematics, the overall intra-session reliability [ICC (3, 1)] was 0.948-0.988, and inter-session reliability [ICC (3, K)] was 0.618-0.982, respectively. Good to excellent reliability for the lateral SLDLT was observed in both intra- and inter-sessions. The reliability of NVGRF represented the stability of the physiological condition of the subjects and system because NVGRF was the least influenced by systematic errors. The intra-session reliability of NVGRF [ICC (3, 1)] was 0.899-0.936, and its inter-sessions reliability [ICC (3, K)] was 0.947-0.923. The ICC value of NVGRF on ACLR leg was lower than good leg that may associate with lower neuromuscular control in patients after received ACLR. CONCLUSION A lateral SLDLT is valid and reliable to evaluate the NVGRF and kinematics for lower limb after received ACLR. It can be used to assess the knee stability in lateral landing. It sheds the light on prevent recurrent injury and provide valid information for decision making of return-to-sport.

Keywords: Reliability, Jumping, 3D motion analysis, Anterior crucial ligament reconstruction

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61 Gait Analysis in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Neeraj Vij, Christian Leber, Kenneth Schmidt


Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty is a common procedure. It is well known that the biomechanics of the knee do not fully return to their normal state. Motion analysis has been used to study the biomechanics of the knee after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the current use of gait analysis in total knee arthroplasty and to identify the preoperative motion analysis parameters for which a systematic review aimed at determining the reliability and validity may be warranted. Materials and Methods: This IRB-exempt scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist strictly. Five search engines were searched for a total of 279 articles. Articles underwent a title and abstract screening process followed by full-text screening. Included articles were placed in the following sections: the role of gait analysis as a research tool for operative decisions, other research applications for motion analysis in total knee arthroplasty, gait analysis as a tool in predicting radiologic outcomes, gait analysis as a tool in predicting clinical outcomes. Results: Eleven articles studied gait analysis as a research tool in studying operative decisions. Motion analysis is currently used to study surgical approaches, surgical techniques, and implant choice. Five articles studied other research applications for motion analysis in total knee arthroplasty. Other research applications for motion analysis currently include studying the role of the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and novel physical therapy protocols aimed at optimizing post-operative care. Two articles studied motion analysis as a tool for predicting radiographic outcomes. Preoperative gait analysis has identified parameters than can predict postoperative tibial component migration. 15 articles studied motion analysis in conjunction with clinical scores. Conclusions: There is a broad range of applications within the research domain of total knee arthroplasty. The potential application is likely larger. However, the current literature is limited by vague definitions of ‘gait analysis’ or ‘motion analysis’ and a limited number of articles with preoperative and postoperative functional and clinical measures. Knee adduction moment, knee adduction impulse, total knee range of motion, varus angle, cadence, stride length, and velocity have the potential for integration into composite clinical scores. A systematic review aimed at determining the validity, reliability, sensitivities, and specificities of these variables is warranted.

Keywords: motion analysis, joint replacement, patient-reported outcomes, knee surgery

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60 An Inherent Risk to Damage the Popliteus Tendon by Some Femoral Component Designs: A Pilot Study in Indian Knees

Authors: Rajendra Kanojia


Femoral components with inbuilt rotation require thicker flexion resection of the lateral femoral condyle and could potential risk to damage the popliteus tendon especially in the smaller Asian knees. We prospectively evaluated 10 patients with bilateral varus osteoarthritis knee to size the cuts and their location in relation to the popliteus tendon. Two different types of implant were used on either side, one side requires resection in 3° external rotation (group A) and other side femoral component with inbuilt external roation (group B). We had popliteus tendon injury in 3 knees all from group B. Risk of damaging the popliteus tendon was found higher in group B.

Keywords: popliteaus tendon injury, TKA, orthopaedic surgery, biomechanics and clinical applications

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59 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos


In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: laparoscopic surgery, ergonomics, mechanical design, biomechanics

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58 Realistic Study Discover Some Posture Deformities According to Some Biomechanical Variables for Schoolchildren

Authors: Basman Abdul Jabbar


The researchers aimed to improve the importance of the good posture without any divisions & deformities. The importance of research lied in the discovery posture deformities early so easily treated before its transformation into advanced abnormalities difficult to treat and may need surgical intervention. Research problem was noting that some previous studies were based on the discovery of posture deformities, which was dependent on the (self-evaluation) which this type did not have accuracy to discover deformities. The Samples were (500) schoolchildren aged (9-11 years, males) at Baghdad al Karak. They were students at primary schools. The measure included all posture deformities. The researcher used video camera to analyze the posture deformities according to biomechanical variables by Kinovea software for motion analysis. The researcher recommended the need to use accurate scientific methods for early detection of posture deformities in children which contribute to the prevention and reduction of distortions.

Keywords: biomechanics, children, deformities, posture

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57 A Biomimetic Uncemented Hip Resurfacing Versus Various Biomaterials Hip Resurfacing Implants

Authors: Karima Chergui, Hichem Amrani, Hammoudi Mazouz, Fatiha Mezaache


Cemented femoral resurfacings have experienced a revival for younger and more active patients. Future developments have shown that the uncemented version eliminates failures related to cementing implants. A three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation was carried out in order to exploit a new resurfacing prothesis design named MARMEL, proposed by a recent study with Co–Cr–Mo material, for comparing a hip uncemented resurfacing with a novel carbon fiber/polyamide 12 (CF/PA12) composite to other hip resurfacing implants with various bio materials. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite hip resurfacing was much lower than that in the other hip resurfacing implants used in this comparison. These outcomes showed that the biomimetic hip resurfacing had the potential to reduce stress shielding and prevent from bone fracture compared to conventional hip resurfacing implants.

Keywords: biomechanics, carbon–fibre polyamide 12, finite element analysis, hip resurfacing

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
56 Quantitative Analysis of Camera Setup for Optical Motion Capture Systems

Authors: J. T. Pitale, S. Ghassab, H. Ay, N. Berme


Biomechanics researchers commonly use marker-based optical motion capture (MoCap) systems to extract human body kinematic data. These systems use cameras to detect passive or active markers placed on the subject. The cameras use triangulation methods to form images of the markers, which typically require each marker to be visible by at least two cameras simultaneously. Cameras in a conventional optical MoCap system are mounted at a distance from the subject, typically on walls, ceiling as well as fixed or adjustable frame structures. To accommodate for space constraints and as portable force measurement systems are getting popular, there is a need for smaller and smaller capture volumes. When the efficacy of a MoCap system is investigated, it is important to consider the tradeoff amongst the camera distance from subject, pixel density, and the field of view (FOV). If cameras are mounted relatively close to a subject, the area corresponding to each pixel reduces, thus increasing the image resolution. However, the cross section of the capture volume also decreases, causing reduction of the visible area. Due to this reduction, additional cameras may be required in such applications. On the other hand, mounting cameras relatively far from the subject increases the visible area but reduces the image quality. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative methodology to investigate marker occlusions and optimize camera placement for a given capture volume and subject postures using three-dimension computer-aided design (CAD) tools. We modeled a 4.9m x 3.7m x 2.4m (LxWxH) MoCap volume and designed a mounting structure for cameras using SOLIDWORKS (Dassault Systems, MA, USA). The FOV was used to generate the capture volume for each camera placed on the structure. A human body model with configurable posture was placed at the center of the capture volume on CAD environment. We studied three postures; initial contact, mid-stance, and early swing. The human body CAD model was adjusted for each posture based on the range of joint angles. Markers were attached to the model to enable a full body capture. The cameras were placed around the capture volume at a maximum distance of 2.7m from the subject. We used the Camera View feature in SOLIDWORKS to generate images of the subject as seen by each camera and the number of markers visible to each camera was tabulated. The approach presented in this study provides a quantitative method to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a MoCap camera setup. This approach enables optimization of a camera setup through adjusting the position and orientation of cameras on the CAD environment and quantifying marker visibility. It is also possible to compare different camera setup options on the same quantitative basis. The flexibility of the CAD environment enables accurate representation of the capture volume, including any objects that may cause obstructions between the subject and the cameras. With this approach, it is possible to compare different camera placement options to each other, as well as optimize a given camera setup based on quantitative results.

Keywords: motion capture, cameras, biomechanics, gait analysis

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