Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 113

Search results for: cystic fibrosis

113 Encoded Nanospheres for the Fast Ratiometric Detection of Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Iván Castelló, Georgiana Stoica, Emilio Palomares, Fernando Bravo

Abstract:

We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. The system proved to be a faster (minutes) method, with two times higher sensitivity than the state-of-the-art biomarkers based sensors for cystic fibrosis (CF), allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range (0-350 mg/L). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis, different human genotypes, i.e. healthy homozygotic (> 80 mg/L), CF homozygotic (< 50 mg/L), and heterozygotic (> 50 mg/L), respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, trypsin, quantum dots, biomarker, homozygote, heterozygote

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112 Phenotypical and Genotypical Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis in 26 Cases from East and South Algeria

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Yahia Mouloud

Abstract:

Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal genetic disease in the Europe population, is caused by mutations in the transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). It affects most organs including an epithelial tissue, base of hydroelectrolytic transepithelial transport, notably that aerial ways, the pancreas, the biliary ways, the intestine, sweat glands and the genital tractus. The gene whose anomalies are responsible of the cystic fibrosis codes for a protein Cl channel named CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) that exercises multiple functions in the cell, one of the most important in control of sodium and chlorine through epithelia. The deficient function translates itself notably by an abnormal production of viscous secretion that obstructs the execrator channels of this target organ: one observes then a dilatation, an inflammation and an atrophy of these organs. It also translates itself by an increase of the concentration in sodium and in chloride in sweat, to the basis of the sweat test. In order to do a phenotypical and genotypical diagnosis at a part of the Algerian population, our survey has been carried on 16 patients with evocative symptoms of the cystic fibrosis at that the clinical context has been confirmed by a sweat test. However, anomalies of the CFTR gene have been determined by electrophoresis in gel of polyacrylamide of the PCR products (polymerase chain reaction), after enzymatic digestion, then visualized to the ultraviolet (UV) after action of the ethidium bromide. All mutations detected at the time of our survey have already been identified at patients attained by this pathology in other populations of the world. However, the important number of found mutation with regard to the one of the studied patients testifies that the origin of this big clinical variability that characterizes the illness in the consequences of an enormous diversity of molecular defects of the CFTR gene.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, CFTR gene, polymorphism, algerian population, sweat test, genotypical diagnosis

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111 A Qualitative Study of Parents' Recommendations for Improving the Notification Process and Communication between Health Professionals and Families for New Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Mohammad S. Razai, Jan Williams, Rachel Nestel, Dermot Dalton

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Purpose: This descriptive qualitative study aimed to obtain parents recommendations for improving the notification process and communication of positive newborn screening result for cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: Thematic analysis of semi-structured open-ended interviews with 11 parents of 7 children with confirmed diagnosis of CF between 2 months — 2 years of age. Results: Parents preferred face to face disclosure of positive NBS results by a pediatrician with CF professional qualification. They trusted a pediatrician more than any other professional in providing accurate, credible and comprehensive information about the diagnosis and its implications. Parents recommended that health professionals be knowledgeable and provide clear, succinct and understandable information. Providers should also explore parents concerns and acknowledge feelings and emotions. Most parents reported that they preferred to be notified immediately as soon as the results were available. Several parents preferred to be told once the diagnosis was certain. Most parents regarded open access to CF team as the most significant part of care coordination. In addition to health professionals, most parents used internet as an important source of information, interaction and exchange of experiences. Most parents also used social networking sites such as Facebook groups and smart phone apps. Conclusion: This study provides significant new evidence from parental perspective in emphasizing the pivotal role of good communication skills deployed by a knowledgeable CF specialist in person. Parents use of social media and internet has replaced some traditional methods of information exchange and may reduce the need for professional input for newly diagnosed CF patients.

Keywords: care coordination, cystic fibrosis, newborn screening, notification process, parental preferences, professional-paren communication

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110 The Effect of Acute Rejection and Delayed Graft Function on Renal Transplant Fibrosis in Live Donor Renal Transplantation

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Sarah Hosgood, Michael Nicholson

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The research hypothesis is that early post-transplant allograft fibrosis will be linked to donor factors and that acute rejection and/or delayed graft function in the recipient will be independent risk factors for the development of fibrosis. This research hypothesis is to explore whether acute rejection/delay graft function has an effect on the renal transplant fibrosis within the first year post live donor kidney transplant between 1998 and 2009. Methods: The study has been designed to identify five time points of the renal transplant biopsies [0 (pre-transplant), 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months] for 300 live donor renal transplant patients over 12 years period between March 1997 – August 2009. Paraffin fixed slides were collected from Leicester General Hospital and Leicester Royal Infirmary. These were routinely sectioned at a thickness of 4 Micro millimetres for standardization. Conclusions: Fibrosis at 1 month after the transplant was found significantly associated with baseline fibrosis (p<0.001) and HTN in the transplant recipient (p<0.001). Dialysis after the transplant showed a weak association with fibrosis at 1 month (p=0.07). The negative coefficient for HTN (-0.05) suggests a reduction in fibrosis in the absence of HTN. Fibrosis at 1 month was significantly associated with fibrosis at baseline (p 0.01 and 95%CI 0.11 to 0.67). Fibrosis at 3, 6 or 12 months was not found to be associated with fibrosis at baseline (p=0.70. 0.65 and 0.50 respectively). The amount of fibrosis at 1 month is significantly associated with graft survival (p=0.01 and 95%CI 0.02 to 0.14). Rejection and severity of rejection were not found to be associated with fibrosis at 1 month. The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was significantly associated with graft survival (p=0.02) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.01). Both baseline fibrosis and graft survival were significant predictive factors. The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was not found to be significantly associated with rejection (p=0.64) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.01). The amount of fibrosis at 1 month was not found to be significantly associated with rejection severity (p=0.29) after adjusting for baseline fibrosis (p=0.04). Fibrosis at baseline and HTN in the recipient were found to be predictive factors of fibrosis at 1 month. (p 0.02, p <0.001 respectively). Age of the donor, their relation to the patient, the pre-op Creatinine, artery, kidney weight and warm time were not found to be significantly associated with fibrosis at 1 month. In this complex model baseline fibrosis, HTN in the recipient and cold time were found to be predictive factors of fibrosis at 1 month (p=0.01,<0.001 and 0.03 respectively). Donor age was found to be a predictive factor of fibrosis at 6 months. The above analysis was repeated for 3, 6 and 12 months. No associations were detected between fibrosis and any of the explanatory variables with the exception of the donor age which was found to be a predictive factor of fibrosis at 6 months.

Keywords: fibrosis, transplant, renal, rejection

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109 A Patient Passport Application for Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Tamara Vagg, Cathy Shortt, Claire Hickey, Joseph A. Eustace, Barry J. Plant, Sabin Tabirca

Abstract:

Introduction: Paper-based patient passports have been used advantageously for older patients, patients with diabetes, and patients with learning difficulties. However, these passports can experience issues with data security, patients forgetting to bring the passport, patients being over encumbered, and uncertainty with who is responsible for entering and managing data in this passport. These issues could be resolved by transferring the paper-based system to a convenient platform such as a smartphone application (app). Background: Life expectancy for some Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients are rising and as such new complications and procedures are predicted. Subsequently, there is a need for education and management interventions that can benefit CF adults. This research proposes a CF patient passport to record basic medical information through a smartphone app which will allow CF adults access to their basic medical information. Aim: To provide CF patients with their basic medical information via mobile multimedia so that they can receive care when traveling abroad or between CF centres. Moreover, by recording their basic medical information, CF patients may become more aware of their own condition and more active in their health care. Methods: This app is designed by a CF multidisciplinary team to be a lightweight reflection of a hospital patient file. The passport app is created using PhoneGap so that it can be deployed for both Android and iOS devices. Data entered into the app is encrypted and stored locally only. The app is password protected and includes the ability to set reminders and a graph to visualise weight and lung function over time. The app is introduced to seven participants as part of a stress test. The participants are asked to test the performance and usability of the app and report any issues identified. Results: Feedback and suggestions received via this testing include the ability to reorder the list of clinical appointments via date, an open format of recording dates (in the event specifics are unknown), and a drop down menu for data which is difficult to enter (such as bugs found in mucus). The app is found to be usable and accessible and is now being prepared for a pilot study with adult CF patients. Conclusions: It is anticipated that such an app will be beneficial to CF adult patients when travelling abroad and between CF centres.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, digital patient passport, mHealth, self management

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108 Drug-Drug Plasma Protein Binding Interactions of Ivacaftor

Authors: Elena K. Schneider, Johnny X. Huang, Vincenzo Carbone, Mark Baker, Mohammad A. K. Azad, Matthew A. Cooper, Jian Li, Tony Velkov

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Ivacaftor is a novel CF trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for cystic fibrosis patients bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs that compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This in turn could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site selective probes. Due to their high plasma protein binding affinities, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole and loratadine. The significance of these drug-drug interactions is interpreted in terms of the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters and molecular docking simulations. The translational outcomes of the data are presented as recommendations for a staggered treatment regimen for future clinical trials which aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor.

Keywords: human α-1-acid glycoprotein, binding affinity, human serum albumin, ivacaftor, cystic fibrosis

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107 Chloride Ion Channels Play a Role in Mediating Immune Response during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Hani M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo

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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease that affects respiratory function and in EU it affects about 1 in 2,500 live births with an average 40-year life expectancy. This disease caused by mutations within the gene encoding the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) chloride channel leading to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport and chronic lung inflammation, suggesting functional alterations of immune cells. In airways, CFTR been found to form a functional complex with S100A10 and AnxA2 in a cAMP/PKA dependent manner. The multiprotein complex of AnxA2-S100A10 and CFTR is also regulated by calcineurin. The aim of this study was i) to investigate whether chloride ion (Cl−) channels are activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS from PA), ii) if this activation is regulated by cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway and iii) to investigate the role of LPS-activated Cl− channels in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study. Whole-cell patch records showed that LPS from PA can activate Cl− channels, including CFTR and outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel (ORCC). This activation appears to require an intact PKA/calcineurin signalling pathway. The Gout in the presence of LPS was significantly inhibited by diisothiocyanatostilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an ORCC blocker (p<0.001). The Gout was further suppressed by CFTR(inh)-172, a specific inhibitor for CFTR channels (p<0.001). Monocytes pre-incubated with PKA inhibitor or calcineurin inhibitor before stimulated with LPS from PA that were resulted in DIDS and CFTR(inh)-172 insensitive currents. Activation of both ORCC and CFTR was however, observed in response to monocytes exposure to LPS. Additionally, ELISA showed that the CFTR and ORCC play a role in mediating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β upon exposure of monocytes to LPS. However, this secretion was significantly inhibited due to CFTR and ORCC inhibition. However, Cl− may play a role in IL-1β release independent of cAMP/PKA/calcineurin signalling due to the enhancement of IL-1β secretion even when cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway was inhibited. In conclusion, our data confirmed that LPS from PA activates Cl− channels in human peripheral blood monocytes. Our data also confirmed that Cl− channels were involved in IL-1β release in monocytes upon exposure to LPS. However, it has been found that PKA and calcineurin does not seem to influence the Cl− dependent cytokine release.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, CFTR, Annexin A2, S100A10, PP2B, PKA, outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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106 Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Cystic Fibrosis: Do They Achieve Guidelines ?

Authors: Hatice Akbıyık, Hülya Gökmen Özel, Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Elmas Ebru Güneş Yalçın, Deniz Doğru Ersöz, Hayriye Uğur Özçelik, Nural Kiper

Abstract:

Background: Dietary recommendations in cystic fibrosis (CF) are based on the need to compensate for the increased energy needs of infection, the increased energy cost of breathing and the losses, incurred from malabsorption. Studies in CF indicate that dietary recommendations for CF patients can be difficult to achieve Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy and nutrient intakes and to compare in accordance with CF dietary guidelines in CF. Methods: One-hundred sixty patients with CF, aged between 2 to 20 years (mean±SD= 7.4±4.8 years) attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Pulmonary Diseases were included. Energy and nutrient intakes from foods and enteral products were calculated using a-24-hour dietary recall method with BEBIS 7.2 programme. Percentages of energy and nutrient intakes were compared in accordance with CF dietary guidelines. Patients or/and parents completed a questionnaire showing mealtime problems, usage of alternative therapies and type of nutrition. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 16.0 programme. Results: It was obtained that 14.5% and 46.9% of the total energy intake were from proteins and carbohydrates, respectively. The actual contribution of total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to the total caloric intake was 37.5%, 14.3%, 14.9%, 9.9%, respectively. It was found that 87.7% of energy, 85% of protein 91.7% of carbohydrate, 81.1% of fat intakes were met, when compared CF recommended intakes of 120% RDA. Additionally 67%, 69.5%, 68.2% and 68.9% of the subjects did not achieve CF recommended intakes of 120% RDA for energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat, respectively. Patients with CF had low intakes for age for almost all vitamins and minerals, although supplementation was given. Especially most patients did not achieve the minimum recommended vitamin K intake of 120% RDA. The percentage meeting 120% RDA was 75.9% for vitamin K. It was shown that 41% of the patients had mealtime problems and they skipped the breakfast. Moreover 25.4% of the patients used alternative products outside the standard treatment (such as omega-3, ginger, turmeric, local honey). It was also showed that 60.8% of patients were using enteral products in addition to normal foods, the remaining patients were on only normal foods. Conclusion: The aims of improving nutritional status in children are to achieve normal weight gain and growth; optimize vitamin and mineral status; and slow the rate of clinical decline. In this study although enteral products were used in patients with CF, it was found that energy and nutrient requirements were unable to meet. Because dietary assessment is essential to identify the need for earlier nutritional intervention, in each visit patients need to be referred to CF specialist dietitian.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, energy and nutrient intakes, mealtime problems, malabsorbtion

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105 Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in Assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4

Authors: G. Shiha, S. Seif, W. Samir, K. Zalata

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Prospective Validation of the FibroTest Score in assessing Liver Fibrosis in Hepatitis C Infection with Genotype 4 FibroTest (FT) is non-invasive score of liver fibrosis that combines the quantitative results of 5 serum biochemical markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and bilirubin) and adjusted with the patient's age and sex in a patented algorithm to generate a measure of fibrosis. FT has been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (Halfon et al., Gastroenterol. Clin Biol.( 2008), 32 6suppl 1, 22-39). The validation of fibro test ( FT) in genotype IV is not well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of FibroTest in an independent prospective cohort of hepatitis C patients with genotype 4. Subject was 122 patients with CHC. All liver biopsies were scored using METAVIR system. Our fibrosis score(FT) were measured, and the performance of the cut-off score were done using ROC curve. Among patients with advanced fibrosis, the FT was identically matched with the liver biopsy in 18.6%, overestimated the stage of fibrosis in 44.2% and underestimated the stage of fibrosis in 37.7% of cases. Also in patients with no/mild fibrosis, identical matching was detected in 39.2% of cases with overestimation in 48.1% and underestimation in 12.7%. So, the overall results of the test were identical matching, overestimation and underestimation in 32%, 46.7% and 21.3% respectively. Using ROC curve it was found that (FT) at the cut-off point of 0.555 could discriminate early from advanced stages of fibrosis with an area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.72, sensitivity of 65%, specificity of 69%, PPV of 68%, NPV of 66% and accuracy of 67%. As FibroTest Score overestimates the stage of advanced fibrosis, it should not be considered as a reliable surrogate for liver biopsy in hepatitis C infection with genotype 4.

Keywords: fibrotest, chronic Hepatitis C, genotype 4, liver biopsy

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104 Comparison between Transient Elastography (FibroScan) and Liver Biopsy for Diagnosis of Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Seham Seif, Shahera Etreby, Khaled Zalata, Waleed Samir

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Background: Transient Elastography (TE; FibroScan®) is a non-invasive technique to assess liver fibrosis. Aim: To compare TE and liver biopsy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, genotype IV and evaluate the effect of steatosis and schistosomiasis on FibroScan. Methods: The fibrosis stage (METAVIR Score) TE, was assessed in 519 patients. The diagnostic performance of FibroScan is assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). Results: The cut-off value of ≥ F2 was 8.55 kPa, ≥ F3 was 10.2 kPa and cirrhosis = F4 was 16.3 kPa. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 70.1% and 81.7% for the diagnosis of ≥ F2, 62.6% and 96.22% for F ≥ 3, and 27.7% and 100% for F4. No significant difference between schistosomiasis, steatosis degree and FibroScan measurements. Conclusion: Fibroscan could accurately predict liver fibrosis.

Keywords: chronic hepatitis C, FibroScan, liver biopsy, liver fibrosis

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103 Alterations of Malondialdehyde and Heat Shock Protein-27 in Sheep with Naturally Infected Liver Cystic Echinococcosis

Authors: K. Azimzadeh, S. Rasouli

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The present study investigates whether malondialdehyde (MDA) and heat shock protein-27 (HSP-27) are altered in sheep with cystic echinococcosis (CE). For this purpose, forty parasitized and thirty healthy sheep were selected based on severe cystic form observation in liver and lack of blood parasite along with no cystic conformation in carcass respectively. The results revealed a significant decrease (p<0.01) in albumin (Alb) and total plasma protein (TPP) and a significant increase (p<0.01) in HSP-27, MDA, total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin in the infected group compared with healthy ones.The results indicate low levels of TPP and Alb reveal liver damage in suffered sheep and MDA elevation demonstrates oxidative stress in infected group. In addition, HSP-27 enhancement may attribute to disease-induced stress conditions.

Keywords: malondialdehyde, heat shock protein-27, Echinococcosis, blood parasites

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102 Performance of a Lytic Bacteriophage Cocktail against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Conditions That Simulate the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment

Authors: Isaac Martin, Abigail Lark, Sandra Morales, Eric W. Alton, Jane C. Davies

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Objectives: The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is a unique microbiological niche, wherein harmful bacteria persist for many years despite antibiotic therapy. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), the major culprit leading to lung decline and increased mortality, thrives in the lungs of patients with CF due to several factors that have been linked with poor antibiotic performance. Our group is investigating alternative therapies including bacteriophage cocktails with which we have previously demonstrated efficacy against planktonic organisms. In this study, we explored the effects of a 4-phage cocktail on Pa grown in two different conditions, intended to mirror the CF lung: a) alongside standard antibiotic treatment in pre-formed biofilms (structures formed by Pa-secreted exopolysaccharides which provide both physical and cell division barriers to antimicrobials and host defenses and b) in an acidic environment postulated to be present in the CF airway due both to the primary defect in bicarbonate secretion and secondary effects of inflammation. Methods: 16 Pa strains from CF patients at the Royal Brompton Hospital were selected based on sensitivity to a) ceftazidime/ tobramycin and b) the phage cocktail in a conventional plaque assay. To assess efficacy of phage in biofilms, 96 well plates with Pa (5x10⁷ CFU/ ml) were incubated in static conditions, allowing adherent bacterial colonies to form for 24 hr. Ceftazidime and tobramycin (both at 2 × MIC) were added, +/- bacteriophage (4x10⁸ PFU/mL) for a further 24 hr. Cell viability and biomass were estimated using fluorescent resazurin and crystal violet assays, respectively. To evaluate the effect of pH, strains were grown planktonically in shaking 96 well plates at pH 6.0, 6.6, 7.0 and 7.5 with tobramycin or phage, at varying concentrations. Cell viability was quantified by fluorescent resazurin assay. Results: For the biofilm assay, treatment groups were compared with untreated controls and expressed as percent reduction in cell viability and biomass. Addition of the 4-phage cocktail resulted in a 1.3-fold reduction in cell viability and 1.7-fold reduction in biomass (p < 0.001) when compared to standard antibiotic treatment alone. Notably, there was a 50 ± 15% reduction in cell viability and 60 ± 12% reduction in biomass (95% CI) for the 4 biofilms demonstrating the most resistance to antibiotic treatment. 83% of strains tested (n=6) showed decreased bacterial killing by tobramycin at acidic pHs (p < 0.01). However, 25% of strains (n=12) showed improved phage killing at acidic pHs (p < 0.05), with none showing the pattern of reduced efficacy at acidic pH demonstrated by tobramycin. Conclusion: The 4-phage anti-Pa cocktail tested against Pa performs well in pre-formed biofilms and in acidic environments; two conditions intended to mimic the CF lung. To our knowledge, these are the first data looking at the effects of subtle pH changes on phage-mediated bacterial killing in the context of Pa infection. These findings contribute to a growing body of evidence supporting the use of nebulised lytic bacteriophage as a treatment in the context of lung infection.

Keywords: biofilm, cystic fibrosis, pH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lytic bacteriophage

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101 Biopsy or Biomarkers: Which Is the Sample of Choice in Assessment of Liver Fibrosis?

Authors: S. H. Atef, N. H. Mahmoud, S. Abdrahman, A. Fattoh

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Background: The aim of the study is to assess the diagnostic value of fibrotest and hyaluronic acid in discriminate between insignificant and significant fibrosis. Also, to find out if these parameters could replace liver biopsy which is currently used for selection of chronic hepatitis C patients eligible for antiviral therapy. Study design: This study was conducted on 52 patients with HCV RNA detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) who had undergone liver biopsy and attending the internal medicine clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital. Liver fibrosis was evaluated according to the METAVIR scoring system on a scale of F0 to F4. Biochemical markers assessed were: alpha-2 macroglobulin (α2-MG), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), haptoglobin, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB) and hyaluronic acid (HA). The fibrotest score was computed after adjusting for age and gender. Predictive values and ROC curves were used to assess the accuracy of fibrotest and HA results. Results: For fibrotest, the observed area under curve for the discrimination between minimal or no fibrosis (F0-F1) and significant fibrosis (F2-F4) was 0.6736 for cutoff value 0.19 with sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity of 85.7%. For HA, the sensitivity was 89.5% and specificity was 85.7% and area under curve was 0.540 at the best cutoff value 71 mg/dL. Multi-use of both parameters, HA at 71 mg/dL with fibrotest score at 0.22 give a sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 100 and efficacy 92.3% (AUC 0.895). Conclusion: The use of both fibrotest score and HA could be as alternative to biopsy in most patients with chronic hepaitis C putting in consideration some limitations of the proposed markers in evaluating liver fibrosis.

Keywords: fibrotest, liver fibrosis, HCV RNA, biochemical markers

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100 Comparison of the Classification of Cystic Renal Lesions Using the Bosniak Classification System with Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Computed Tomography: A Prospective Study

Authors: Dechen Tshering Vogel, Johannes T. Heverhagen, Bernard Kiss, Spyridon Arampatzis

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In addition to computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being increasingly used for imaging of renal lesions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the classification of complex cystic renal lesions using the Bosniak classification with CEUS and MRI to CT. Forty-eight patients with 65 cystic renal lesions were included in this study. All participants signed written informed consent. The agreement between the Bosniak classifications of complex renal lesions ( ≥ BII-F) on CEUS and MRI were compared to that of CT and were tested using Cohen’s Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy of CEUS and MRI compared to CT in the detection of complex renal lesions were calculated. Twenty-nine (45%) out of 65 cystic renal lesions were classified as complex using CT. The agreement between CEUS and CT in the classification of complex cysts was fair (agreement 50.8%, Kappa 0.31), and was excellent between MRI and CT (agreement 93.9%, Kappa 0.88). Compared to CT, MRI had a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 91.7%, a PPV of 54.7%, and an NPV of 54.7% with an accuracy of 63.1%. The corresponding values for CEUS were sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 33.3%, PPV 90.3%, and NPV 97.1% with an accuracy 93.8%. The classification of complex renal cysts based on MRI and CT scans correlated well, and MRI can be used instead of CT for this purpose. CEUS can exclude complex lesions, but due to higher sensitivity, cystic lesions tend to be upgraded. However, it is useful for initial imaging, for follow up of lesions and in those patients with contraindications to CT and MRI.

Keywords: Bosniak classification, computed tomography, contrast enhanced ultrasound, cystic renal lesions, magnetic resonance imaging

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99 Laparoscopic Management of Cysts Mimicking Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis in Children (A Case Series)

Authors: Assia Haif, Djelloul Achouri, Zineddine Soualili

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Introduction: Laparoscopic treatment of liver echinococcosis cyst has become popular. In parallel, the diagnostic approach of cystic liver lesions is based on the number of lesions and their distribution. The etiologies of cystic masses in children are different, and the role of imaging in their characterization and pre-therapeutic evaluation is essential. The main differential diagnoses of hepatic hydatid cysts can be discovered intraoperatively by minimally invasive surgery. Methods: The clinical data contained seven patients with hepatic cystic who underwent laparoscopic surgery in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, SETIF, Algeria, from 2015 to 2022. Results: Of reported seven patients, five are male, and the remaining two are female. Abdominal pain was the most frequent clinical signs. Biological parameters were within normal limits, Abdominal ultrasound, practiced in all cases, completed by abdominal computed tomography (CT), showed a hydatid cystic. For all patients, surgical procedures were performed under laparoscopy. Total cystectomy in four patients, fenestration or subtotal cystectomy in three patients, respectively. A histopathological feature confirmed the nature of the cysts. During the follow-up period, there was no recurrence. Conclusions: Laparoscopic liver surgery is a safe and effective approach, it is an alternative to conventional surgery and a reproducible method. Laparoscopic surgery approach should follow the same principals with those of open surgery. This surgical technique can rectify the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, the histopathological examination confirms the nature of the cystic lesion.

Keywords: children, cyst, echinococcosis, laparoscopic, liver

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98 A 30 Year Audit of the Vascular Complications of Ports: Permanent Intravascular Access Devices

Authors: S. Kershaw, P. J. Barry, K. Webb

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Background: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a chronic lung disease where patients have chronic lung infection punctuated by acute exacerbations that require intermittent intravenous (IV) antibiotics during their lives. With time, peripheral venous access can become difficult and limited. Accessing these veins can become arduous, traumatic, painful and unworkable. A permanent intravascular access device or Port is a small device that is inserted into the central venous system that allows the delivery of medicine eliminating the need for peripheral venous access. Ports represent a convenient and efficient method when venous access is required on a permanent basis however they are also associated with significant vascular complications. Superior Vena Cava Obstruction (SVCO) is a rare but significant vascular complication of ports in this setting. Objective: We aimed to look at a single CF centre’s experience of port-related SVCO over a thirty year period. Methods: Retrospective data was extracted using patient’s notes, electronic radiological reports and local databases over a period in excess of 30 years from 1982 to 2014. Results: 13 patients were identified with SVCO as a result of their port. 11 patients had CF (9 female, 2 male), one male patient had Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and one female patient had severe Asthma. The mean port function was 1532 days (range 110 – 4049) and the mean age at SVCO was 24 years (range 11.1 to 36.5 years). The most common symptoms were facial oedema (n=8, 61.5%) and dilated veins (n=6, 46.2%). 7 patients had their Ports removed after SVCO. 6 patients underwent attempted stenting (46.2%) and 6 did not. 4 out of the 6 who underwent stenting required/had re-intervention. 3 of the 6 patients who underwent stenting had symptom resolution, however, 4 of the 6 patients who were not stented had symptom resolution also. Symptom resolution was not guaranteed with stenting and required re-intervention in two-thirds. Conclusion: This case series represents the experience of one of the longest established CF units in the UK and represents the largest cohort ever reported in the literature.

Keywords: ports, Superior Vena Cava Obstruction, cystic fibrosis, access devices

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97 The Relationship between Size of Normal and Cystic Bovine Ovarian Follicles with Follicular Fluid Levels of Nitric Oxide and Estradiol

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi, Leila Karshenas

Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a small fast acting neurotransmitter, which is synthesized From L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase. Studies show that NO affects a wide range of reproductive functions. Steroidal hormones synthesis, LH surge during ovulation, follicular growth and ovulation are all affected by NO. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NO and estradiol (E2) production in ovarian follicles and cysts in bovines. Two experiment groups were formed and serum and follicular fluid levels Of NO and estradiol (E2) was measured. In the first group, follicular fluids were obtained from 30 slaughtered cows. Follicles were divided into three groups according to follicular diameter: Small follicles, <5 mm, medium-sized follicles, 5 to 10 mm, and large follicles, >10 mm. 30 follicles were randomly selected within each group. Blood samples were obtained via jugular vein. NO concentrations in blood and ovarian follicular fluids were measured by Griess reaction method and radio-immunoassay respectively. In the second group: 12 cows in follicular phase and with cystic follicles were selected and a cystic follicle was obtained from each. NO and E2 levels were measured as done for the first experiment group. The data were analyzed by SAS software using ANOVA and Duncan’s test. NO concentrations of follicular fluids from large follicles were significantly higher than those of the medium and small-sized ones. There were significant differences in the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate (Stable metabolites of NO) between large and cystic follicles, with extremely low NO and high E2 levels in cystic follicles (p<0.01).The results suggest that paracrine effects of NO may play an important role in the control of ovarian follicle growth and development of cystic follicles in bovines. It seems that NO dictates its effects through inhibition of ovarian steroidal synthesis.

Keywords: nitric oxide, estradiol, cystic follicle, cow, oogenesis, oocyte maturation, follicular fluid

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96 Sulforaphane Attenuates Fibrosis of Dystrophic Muscle in Mdx Mice via Nrf2-Mediated Inhibition of TGF-β/Smad Signaling

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Cuili Yang, Shujun Li, Ruilin Xue, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Backgrounds: A few lines of evidence show that Sulforaphane (SFN) has anti-fibrosis effect in liver tissue via Nrf2-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling. However, its effects on muscular dystrophic fibrosis remain unknown. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of SFN on fibrosis in dystrophic muscle. Methods: 3-month-old male mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 3 months. Gastrocnemius, tibial anterior and triceps brachii muscles were collected for related analysis. Fibrosis in skeletal muscles was analyzed by Sirius red staining. Histology and morphology of skeletal muscles were investigated by H&E staining. Moreover, the expressions of Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment significantly decreased and improved morphological features in mdx muscles. Moreover, SFN increased the expression of muscle phase II enzymes NQO1 and HO-1 and significantly decreased the expression of TGF-β1,p-smad2, p-smad3, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, PAI-1, and TIMP-1 in Nrf2 dependent manner. Additionally, SFN significantly decreased the expression of CD45 and TNF-α. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can ameliorate muscle fibrosis in mdx mice by Nrf2-induced inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, which indicate Nrf2 may be useful for the treatment of muscular dystrophy.

Keywords: sulforaphane, Nrf2, TGF-β/smad signaling, duchenne muscular dystrophy, fibrosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
95 Effect of Nicorandil in Bile Duct Ligation-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats: Role of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Y. S. Mohamed, L. A. Ahmed, H. A. Salem, A. M. Agha

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Liver Fibrosis is one of the most serious conditions that affect the Egyptian society. In the present study, the effect of nicorandil was investigated in experimentally-induced liver fibrosis by bile duct ligation in rats. Nicorandil (3mg/kg/day) was given orally 24 h after bile duct ligation for 14 days till the end of the experiment. Nicorandil group showed a significant improvement in liver function tests (ALT and ALP) as well as a significant decrease in oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS and GSH), area of fibrosis and activity of hepatic stellate cells as indicated by decreased expression of alpha smooth muscle actin.Moreover, nicorandil treatment decreased HSCs proliferation due to its inhibitory effects on protein kinase C(PKC) and Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) . Oral administration of either glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day)(a KATP channel blocker) or L-NAME (30 mg/kg/day) (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. However, nicorandil and L-NAME treated group showed more or less results similar to that of untreated bile duct ligated group. In conclusion, nicorandil was effective against the development of bile duct ligated-induced liver fibrosis in rats where activation of the NO pathway plays an important role in the protective effect nicorandil.

Keywords: hepatic stellate cells, nicorandil, nitric oxide donor, liver fibrosis

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94 Green Tea Extract: Its Potential Protective Effect on Bleomycin Induced Lung Injuries in Rats

Authors: Azza EL-Medany, Jamila EL-Medany

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Lung fibrosis is a common side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent, bleomycin. Current evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species may play a key role in the development of lung fibrosis. The present work studied the effect of green tea extract on bleomycin–induced lung fibrosis in rats. Animals were divided into three groups: (1) Saline control group; (2) bleomycin group in which rats were injected with bleomycin (15mg/kg,i.p.) three times a week for four weeks; (3) bleomycin and green tea group in which green tea extract was given to rats (100mg/kg/day, p.o) a week prior to bleomycin and daily during bleomycin injections for 4 weeks until the end of the experiment. Bleomycin–induced pulmonary injury and lung fibrosis that was indicated by increased lung hydroxyproline content, elevated nitric oxide synthase, myeoloperoxidase (MPO), platelet activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF_α), transforming growth factor 1β (TGF1β) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in lung tissues. On the other hand, bleomycin induced a reduction in reduced glutathione concentration (GSH). Moreover, bleomycin resulted in a severe histological changes in lung tissues revealed as lymphocytes and neutrophils infiltration, increased collagen deposition and fibrosis. Co-administration of bleomycin and green tea extract reduced bleomycin–induced lung injury as evaluated by the significant reduction in hydroxyproline content, nitric oxide synthase activity, levels of MPO, PAF, TNF-α, and ACE in lung tissues. Furthermore, green tea extract ameliorated bleomycin– induced reduction in GSH concentration. Finally, histological evidence supported the ability of green tea extract to attenuate bleomycin–induced lung fibrosis and consolidation. Thus, the finding of the present study provides that green tea may serve as a novel target for potential therapeutic treatment of lung fibrosis.

Keywords: bleomycin, lung fibrosis, green tea, oxygen species

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93 Curcumin Attenuates Angiogenesis in Liver Fibrosis and Inhibits Angiogenic Properties of Hepatic Stellate Cells

Authors: Feng Zhang, Li Chen, Desong Kong, Xiaoping Zhang, Xiaojing Zhu, Yin Lu, Shizhong Zheng

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Sinusoidal pathological angiogenesis is a novel therapeutic target for liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated fibrotic injury and sinusoidal angiogenesis in rat liver with fibrosis caused by carbon tetrachloride. Curcumin reduced the expression of angiogenic markers in fibrotic liver. Experiments in vitro showed that the viability and vascularization of rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were not impaired by curcumin. Further investigations showed that curcumin inhibited VEGF expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by disrupting PDGF-βR/ERK and mTOR pathways. HSC motility and vascularization were also suppressed by curcumin via blocking PDGF-βR/FAK/RhoA cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function analyses revealed that activation of PPARγ was required for curcumin to inhibit angiogenic properties of HSCs. We concluded that curcumin attenuated sinusoidal angiogenesis in liver fibrosis possibly by targeting HSCs via a PPARγ activation-dependent mechanism. PPARγ could be a target molecule for reducing pathological angiogenesis during liver fibrosis.

Keywords: angiogenesis, hepatic stellate cell, curcumin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

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92 Regression of Fibrosis by Apigenin in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis Rat Model through Suppression of HIF-1/FAK Pathway

Authors: Hany M. Fayed, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Alyaa F. Hessin, Hanan A. Ogaly, Gihan F. Asaad, Abeer A. A. Salama, Sahar Abdelrahman, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Marwan Abd Elbaset Mohamed

Abstract:

Liver fibrosis is a serious global health problem that occurs as a result of a variety of chronic liver disorders. Apigenin, a flavonoid found in many plants, has several pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifibrotic efficacy of apigenin (APG) against experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats via using thioacetamide (TAA) and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was given three times each week for two weeks to induce liver fibrosis. After TAA injections, APG was given orally (5 and 10 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Biochemical, molecular, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on blood and liver tissue samples. The functioning of the liver, oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver fibrosis indicators were all evaluated. The findings showed that TAA markedly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) with a reduction in albumin, total protein, A/G ratio, GSH content and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Moreover, TAA elevated the content of collagen I, α -smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and hydroxyproline in the liver. The treatment with APG in a dose-dependent manner has obviously prevented these alterations and amended the harmful effects induced by TAA. The histopathological and immunohistochemical observations supported this biochemical evidence. The higher dose of APG produced the most significant antifibrotic effect. As a result of these data, APG appears to be a promising antifibrotic drug and could be used as a new herbal medication or dietary supplement in the future for the treatment of liver fibrosis. This effect might be related to the inhibition of the HIF-1/FAK signaling pathway.

Keywords: apigenin, FAK, HIF-1, liver fibrosis, rat, thioacetamide

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91 The Role of Health Beliefs in Predicting and Explaining Risky Health Behaviours within Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Rebecca Keyte, Helen Egan, Michail Mantzios

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It is well acknowledged that ongoing adherence is a major concern within CF. However recently literature has indicated that non-adherence should not be viewed just in terms of medical regimens. There are other damaging behaviours that some chronically ill patients engage in which can be viewed as a form of non-adherence, such as risky behaviours. Risky behaviours are a major concern within CF, as they can have adverse health effects on patients regardless of patients adherence to medical regimens. The risky behaviours this research is predominantly focusing on are smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour. This research investigates patient’s beliefs about their CF and the impact their CF has upon their life, exploring rationales for why some patients engage in risky behaviours. This research utilises qualitative semi-structured interviews taking an interpretive perspective. Twenty-four adult participants have been recruited (16 male, age range 19–66 yrs) from two UK regional CF centres, with a median FEV1 61.77% predicted. Participants were recruited via clinician guidance, with 13 participants identified by clinicians as partaking in risky behaviours. However, during the interviews 17 participants were identified as partaking in risky behaviours, illustrating that not all patients offer full disclosure of engagement in such behaviours to their clinicians. Preliminary findings illustrate a variety of reasons as to why some CF patients engage in risky behaviours, with many participants stating that one challenge in terms of living with CF is accepting their illness. Disclosure of illness was also an issue, the desire to be seen as ‘normal’ was important to many. It is often possible for CF patients to hide their illness as they do not always appear to be unwell. However, literature indicates a desire for normalcy can be accompanied with the engagement of normalised risky behaviours, enabling patients to retaliate against their illness identity. There was also evidence of a life-orientated perspective amongst participants, with some reporting that their desire for fun and enjoyment was the reason for why they were engaging in risky behaviours. Some participants did not acknowledge the impact their risky behaviours could have upon their CF, and others rationalised their continuation with the behaviours by suggesting that they were in fact beneficial to their health. There was an apparent lack of knowledge around the implications of risky behaviours, with participants indicating that they had not been informed of such potential consequences by their clinicians. Given the adverse health effects of risky behaviours within CF, more effective health promotion measures are needed to both reduce and more importantly prevent these behaviours. Due to the initiation of risky behaviours within the CF population commonly occurring during adolescence, the researcher now proposes to conduct semi-structured interviews with paediatric patients to investigate their awareness and beliefs towards risky behaviours. Overall, this research will highlight reasons why some CF patients engage in risky behaviours, in order to inform interventions aimed to prevent the initiation in risky behaviours by increasing patient awareness.

Keywords: cystic fibrosis, health beliefs, preliminary findings, risky health behaviours

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90 MiR-200a/ZEB1 Pathway in Liver Fibrogenesis of Biliary Atresia

Authors: Hai-Ying Liu, Yi-Hao Chen, Shu-Yin Pang, Feng-Hua Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Li-Yuan Yang, Zheng-Rong Chen, Yi Chen, Bing Zhu

Abstract:

Objective: Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive liver fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. MiR-200a has been shown to repress EMT. We aim to explore the role of miR-200a in the fibrogenesis of BA. Methods: We obtained the plasma samples and liver samples from patients with BA or controls to examine the role of miR-200a. Histological liver fibrosis was assessed using the Ishak fibrosis scores. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-200a in plasma. We also evaluated the expression of miR-200a in liver tissues using tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH). The expression of EMT related proteins zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the liver sections were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: We found that the expression of miR-200a was both elevated in the plasma and liver tissues from BA patients compared with the controls. The hepatic expression of ZEB1 and α-SMA were markedly increased in the liver sections from BA patients compared to the controls, whereas E-cadherin was downregulated in the BA group. Simultaneously, we noted that the hepatic expression of miR-200a, E-cadherin and α-SMA were upregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in the BA group, while ZEB1 was downregulated with the progression of liver fibrosis in BA patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest EMT has a critical effect on the fibrotic process of BA, and the interaction between miR-200a and ZEB1 may regulate EMT and eventually influence liver fibrogenesis of BA.

Keywords: biliary atresia, liver fibrosis, MicroRNA, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1

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89 Curcumin Reduces the Expression of Main Fibrogenic Genes and Phosphorylation of Smad3C Signaling Pathway in TGFB-Activated Human HSCs. A New Remedy for Liver Fibrosis

Authors: Elham Shakerian, Reza Afarin

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The hepatic disease causes approximately 2 million deaths/year worldwide. Liver fibrosis is the last stage of numerous chronic liver diseases, and until now there is no definite cure or drug for it. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the main reason for fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF-β), as a main profibrogenic cytokine, if increased in these cells, leads to liver fibrosis through smad3 signaling pathways and increasing the expressions of Collagen type I and III, and actin-alpha smooth muscle (αSMA) genes. Curcumin (CUR) is a polyphenolic compound and an active ingredient derived from the rhizome of the turmeric plant that exerts effective antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. It has been shown that daily consumption of curcumin may have a protective effect on the liver against oxidative stress associated with alcohol consumption. In this study, we investigate the role of Curcumin in decreasing HSC activation and treating liver fibrosis. First, the human HSCs were treated with 2 ng/ml of (TGF-β) for 24 hours to become activated, then with Silibinin for 24 hours. Total RNAs were extracted, reversely transcribed into cDNA, Quantitative Real-time PCR, and western blot were performed. The mRNA expression levels of Collagen type I and III, αSMA genes, and the level of smad3 phosphorylation in TGF-β activated human HSCs treated with Curcumin were significantly reduced compared to human HSCs untreated with Curcumin. Curcumin is effective in reducing the expression of fibrogenic genes in the activated human HSCs treated with TGFB through downregulation of the TGF-β/smad3 signaling pathway. Therefore, Curcumin possesses significant antifibrotic properties in hepatic fibrosis

Keywords: hepatic fibrosis, human HSCs, curcumin, fibrogenic genes

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88 Rebamipide Retards CCL4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis: A Role of PGE2

Authors: Alaa E. El-sisi, Sherin Zakaria

Abstract:

Rebamipide is an antiulcer drug with unique properties such as anti-inflammatory action. It induces endogenous prostaglandin e2 (PGE2). PGE2 is considered as a potent physiological suppressor of liver fibrosis. Aim of study: This study investigated the effect of rebamipide on hepatic fibrosis. Material and Method: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injections (IP) injection of CCl4 (0.45 mL/kg) in corn oil 1:5 twice a week for 4 weeks. Rats were divided into four groups as follow: Group 1 treated with CCL4 only, group 2 and 3 treated with CCL4 and rebamipide 60 mg/kg/day (group2) or 100 mg/kg/day (group3), and the fourth group was considered as control group and treated with vehicles. ALT, AST, and Bilirubin were assayed in serum. Antioxidant markers such as malondialdhyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and fibrotic markers such as hyaluronic acid (HA) and procollagen-III (procol-III) were evaluated in liver tissues. IL-10 as well as PGE2 were also assayed in liver tissues. Pathologic changes in the liver were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagen precipitation in liver tissues was visualized using masson trichrom stain. Results: Rebamipide inhibit CCL4 induced increase in ALT and AST significantly (p < 0.05). Rebamipide exerted an antioxidant effect as it inhibits CCL4 induced increased MDA level and decreased SOD activity. Fibrotic markers assay revealed that repamipide (60 or 100 mg/kg/day) decreased the level of procol-III and HA compared to CCl4 (p < 0.05). Oral administration of Rebamipide was associated with a significant increase (p < 0.05) of PGE2 and IL-10. Rebamipide especially at the dose of (100 mg/kg/day) restores liver histology structure and abolish collagen precipitation in liver tissues. Conclusion: Rebamipide retards hepatic fibrosis induced by CCL4 may be through the induction of PGE2 level.

Keywords: fibrotic markers, hepatic fibrosis, PGE2, rebamipide

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87 Effects of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Lung Remodeling

Authors: Diana Islam, Juan Fang, Vito Fanelli, Bing Han, Julie Khang, Jianfeng Wu, Arthur S. Slutsky, Haibo Zhang

Abstract:

Introduction: MSC delivery in preclinical models of ARDS has demonstrated significant improvements in lung function and recovery from acute injury. However, the role of MSC delivery in ARDS associated pulmonary fibrosis is not well understood. Some animal studies using bleomycin, asbestos, and silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis show that MSC delivery can suppress fibrosis. While other animal studies using radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis, liver, and kidney fibrosis models show that MSC delivery can contribute to fibrosis. Hypothesis: The beneficial and deleterious effects of MSC in ARDS are modulated by the lung microenvironment at the time of MSC delivery. Methods: To induce ARDS a two-hit mouse model of Hydrochloric acid (HCl) aspiration (day 0) and mechanical ventilation (MV) (day 2) was used. HCl and injurious MV generated fibrosis within 14-28 days. 0.5x106 mouse MSCs were delivered (via both intratracheal and intravenous routes) either in the active inflammatory phase (day 2) or during the remodeling phase (day 14) of ARDS (mouse fibroblasts or PBS used as a control). Lung injury accessed using inflammation score and elastance measurement. Pulmonary fibrosis was accessed using histological score, tissue collagen level, and collagen expression. In addition alveolar epithelial (E) and mesenchymal (M) marker expression profile was also measured. All measurements were taken at day 2, 14, and 28. Results: MSC delivery 2 days after HCl exacerbated lung injury and fibrosis compared to HCl alone, while the day 14 delivery showed protective effects. However in the absence of HCl, MSC significantly reduced the injurious MV-induced fibrosis. HCl injury suppressed E markers and up-regulated M markers. MSC delivery 2 days after HCl further amplified M marker expression, indicating their role in myofibroblast proliferation/activation. While with 14-day delivery E marker up-regulation was observed indicating their role in epithelial restoration. Conclusions: Early MSC delivery can be protective of injurious MV. Late MSC delivery during repair phase may also aid in recovery. However, early MSC delivery during the exudative inflammatory phase of HCl-induced ARDS can result in pro-fibrotic profiles. It is critical to understand the interaction between MSC and the lung microenvironment before MSC-based therapies are utilized for ARDS.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), hydrochloric acid (HCl), mechanical ventilation (MV)

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86 Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus IgG Serologic Cut-Off Values to Increase Diagnostic Specificity of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

Authors: Sushmita Roy Chowdhury, Steve Holding, Sujoy Khan

Abstract:

The immunogenic responses of the lung towards the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus may range from invasive aspergillosis in the immunocompromised, fungal ball or infection within a cavity in the lung in those with structural lung lesions, or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis are particularly predisposed to ABPA. There are consensus guidelines that have established criteria for diagnosis of ABPA, but uncertainty remains on the serologic cut-off values that would increase the diagnostic specificity of ABPA. We retrospectively analyzed 80 patients with severe asthma and evidence of peripheral blood eosinophilia ( > 500) over the last 3 years who underwent all serologic tests to exclude ABPA. Total IgE, specific IgE and specific IgG levels against Aspergillus fumigatus were measured using ImmunoCAP Phadia-100 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sweden). The Modified ISHAM working group 2013 criteria (obligate criteria: asthma or cystic fibrosis, total IgE > 1000 IU/ml or > 417 kU/L and positive specific IgE Aspergillus fumigatus or skin test positivity; with ≥ 2 of peripheral eosinophilia, positive specific IgG Aspergillus fumigatus and consistent radiographic opacities) was used in the clinical workup for the final diagnosis of ABPA. Patients were divided into 3 groups - definite, possible, and no evidence of ABPA. Specific IgG Aspergillus fumigatus levels were not used to assign the patients into any of the groups. Of 80 patients (males 48, females 32; mean age 53.9 years ± SD 15.8) selected for the analysis, there were 30 patients who had positive specific IgE against Aspergillus fumigatus (37.5%). 13 patients fulfilled the Modified ISHAM working group 2013 criteria of ABPA (‘definite’), while 15 patients were ‘possible’ ABPA and 52 did not fulfill the criteria (not ABPA). As IgE levels were not normally distributed, median levels were used in the analysis. Median total IgE levels of patients with definite and possible ABPA were 2144 kU/L and 2597 kU/L respectively (non-significant), while median specific IgE Aspergillus fumigatus at 4.35 kUA/L and 1.47 kUA/L respectively were significantly different (comparison of standard deviations F-statistic 3.2267, significance level p=0.040). Mean levels of IgG anti-Aspergillus fumigatus in the three groups (definite, possible and no evidence of ABPA) were compared using ANOVA (Statgraphics Centurion Professional XV, Statpoint Inc). Mean levels of IgG anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (Gm3) in definite ABPA was 125.17 mgA/L ( ± SD 54.84, with 95%CI 92.03-158.32), while mean Gm3 levels in possible and no ABPA were 18.61 mgA/L and 30.05 mgA/L respectively. ANOVA showed a significant difference between the definite group and the other groups (p < 0.001). This was confirmed using multiple range tests (Fisher's least significant difference procedure). There was no significant difference between the possible ABPA and not ABPA groups (p > 0.05). The study showed that a sizeable proportion of patients with asthma are sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus in this part of India. A higher cut-off value of Gm3 ≥ 80 mgA/L provides a higher serologic specificity towards definite ABPA. Long-term studies would provide us more information if those patients with 'possible' APBA and positive Gm3 later develop clear ABPA, and are different from the Gm3 negative group in this respect. Serologic testing with clear defined cut-offs are a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of ABPA.

Keywords: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, asthma, IgE level

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85 Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds Modified with Collagen-I and Fibronectin with LX-2 Cells to Study Liver Fibrosis in vitro

Authors: Prativa Das, Lay Poh Tan

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Three-dimensional microenvironment is a need to study the event cascades of liver fibrosis in vitro. Electrospun nanofibers modified with essential extracellular matrix proteins can closely mimic the random fibrous structure of native liver extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we fabricate a series of 3D electrospun scaffolds by wet electrospinning process modified with different ratios of collagen-I to fibronectin to achieve optimized distribution of these two ECM proteins on the fiber surface. A ratio of 3:1 of collagen-I to fibronectin was found to be optimum for surface modification of electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers by chemisorption process. In 3:1 collagen-I to fibronectin modified scaffolds the total protein content increased by ~2 fold compared to collagen-I modified and ~1.5 fold compared to 1:1/9:1 collagen-I to fibronectin modified scaffolds. We have cultured LX-2 cells on this scaffold over 14 days and found that LX-2 cells acquired more quiescent phenotype throughout the culture period and shown significantly lower expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and collagen-I. Thus, this system can be used as a model to study liver fibrosis by using different fibrogenic mediators in vitro.

Keywords: electrospinning, collagen-I and fibronectin, surface modification of fiber, LX-2 cells, liver fibrosis

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84 Comparative Stem Cells Therapy for Regeneration of Liver Fibrosis

Authors: H. M. Imam, H. M. Rezk, A. F. Tohamy

Abstract:

Background: Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) is considered as a unique source for stem cells. HUCB contain different types of progenitor cells which could differentiate into hepatocytes. Aims: To investigate the potential of rat's liver damage repair using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). We investigated the feasibility for hUCMSCs in recovery from liver damage. Moreover, investigating fibrotic liver repair and using the CCl4-induced model for liver damage in the rat. Methods: Rats were injected with 0.5 ml/kg CCl4 to induce liver damage and progressive liver fibrosis. hUCMSCs were injected into the rats through the tail vein; Stem cells were transplanted at a dose of 1×106 cells/rat after 72 hours of CCl4 injection without receiving any immunosuppressant. After (6 and 8 weeks) of transplantation, blood samples were collected to assess liver functions (ALT, AST, GGT and ALB) and level of Procollagen III as a liver fibrosis marker. In addition, hepatic tissue regeneration was assessed histopathologically and immunohistochemically using antihuman monoclonal antibodies against CD34, CK19 and albumin. Results: Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed significantly increased recovery from liver damage in the transplanted group. In addition, HUCB stem cells transdifferentiated into functional hepatocytes in rats with hepatic injury which results in improving liver structure and function. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that transplantation of hUCMSCs may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating liver fibrosis. Therefore, hUCMSCs are a potential option for treatment of liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: carbon tetra chloride, liver fibrosis, mesenchymal stem cells, rat

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