Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3778

Search results for: waste classification

3778 Evaluating Classification with Efficacy Metrics

Authors: Guofan Shao, Lina Tang, Hao Zhang

Abstract:

The values of image classification accuracy are affected by class size distributions and classification schemes, making it difficult to compare the performance of classification algorithms across different remote sensing data sources and classification systems. Based on the term efficacy from medicine and pharmacology, we have developed the metrics of image classification efficacy at the map and class levels. The novelty of this approach is that a baseline classification is involved in computing image classification efficacies so that the effects of class statistics are reduced. Furthermore, the image classification efficacies are interpretable and comparable, and thus, strengthen the assessment of image data classification methods. We use real-world and hypothetical examples to explain the use of image classification efficacies. The metrics of image classification efficacy meet the critical need to rectify the strategy for the assessment of image classification performance as image classification methods are becoming more diversified.

Keywords: accuracy assessment, efficacy, image classification, machine learning, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
3777 Facilitating Waste Management to Achieve Sustainable Residential Built Environments

Authors: Ingy Ibrahim El-Darwish, Neveen Youssef Azmy

Abstract:

The endowment of a healthy environment can be implemented by endorsing sustainable fundamentals. Design of sustainable buildings through recycling of waste, can reduce health problems, provide good environments and contribute to the aesthetically pleasing entourage. Such environments can help in providing energy-saving alternatives to consolidate the principles of sustainability. The poor community awareness and the absence of laws and legislation in Egypt for waste management specifically in residential areas have led to an inability to provide an integrated system for waste management in urban and rural areas. Many problems and environmental challenges face the Egyptian urban environments. From these problems, is the lack of a cohesive vision for waste collection and recycling for energy-saving. The second problem is the lack public awareness of the short term and long term vision of waste management. Bad practices have adversely affected the efficiency of environmental management systems due to lack of urban legislations that codify collection and recycling of residential communities in Egyptian urban environments. Hence, this research tries to address residents on waste management matters to facilitate legislative process on waste collection and classification within residential units and outside them in a preparation phase for recycling in the Egyptian urban environments. In order to achieve this goal, one of the Egyptian communities has been addressed, analyzed and studied. Waste collection, classification, separation and access to recycling places in the urban city are proposed in preparation for a legislation ruling and regulating the process. Hence, sustainable principles are to be achieved.

Keywords: recycling, residential buildings, sustainability, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
3776 Analysis, Evaluation and Optimization of Food Management: Minimization of Food Losses and Food Wastage along the Food Value Chain

Authors: G. Hafner

Abstract:

A method developed at the University of Stuttgart will be presented: ‘Analysis, Evaluation and Optimization of Food Management’. A major focus is represented by quantification of food losses and food waste as well as their classification and evaluation regarding a system optimization through waste prevention. For quantification and accounting of food, food losses and food waste along the food chain, a clear definition of core terms is required at the beginning. This includes their methodological classification and demarcation within sectors of the food value chain. The food chain is divided into agriculture, industry and crafts, trade and consumption (at home and out of home). For adjustment of core terms, the authors have cooperated with relevant stakeholders in Germany for achieving the goal of holistic and agreed definitions for the whole food chain. This includes modeling of sub systems within the food value chain, definition of terms, differentiation between food losses and food wastage as well as methodological approaches. ‘Food Losses’ and ‘Food Wastes’ are assigned to individual sectors of the food chain including a description of the respective methods. The method for analyzing, evaluation and optimization of food management systems consist of the following parts: Part I: Terms and Definitions. Part II: System Modeling. Part III: Procedure for Data Collection and Accounting Part. IV: Methodological Approaches for Classification and Evaluation of Results. Part V: Evaluation Parameters and Benchmarks. Part VI: Measures for Optimization. Part VII: Monitoring of Success The method will be demonstrated at the example of an invesigation of food losses and food wastage in the Federal State of Bavaria including an extrapolation of respective results to quantify food wastage in Germany.

Keywords: food losses, food waste, resource management, waste management, system analysis, waste minimization, resource efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
3775 Urban Land Cover from GF-2 Satellite Images Using Object Based and Neural Network Classifications

Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha, Ashraf Sharawi

Abstract:

China launched satellite GF-2 in 2014. This study deals with comparing nearest neighbor object-based classification and neural network classification methods for classification of the fused GF-2 image. Firstly, rectification of GF-2 image was performed. Secondly, a comparison between nearest neighbor object-based classification and neural network classification for classification of fused GF-2 was performed. Thirdly, the overall accuracy of classification and kappa index were calculated. Results indicate that nearest neighbor object-based classification is better than neural network classification for urban mapping.

Keywords: GF-2 images, feature extraction-rectification, nearest neighbour object based classification, segmentation algorithms, neural network classification, multilayer perceptron

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
3774 Production and Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

Recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and their new reuse in structures is one of the solutions of environmental problems. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills all the time. The paper deals with the situation of the recycling of the building and demolition waste in the Czech Republic during the recent years. The paper is dealing with questions of C&D waste recycling, it also characterizes construction and demolition waste in general, furthermore it analyses production of construction waste and subsequent production of recycled materials.

Keywords: Recycling, Construction and demolition waste, Recycled rubble, Waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3773 Arabic Text Representation and Classification Methods: Current State of the Art

Authors: Rami Ayadi, Mohsen Maraoui, Mounir Zrigui

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented a brief current state of the art for Arabic text representation and classification methods. We decomposed Arabic Task Classification into four categories. First we describe some algorithms applied to classification on Arabic text. Secondly, we cite all major works when comparing classification algorithms applied on Arabic text, after this, we mention some authors who proposing new classification methods and finally we investigate the impact of preprocessing on Arabic TC.

Keywords: text classification, Arabic, impact of preprocessing, classification algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
3772 Recovery of Metals from Electronic Waste by Physical and Chemical Recycling Processes

Authors: Muammer Kaya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of various physical and chemical processes for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, their advantages and shortfalls towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with especial attention towards extraction of metallic values. Current status and future perspectives of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling/ disassembly methods, liberation and classification processes, composition determination techniques are covered. Manual selective dismantling and metal-nonmetal liberation at – 150 µm at two step crushing are found to be the best. After size reduction, mainly physical separation/concentration processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation etc., which are commonly used in mineral processing, have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and non-metals, along with useful utilizations of the non-metallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining and some suitable flowsheets are also given. It seems that hydrometallurgical route will be a key player in the base and precious metals recoveries from e-waste. E-waste recycling will be a very important sector in the near future from economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: e-waste, WEEE, recycling, metal recovery, hydrometallurgy, pirometallurgy, biometallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
3771 A Framework for Automated Nuclear Waste Classification

Authors: Seonaid Hume, Gordon Dobie, Graeme West

Abstract:

Detecting and localizing radioactive sources is a necessity for safe and secure decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important aspect for the management of the sort-and-segregation process is establishing the spatial distributions and quantities of the waste radionuclides, their type, corresponding activity, and ultimately classification for disposal. The data received from surveys directly informs decommissioning plans, on-site incident management strategies, the approach needed for a new cell, as well as protecting the workforce and the public. Manual classification of nuclear waste from a nuclear cell is time-consuming, expensive, and requires significant expertise to make the classification judgment call. Also, in-cell decommissioning is still in its relative infancy, and few techniques are well-developed. As with any repetitive and routine tasks, there is the opportunity to improve the task of classifying nuclear waste using autonomous systems. Hence, this paper proposes a new framework for the automatic classification of nuclear waste. This framework consists of five main stages; 3D spatial mapping and object detection, object classification, radiological mapping, source localisation based on gathered evidence and finally, waste classification. The first stage of the framework, 3D visual mapping, involves object detection from point cloud data. A review of related applications in other industries is provided, and recommendations for approaches for waste classification are made. Object detection focusses initially on cylindrical objects since pipework is significant in nuclear cells and indeed any industrial site. The approach can be extended to other commonly occurring primitives such as spheres and cubes. This is in preparation of stage two, characterizing the point cloud data and estimating the dimensions, material, degradation, and mass of the objects detected in order to feature match them to an inventory of possible items found in that nuclear cell. Many items in nuclear cells are one-offs, have limited or poor drawings available, or have been modified since installation, and have complex interiors, which often and inadvertently pose difficulties when accessing certain zones and identifying waste remotely. Hence, this may require expert input to feature match objects. The third stage, radiological mapping, is similar in order to facilitate the characterization of the nuclear cell in terms of radiation fields, including the type of radiation, activity, and location within the nuclear cell. The fourth stage of the framework takes the visual map for stage 1, the object characterization from stage 2, and radiation map from stage 3 and fuses them together, providing a more detailed scene of the nuclear cell by identifying the location of radioactive materials in three dimensions. The last stage involves combining the evidence from the fused data sets to reveal the classification of the waste in Bq/kg, thus enabling better decision making and monitoring for in-cell decommissioning. The presentation of the framework is supported by representative case study data drawn from an application in decommissioning from a UK nuclear facility. This framework utilises recent advancements of the detection and mapping capabilities of complex radiation fields in three dimensions to make the process of classifying nuclear waste faster, more reliable, cost-effective and safer.

Keywords: nuclear decommissioning, radiation detection, object detection, waste classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
3770 Strategies for E-Waste Management: A Literature Review

Authors: Linh Thi Truc Doan, Yousef Amer, Sang-Heon Lee, Phan Nguyen Ky Phuc

Abstract:

During the last few decades, with the high-speed upgrade of electronic products, electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the fastest growing wastes of the waste stream. In this context, more efforts and concerns have already been placed on the treatment and management of this waste. To mitigate their negative influences on the environment and society, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategies for e-waste management. Hence, this paper aims to review and analysis some useful strategies which have been applied in several countries to handle e-waste. Future perspectives on e-waste management are also suggested. The key findings found that, to manage e-waste successfully, it is necessary to establish effective reverse supply chains for e-waste, and raise public awareness towards the detrimental impacts of e-waste. The result of the research provides valuable insights to governments, policymakers in establishing e-waste management in a safe and sustainable manner.

Keywords: e-waste, e-waste management, life cycle assessment, recycling regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3769 Preliminary Study of Sediment-Derived Plastiglomerate: Proposal to Classification

Authors: Agung Rizki Perdana, Asrofi Mursalin, Adniwan Shubhi Banuzaki, M. Indra Novian

Abstract:

The understanding about sediment-derived plastiglomerate has a wide-range of merit in the academic realm. It can cover discussions about the Anthropocene Epoch in the scope of geoscience knowledge to even provide a solution for the environmental problem of plastic waste. Albeit its importance, very few research has been done regarding this issue. This research aims to create a classification as a pioneer for the study of sediment-derived plastiglomerate. This research was done in Bantul Regency, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province as an analogue of plastic debris sedimentation process. Observation is carried out in five observation points that shows three different depositional environments, which are terrestrial, fluvial, and transitional environment. The resulting classification uses three parameters and forms in a taxonomical manner. These parameters are composition, degree of lithification, and abundance of matrix respectively in advancing order. There is also a compositional ternary diagram which should be followed before entering the plastiglomerate nomenclature classification.

Keywords: plastiglomerate, classification, sedimentary mechanism, microplastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3768 Sensitive Analysis of the ZF Model for ABC Multi Criteria Inventory Classification

Authors: Makram Ben Jeddou

Abstract:

The ABC classification is widely used by managers for inventory control. The classical ABC classification is based on the Pareto principle and according to the criterion of the annual use value only. Single criterion classification is often insufficient for a closely inventory control. Multi-criteria inventory classification models have been proposed by researchers in order to take into account other important criteria. From these models, we will consider the ZF model in order to make a sensitive analysis on the composite score calculated for each item. In fact, this score based on a normalized average between a good and a bad optimized index can affect the ABC items classification. We will then focus on the weights assigned to each index and propose a classification compromise.

Keywords: ABC classification, multi criteria inventory classification models, ZF-model

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
3767 Preliminary Evaluation of Decommissioning Wastes for the First Commercial Nuclear Power Reactor in South Korea

Authors: Kyomin Lee, Joohee Kim, Sangho Kang

Abstract:

The commercial nuclear power reactor in South Korea, Kori Unit 1, which was a 587 MWe pressurized water reactor that started operation since 1978, was permanently shut down in June 2017 without an additional operating license extension. The Kori 1 Unit is scheduled to become the nuclear power unit to enter the decommissioning phase. In this study, the preliminary evaluation of the decommissioning wastes for the Kori Unit 1 was performed based on the following series of process: firstly, the plant inventory is investigated based on various documents (i.e., equipment/ component list, construction records, general arrangement drawings). Secondly, the radiological conditions of systems, structures and components (SSCs) are established to estimate the amount of radioactive waste by waste classification. Third, the waste management strategies for Kori Unit 1 including waste packaging are established. Forth, selection of the proper decontamination and dismantling (D&D) technologies is made considering the various factors. Finally, the amount of decommissioning waste by classification for Kori 1 is estimated using the DeCAT program, which was developed by KEPCO-E&C for a decommissioning cost estimation. The preliminary evaluation results have shown that the expected amounts of decommissioning wastes were less than about 2% and 8% of the total wastes generated (i.e., sum of clean wastes and radwastes) before/after waste processing, respectively, and it was found that the majority of contaminated material was carbon or alloy steel and stainless steel. In addition, within the range of availability of information, the results of the evaluation were compared with the results from the various decommissioning experiences data or international/national decommissioning study. The comparison results have shown that the radioactive waste amount from Kori Unit 1 decommissioning were much less than those from the plants decommissioned in U.S. and were comparable to those from the plants in Europe. This result comes from the difference of disposal cost and clearance criteria (i.e., free release level) between U.S. and non-U.S. The preliminary evaluation performed using the methodology established in this study will be useful as a important information in establishing the decommissioning planning for the decommissioning schedule and waste management strategy establishment including the transportation, packaging, handling, and disposal of radioactive wastes.

Keywords: characterization, classification, decommissioning, decontamination and dismantling, Kori 1, radioactive waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
3766 A New Approach for Improving Accuracy of Multi Label Stream Data

Authors: Kunal Shah, Swati Patel

Abstract:

Many real world problems involve data which can be considered as multi-label data streams. Efficient methods exist for multi-label classification in non streaming scenarios. However, learning in evolving streaming scenarios is more challenging, as the learners must be able to adapt to change using limited time and memory. Classification is used to predict class of unseen instance as accurate as possible. Multi label classification is a variant of single label classification where set of labels associated with single instance. Multi label classification is used by modern applications, such as text classification, functional genomics, image classification, music categorization etc. This paper introduces the task of multi-label classification, methods for multi-label classification and evolution measure for multi-label classification. Also, comparative analysis of multi label classification methods on the basis of theoretical study, and then on the basis of simulation was done on various data sets.

Keywords: binary relevance, concept drift, data stream mining, MLSC, multiple window with buffer

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
3765 Health Care Waste Management Practices in Liberia: An Investigative Case Study

Authors: V. Emery David Jr., J. Wenchao, D. Mmereki, Y. John, F. Heriniaina

Abstract:

Healthcare waste management continues to present an array of challenges for developing countries, and Liberia is of no exception. There is insufficient information available regarding the generation, handling, and disposal of health care waste. This face serves as an impediment to healthcare management schemes. The specific objective of this study is to present an evaluation of the current health care management practices in Liberia. It also presented procedures, techniques used, methods of handling, transportation, and disposal methods of wastes as well as the quantity and composition of health care waste. This study was conducted as an investigative case study, covering three different health care facilities; a hospital, a health center, and a clinic in Monrovia, Montserrado County. The average waste generation was found to be 0-7kg per day at the clinic and health center and 8-15kg per/day at the hospital. The composition of the waste includes hazardous and non-hazardous waste i.e. plastic, papers, sharps, and pathological elements etc. Nevertheless, the investigation showed that the healthcare waste generated by the surveyed healthcare facilities were not properly handled because of insufficient guidelines for separate collection, and classification, and adequate methods for storage and proper disposal of generated wastes. This therefore indicates that there is a need for improvement within the healthcare waste management system to improve the existing situation.

Keywords: disposal, healthcare waste, management, Montserrado County, Monrovia

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
3764 Classification of Attacks Over Cloud Environment

Authors: Karim Abouelmehdi, Loubna Dali, Elmoutaoukkil Abdelmajid, Hoda Elsayed, Eladnani Fatiha, Benihssane Abderahim

Abstract:

The security of cloud services is the concern of cloud service providers. In this paper, we will mention different classifications of cloud attacks referred by specialized organizations. Each agency has its classification of well-defined properties. The purpose is to present a high-level classification of current research in cloud computing security. This classification is organized around attack strategies and corresponding defenses.

Keywords: cloud computing, classification, risk, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
3763 Assessment of Waste Management Practices in Bahrain

Authors: T. Radu, R. Sreenivas, H. Albuflasa, A. Mustafa Khan, W. Aloqab

Abstract:

The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small island country in the Gulf region, is experiencing fast economic growth resulting in a sharp increase in population and greater than ever amounts of waste being produced. However, waste management in the country is still very basic, with landfilling being the most popular option. Recycling is still a scarce practice, with small recycling businesses and initiatives emerging in recent years. This scenario is typical for other countries in the region, with similar amounts of per capita waste being produced. In this paper, we are reviewing current waste management practices in Bahrain by collecting data published by the Government and various authors, and by visiting the country’s only landfill site, Askar. In addition, we have performed a survey of the residents to learn more about the awareness and attitudes towards sustainable waste management strategies. A review of the available data on waste management indicates that the Askar landfill site is nearing its capacity. The site uses open tipping as the method of disposal. The highest percentage of disposed waste comes from the building sector (38.4%), followed by domestic (27.5%) and commercial waste (17.9%). Disposal monitoring and recording are often based on estimates of weight and without proper characterization/classification of received waste. Besides, there is a need for assessment of the environmental impact of the site with systematic monitoring of pollutants in the area and their potential spreading to the surrounding land, groundwater, and air. The results of the survey indicate low awareness of what happens with the collected waste in the country. However, the respondents have shown support for future waste reduction and recycling initiatives. This implies that the education of local communities would be very beneficial for such governmental initiatives, securing greater participation. Raising awareness of issues surrounding recycling and waste management and systematic effort to divert waste from landfills are the first steps towards securing sustainable waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Keywords: landfill, municipal solid waste, survey, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
3762 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu

Abstract:

Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.

Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
3761 Seasonal Influence on Environmental Indicators of Beach Waste

Authors: Marcus C. Garcia, Giselle C. Guimarães, Luciana H. Yamane, Renato R. Siman

Abstract:

The environmental indicators and the classification of beach waste are essential tools to diagnose the current situation and to indicate ways to improve the quality of this environment. The purpose of this paper was to perform a quali-quantitative analysis of the beach waste on the Curva da Jurema Beach (Espírito Santo - Brazil). Three transects were used with equidistant positioning over the total length of the beach for the solid waste collection. Solid wastes were later classified according to their use and primary raw material from the low and high summer season. During the low season, average values of 7.10 items.m-1, 18.22 g.m-1 and 0.91 g.m-2 were found for the whole beach, and transect 3 contributed the most waste, with the total sum of items equal to 999 (49%), a total mass of 5.62 kg and a total volume of 21.31 L. During the high summer season, average values of 8.22 items.m-1, 54.40 g.m-1 and 2.72 g.m-2 were found, with transect 2 contributing the most to the total sum with 1,212 items (53%), a total mass of 10.76 kg and a total volume of 51.99 L. Of the total collected, plastic materials represented 51.4% of the total number of items, 35.9% of the total mass and 68% of the total volume. The implementation of reactive and proactive measures is necessary so that the management of the solid wastes on Curva da Jurema Beach is in accordance with principles of sustainability.

Keywords: beach solid waste, environmental indicators, quali-quantitative analysis, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
3760 Lean KPIs for Construction Site Waste Monitoring

Authors: Natalie Auch, Fabian Geppert

Abstract:

55 % of waste in Germany is construction and demolition waste. However, there is a great deal of confusion in the industry about these figures and how the waste can be avoided. For this purpose, a construction site in operation was visually examined for waste processes and quantitatively for the associated waste masses, and the relations were consolidated into waste indicators. With the contextualisation of the survey results, main waste sources could be discussed. These sources include planning-related waste, behaviour-related material surpluses, and transport- and product-related packaging. The potential of a separate collection of mixed construction and demolition waste was detected. Practical testing led to a 69.5 % reduction in the associated waste mass. With the calculation of waste-related cost ratios, economic potentials for a collective waste collection and the separate collection of mixed construction and demolition waste could be detected and verified. Combined, 68.1 % of the transfer costs can be saved. These metrics are to be incorporated into targets via Lean Construction methods in order to monitor them visually and individually on construction sites. Methods to increase the awareness of resource waste are to be established in order to bring about an improvement.

Keywords: sustainable construction site, construction site waste, lean construction, key performance indicator, waste monitoring

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3759 Review and Comparison of Associative Classification Data Mining Approaches

Authors: Suzan Wedyan

Abstract:

Data mining is one of the main phases in the Knowledge Discovery Database (KDD) which is responsible of finding hidden and useful knowledge from databases. There are many different tasks for data mining including regression, pattern recognition, clustering, classification, and association rule. In recent years a promising data mining approach called associative classification (AC) has been proposed, AC integrates classification and association rule discovery to build classification models (classifiers). This paper surveys and critically compares several AC algorithms with reference of the different procedures are used in each algorithm, such as rule learning, rule sorting, rule pruning, classifier building, and class allocation for test cases.

Keywords: associative classification, classification, data mining, learning, rule ranking, rule pruning, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
3758 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero

Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal

Abstract:

Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.

Keywords: biomedical waste, nosocomial infection, waste management, hospitals

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
3757 Meta-Learning for Hierarchical Classification and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Fabio Fabris, Alex A. Freitas

Abstract:

Hierarchical classification is a special type of classification task where the class labels are organised into a hierarchy, with more generic class labels being ancestors of more specific ones. Meta-learning for classification-algorithm recommendation consists of recommending to the user a classification algorithm, from a pool of candidate algorithms, for a dataset, based on the past performance of the candidate algorithms in other datasets. Meta-learning is normally used in conventional, non-hierarchical classification. By contrast, this paper proposes a meta-learning approach for more challenging task of hierarchical classification, and evaluates it in a large number of bioinformatics datasets. Hierarchical classification is especially relevant for bioinformatics problems, as protein and gene functions tend to be organised into a hierarchy of class labels. This work proposes meta-learning approach for recommending the best hierarchical classification algorithm to a hierarchical classification dataset. This work’s contributions are: 1) proposing an algorithm for splitting hierarchical datasets into new datasets to increase the number of meta-instances, 2) proposing meta-features for hierarchical classification, and 3) interpreting decision-tree meta-models for hierarchical classification algorithm recommendation.

Keywords: algorithm recommendation, meta-learning, bioinformatics, hierarchical classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
3756 Review on Effective Texture Classification Techniques

Authors: Sujata S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Effective and efficient texture feature extraction and classification is an important problem in image understanding and recognition. This paper gives a review on effective texture classification method. The objective of the problem of texture representation is to reduce the amount of raw data presented by the image, while preserving the information needed for the task. Texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification include industrial and biomedical surface inspection, for example for defects and disease, ground classification of satellite or aerial imagery and content-based access to image databases.

Keywords: compressed sensing, feature extraction, image classification, texture analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
3755 Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade on Waste Imports

Authors: Chin-Ho Lin

Abstract:

This study explores the impact of technical barriers to trade(TBT) on the import value and weight of 54 types of waste products between ASEAN+6 countries and 200 trading partners from 1999–to 2018. By using disaggregated detailed product data and the gravity model, we obtained results demonstrating that implementation of TBT by importing countries is likely to enhance waste trade. After controlling for three combinations of fixed effects, the results remain robust. We consider the quality of waste products by dividing waste products into recyclable and nonrecyclable materials, revealing that imported recyclable waste is more likely to be imported than nonrecyclable waste. When waste trade isregulated by importing countries through TBT implementation, the exporting countries may export relatively valuable waste products, and recyclable waste is of greater economic value because it can be used as an input in other production processes. Finally, developed countries are more likely than developing countries to export waste to the ASEAN+6countries, a finding that supports the waste haven hypothesis.

Keywords: waste trade, ASEAN+6, technical barriers to trade, gravity model, waste haven hypothesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
3754 Urgent Need for E -Waste Management in Mongolia

Authors: Enkhjargal Bat-Ochir

Abstract:

The global market of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has increasing rapidly while the lifespan of these products has become increasingly shorter. So, e-waste is becoming the world’s fastest growing waste stream. E-waste is a huge problem when it’s not properly disposed of, as these devices contain substances that are harmful to the environment and to human health as they contaminate the land, water, and air. This paper tends to highlight e-waste problem and harmful effects and can grasp the extent of the problem and take the necessary measures to solve it in Mongolia and to improve standards and human health.

Keywords: e -waste, recycle, electrical, Mongolia

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3753 Solid Waste Management Policy Implementation in Imus, Cavite

Authors: Michael John S. Maceda

Abstract:

Waste has been a global concern aggravated by climate change. In the case of Imus, Cavite which in the past has little or no regard to waste experienced heavy flooding during August 19, 2013. This event led to a full blown implementation of Municipal Solid Waste Management integrating participation and the use of low-cost technology to reduce the amount of waste generated. The methodology employed by the city of Imus, provided a benchmark in the province of Cavite. Reducing the amount of waste generated and Solid Waste Management Cost.

Keywords: SWM, IMUS, composting, policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
3752 Food Waste Utilization: A Contemporary Prospect of Meeting Energy Crisis Using Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bahareh Asefi, Fereidoun Farzaneh, Ghazaleh Asefi, Chang-Ping Yu

Abstract:

Increased production of food waste (FW) is a global issue that is receiving more attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. The generation of electricity from food waste, known as energy recovery, is one of the effective solutions in food waste management. Food waste has high energy content which seems ideal to achieve dual benefits in terms of energy recovery and waste stabilization. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for treating food waste and generate electricity. In this work, we will review energy utilization from different kind of food waste using MFC and factors which affected the process. We have studied the key technology of energy generated from food waste using MFC to enhance the food waste management. The power density and electricity production by each kind of food waste and challenges were identified. This work explored the conversion of FW into energy from different type of food waste, which aim to provide a theoretical analysis for energy utilization of food waste.

Keywords: energy generation, food waste, microbial fuel cell, power density

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3751 A System For A Sustainable Electronic Waste Marketplace

Authors: Arya Sarukkai

Abstract:

Due to increased technological advances and the high use of phones, tablets, computers, and other electronics, we continue to see rapid growth in the volume of e-waste. There are millions just throwing out their old devices, millions who have many devices and don’t know what to do with them, and there are millions who would benefit from receiving those devices. The thesis of this paper is that by creating an ecosystem of donors and recipients and providing the right incentives, we can reduce e-waste. We discuss a system for sustainable e-waste by building a marketplace between donors and recipients. We also summarize experimental results comparing different incentives and present a live web service that allows for e-waste supplies to reach schools and nonprofit institutions.

Keywords: E-waste ecosystems, marketplaces, e-waste web app, online services

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
3750 Research on Ultrafine Particles Classification Using Hydrocyclone with Annular Rinse Water

Authors: Tao Youjun, Zhao Younan

Abstract:

The separation effect of fine coal can be improved by the process of pre-desliming. It was significantly enhanced when the fine coal was processed using Falcon concentrator with the removal of -45um coal slime. Ultrafine classification tests using Krebs classification cyclone with annular rinse water showed that increasing feeding pressure can effectively avoid the phenomena of heavy particles passing into overflow and light particles slipping into underflow. The increase of rinse water pressure could reduce the content of fine-grained particles while increasing the classification size. The increase in feeding concentration had a negative effect on the efficiency of classification, meanwhile increased the classification size due to the enhanced hindered settling caused by high underflow concentration. As a result of optimization experiments with response indicator of classification efficiency which based on orthogonal design using Design-Expert software indicated that the optimal classification efficiency reached 91.32% with the feeding pressure of 0.03MPa, the rinse water pressure of 0.02MPa and the feeding concentration of 12.5%. Meanwhile, the classification size was 49.99 μm which had a good agreement with the predicted value.

Keywords: hydrocyclone, ultrafine classification, slime, classification efficiency, classification size

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3749 Radical Web Text Classification Using a Composite-Based Approach

Authors: Kolade Olawande Owoeye, George R. S. Weir

Abstract:

The widespread of terrorism and extremism activities on the internet has become a major threat to the government and national securities due to their potential dangers which have necessitated the need for intelligence gathering via web and real-time monitoring of potential websites for extremist activities. However, the manual classification for such contents is practically difficult or time-consuming. In response to this challenge, an automated classification system called composite technique was developed. This is a computational framework that explores the combination of both semantics and syntactic features of textual contents of a web. We implemented the framework on a set of extremist webpages dataset that has been subjected to the manual classification process. Therein, we developed a classification model on the data using J48 decision algorithm, this is to generate a measure of how well each page can be classified into their appropriate classes. The classification result obtained from our method when compared with other states of arts, indicated a 96% success rate in classifying overall webpages when matched against the manual classification.

Keywords: extremist, web pages, classification, semantics, posit

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