Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1810

Search results for: residential buildings

1810 Place Attachment and Residential Satisfaction in Old Residential Buildings: A Case of Pune City

Authors: Vaishali Anagal, Vasudha Gokhale, Sharvey Dhongde

Abstract:

Old buildings have significance in many aspects. The manifold significance may include historic, architectural and cultural aspects. In a cultural city like Pune, India, numerous residential buildings exist in the core city whose age may range between 60-100 years. These represent the city’s history and culture. Most of them are still in use as residential buildings with adaptations in various degrees. Some of these buildings are enlisted as ‘Heritage Buildings’ by local municipal authority. However, there are number of buildings that have heritage value although they are not enlisted as heritage sites. A lot of these buildings have already been pulled down for several reasons such as end of technical life, inadequacy for users, increasing floor area ratios, inflating land prices and changing lifestyles etc. Literature suggest that place attachment and residential satisfaction are positively related. It also indicates that length of residency is positively correlated with the place attachment. Residential satisfaction is associated with number of factors including socio demographic characteristics of users, housing characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and behavioral characteristics. This research paper poses an inquiry about the dynamics of co-relation between place attachment and residential satisfaction in case of old residential buildings. The motive of this enquiry is to examine if place attachment can serve as a strong ground for restoration of these old buildings and evade the devastation of emblems of cultural heritage of the city. The methodology includes questionnaire survey of users as well as a qualitative assessment regarding place attachment and residential satisfaction. About 20 residential buildings in the core city of Pune are selected for this purpose. The results of survey are analyzed and conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: place attachment, residential satisfaction, old residential buildings, housing characteristics, cultural heritage

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1809 Indoor and Outdoor Concentration of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ in Residential Building and Evaluation of Negative Air Ions (NAIs) in Indoor PM Removal

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Azam Nadali, Zahra Asadgol, Mohammad Fahiminia

Abstract:

Indoor and outdoor particulate matters (PM) were monitored in 20 residential buildings in a two-part study. In part I, the levels of indoor and outdoor PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ was measured using real time GRIMM dust monitors. In part II, the effect of negative air ions (NAIs) method was investigated on the reduction of indoor concentration of PM in these residential buildings. Hourly average concentration and standard deviation (SD) of PM₁₀ in indoor and outdoor at residential buildings were 90.1 ± 33.5 and 63.5 ± 27.4 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM₂.₅ in residential buildings were 49.5 ± 18.2 and 39.4± 18.1 µg/ m3 and for PM₁ the concentrations were 6.5 ± 10.1and 4.3 ± 7.7 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios and concentrations of all size fractions of PM were strongly correlated with wind speed and temperature whereas a good relationship was not observed between humidity and I/O ratios of PM. We estimated that nearly 71.47 % of PM₁₀, 79.86 % of PM₂.₅ and of 61.25 % of PM₁ in indoor of residential buildings can be removed by negative air ions.

Keywords: particle matter (PM), indoor air, negative air ions (NAIs), residential building

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1808 Development of a Suitable Model for Energy Storage in Residential Buildings in Ahvaz Using Energy Plus Software

Authors: Farideh Azimi, Sam Vahedi Tafreshi

Abstract:

This research tries to study the residential buildings in Ahvaz, the common materials used, and the impact of passive methods of energy storage (as one of the most effective ways to reduce energy consumption in residential complexes) in order to achieve patterns for construction of residential buildings in Ahvaz conditions to reduce energy consumption. In this research, after studying Ahvaz conditions, the components of an existing building were simulated in Energy Plus software, and the climatic data of Ahvaz station was introduced to software. Then to achieve the most optimal conditions of energy consumption in Ahvaz conditions, each of the residential building elements was optimized. The results of simulation showed that using inactive materials and design including double glass, outside wall insulation, inverted roof, etc. in the buildings can reduce energy consumption in the hot and dry climate of Ahvaz. Among the parameters investigated, the inverted roof was the most effective energy saving pattern. According to the results of simulation of the entire building with the most optimal parameters, energy consumption can be saved by a mean of 12.51% in buildings of Ahvaz, and the obtained pattern can also be used in similar climates.

Keywords: residential buildings, thermal comfort, energy storage, Energy Plus software, Ahvaz

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1807 An Evaluation of Renewable Energy Sources in Green Building Systems for the Residential Sector in the Metropolis, Kolkata, India

Authors: Tirthankar Chakraborty, Indranil Mukherjee

Abstract:

The environmental aspect had a major effect on industrial decisions after the deteriorating condition of our surroundings dsince the industrial activities became apparent. Green buildings have been seen as a possible solution to reduce the carbon emissions from construction projects and the housing industry in general. Though this has been established in several areas, with many commercial buildings being designed green, the scope for expansion is still significant and further information on the importance and advantages of green buildings is necessary. Several commercial green building projects have come up and the green buildings are mainly implemented in the residential sector when the residential projects are constructed to furnish amenities to a large population. But, residential buildings, even those of medium sizes, can be designed to incorporate elements of sustainable design. In this context, this paper attempts to give a theoretical appraisal of the use of renewable energy systems in residential buildings of different sizes considering the weather conditions (solar insolation and wind speed) of the metropolis, Kolkata, India. Three cases are taken; one with solar power, one with wind power and one with a combination of the two. All the cases are considered in conjunction with conventional energy, and the efficiency of each in fulfilling the total energy demand is verified. The optimum combination for reducing the carbon footprint of the residential building is thus established. In addition, an assessment of the amount of money saved due to green buildings in metered water supply and price of coal is also mentioned.

Keywords: renewable energy, green buildings, solar power, wind power, energy hybridization, residential sector

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1806 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang

Abstract:

At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

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1805 Energy Efficiency in Hot Arid Climates Code Compliance and Enforcement for Residential Buildings

Authors: Mohamed Edesy, Carlo Cecere

Abstract:

This paper is a part of an ongoing research that proposes energy strategies for residential buildings in hot arid climates. In Egypt, the residential sector is dominated by increase in consumption rates annually. A building energy efficiency code was introduced by the government in 2005; it indicates minimum design and application requirements for residential buildings. Submission is mandatory and should lead to about 20% energy savings with an increase in comfort levels. However, compliance is almost nonexistent, electricity is subsidized and incentives to adopt energy efficient patterns are very low. This work presents an overview of the code and analyzes the impact of its introduction on different sectors. It analyses compliance barriers and indicates challenges that stand in the way of a realistic enforcement. It proposes an action plan for immediate code enforcement, updating current code to include retrofit, and development of rating systems for buildings. This work presents a broad national plan for energy efficiency empowerment in the residential sector.

Keywords: energy efficiency, housing, energy policies, code enforcement

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1804 Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: A Case Study in Canada

Authors: Venkatesh Kumar, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq

Abstract:

Residential buildings consume significant amounts of energy and produce a large amount of emissions and waste. However, there is a substantial potential for energy savings in this sector which needs to be evaluated over the life cycle of residential buildings. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been employed to study the primary energy uses and associated environmental impacts of different phases (i.e., product, construction, use, end of life, and beyond building life) for residential buildings. Four different alternatives of residential buildings in Vancouver (BC, Canada) with a 50-year lifespan have been evaluated, including High Rise Apartment (HRA), Low Rise Apartment (LRA), Single family Attached House (SAH), and Single family Detached House (SDH). Life cycle performance of the buildings is evaluated for embodied energy, embodied environmental impacts, operational energy, operational environmental impacts, total life-cycle energy, and total life cycle environmental impacts. Estimation of operational energy and LCA are performed using DesignBuilder software and Athena Impact estimator software respectively. The study results revealed that over the life span of the buildings, the relationship between the energy use and the environmental impacts are identical. LRA is found to be the best alternative in terms of embodied energy use and embodied environmental impacts; while, HRA showed the best life-cycle performance in terms of minimum energy use and environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to study the influence of building service lifespan over 50, 75, and 100 years on the relative significance of embodied energy and total life cycle energy. The life-cycle energy requirements for SDH is found to be a significant component among the four types of residential buildings. The overall disclose that the primary operations of these buildings accounts for 90% of the total life cycle energy which far outweighs minor differences in embodied effects between the buildings.

Keywords: building simulation, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, life cycle energy analysis, residential buildings

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1803 A quantitative Analysis of Impact of Potential Variables on the Energy Performance of Old and New Buildings in China

Authors: Yao Meng, Mahroo Eftekhari, Dennis Loveday

Abstract:

Currently, there are two types of heating systems in Chinese residential buildings, with respect to the controllability of the heating system, one is an old heating system without any possibility of controlling room temperature and another is a new heating system that provides temperature control of individual rooms. This paper is aiming to evaluate the impact of potential variables on the energy performance of old and new buildings respectively in China, and to explore how the use of individual room temperature control would change occupants’ heating behaviour and thermal comfort in Chinese residential buildings and its impact on the building energy performance. In the study, two types of residential buildings have been chosen, the new building install personal control on the heating system, together with ‘pay for what you use’ tariffs. The old building comprised uncontrolled heating with payment based on floor area. The studies were carried out in each building, with a longitudinal monitoring of indoor air temperature, outdoor air temperature, window position. The occupants’ behaviour and thermal sensation were evaluated by questionnaires. Finally, use the simulated analytic method to identify the impact of influence variables on energy use for both types of buildings.

Keywords: residential buildings, China, design parameters, energy efficiency, simulation analytics method

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1802 Renovation of Pipeline in Residential Buildings by Polymeric Composites

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

In this paper, rehabilitation methods for pipeline by advanced polymeric coating such as relining are reviewed. A number of diverse methods which are globally used are described and a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and materials is provided. The paper explains why it is claimed that sewerage rehabilitation with relining in residential buildings is environmentally friendly and economical, the importance of the quality control procedure is discussed and several quality tests are proposed.

Keywords: buildings, composite, material, renovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1801 An Application-Based Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Calculator for Residential Buildings

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

Abstract:

Based on an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) index established by previous work that indicates the overall IEQ acceptance from the prospect of an occupant in residential buildings in terms of four IEQ factors - thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual and aural comforts, this study develops a user-friendly IEQ calculator for iOS and Android users to calculate the occupant acceptance and compare the relative performance of IEQ in apartments. The calculator allows the prediction of the best IEQ scenario on a quantitative scale. Any indoor environments under the specific IEQ conditions can be benchmarked against the predicted IEQ acceptance range. This calculator can also suggest how to achieve the best IEQ acceptance among a group of residents.

Keywords: calculator, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), residential buildings, 5-star benchmarks

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1800 Retrofitting Residential Buildings for Energy Efficiency: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Naseer M. A.

Abstract:

Buildings are major consumers of energy in both their construction and operation. They account for 40% of World’s energy use. It is estimated that 40-60% of this goes for conditioning the indoor environment. In India, like many other countries, the residential buildings have a major share (more than 50%) in the building sector. Of these, single-family units take a mammoth share. The single-family dwelling units in the urban and fringe areas are built in two stories to minimize the building foot print on small land parcels. And quite often, the bedrooms are located in the first floors. The modern buildings are provided with reinforced concrete (RC) roofs that absorb heat throughout the day and radiate the heat into the interiors during the night. The rooms that are occupied in the night, like bedrooms, are having their indoors uncomfortable. This has resulted in the use of active systems like air-conditioners and air coolers, thereby increasing the energy use. An investigation conducted by monitoring the thermal comfort condition in the residential building with RC roofs have proved that the indoors are really uncomfortable in the night hours. A sustainable solution to improve the thermal performance of the RC roofs was developed by an experimental study by continuously monitoring the thermal comfort parameters during summer (the period that is most uncomfortable in temperate climate). The study conducted in the southern peninsular India, prove that retrofitting of existing residential building can give a sustainable solution in abating the ever increasing energy demand especially when it is a fact that these residential buildings that are built for a normal life span of 40 years would continue to consume the energy for the rest of its useful life.

Keywords: energy efficiency, thermal comfort, retrofitting, residential buildings

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1799 Dynamic Modeling of the Green Building Movement in the U.S.: Strategies to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Residential Building Stock

Authors: Nuri Onat, Omer Tatari, Gokhan Egilmez

Abstract:

The U.S. buildings consume significant amount of energy and natural resources and they are responsible for approximately 40 % of the greenhouse gases emitted in the United States. Awareness of these environmental impacts paved the way for the adoption of green building movement. The green building movement is a rapidly increasing trend. Green Construction market has generated $173 billion dollars in GDP, supported over 2.4 million jobs, and provided $123 billion dollars in labor earnings. The number of LEED certified buildings is projected to be almost half of the all new, nonresidential buildings by 2015. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) aims to increase number of net-zero energy buildings (NZB). The ultimate goal is to have all commercial NZB by 2050 in the US (NSTC 2008). Green Building Initiative (GBI) became the first green building organization that is accredited by American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which will also boost number of green buildings certified by Green Globes. However, there is much less focus on greening the residential buildings, although the environmental impacts of existing residential buildings are more than that of commercial buildings. In this regard, current research aims to model the residential green building movement with a dynamic model approach and assess the possible strategies to stabilize the carbon footprint of the U.S. residential building stock. Three aspects of sustainable development are considered in policy making, namely: high performance green building (HPGB) construction, NZB construction and building retrofitting. 19 different policy options are proposed and analyzed. Results of this study explored that increasing the construction rate of HPGBs or NZBs is not a sufficient policy to stabilize the carbon footprint of the residential buildings. Energy efficient building retrofitting options are found to be more effective strategies then increasing HPGBs and NZBs construction. Also, significance of shifting to renewable energy sources for electricity generation is stressed.

Keywords: green building movement, residential buildings, carbon footprint, system dynamics

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1798 Nearly Zero-Energy Regulation and Buildings Built with Prefabricated Technology: The Case of Hungary

Authors: András Horkai, Attila Talamon, Viktória Sugár

Abstract:

There is an urgent need nowadays to reduce energy demand and the current level of greenhouse gas emission and use renewable energy sources increase in energy efficiency. On the other hand, the European Union (EU) countries are largely dependent on energy imports and are vulnerable to disruption in energy supply, which may, in turn, threaten the functioning of their current economic structure. Residential buildings represent a significant part of the energy consumption of the building stock. Only a small part of the building stock is exchanged every year, thus it is essential to increase the energy efficiency of the existing buildings. Present paper focuses on the buildings built with industrialized technology only, and their opportunities in the boundaries of nearly zero-energy regulation. Current paper shows the emergence of panel construction method, and past and present of the ‘panel’ problem in Hungary with a short outlook to Europe. The study shows as well as the possibilities for meeting the nearly zero and cost optimized requirements for residential buildings by analyzing the renovation scenarios of an existing residential typology.

Keywords: Budapest, energy consumption, industrialized technology, nearly zero-energy buildings

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1797 Parametric Models of Facade Designs of High-Rise Residential Buildings

Authors: Yuchen Sharon Sung, Yingjui Tseng

Abstract:

High-rise residential buildings have become the most mainstream housing pattern in the world’s metropolises under the current trend of urbanization. The facades of high-rise buildings are essential elements of the urban landscape. The skins of these facades are important media between the interior and exterior of high- rise buildings. It not only connects between users and environments, but also plays an important functional and aesthetic role. This research involves a study of skins of high-rise residential buildings using the methodology of shape grammar to find out the rules which determine the combinations of the facade patterns and analyze the patterns’ parameters using software Grasshopper. We chose a number of facades of high-rise residential buildings as source to discover the underlying rules and concepts of the generation of facade skins. This research also provides the rules that influence the composition of facade skins. The items of the facade skins, such as windows, balconies, walls, sun visors and metal grilles are treated as elements in the system of facade skins. The compositions of these elements will be categorized and described by logical rules; and the types of high-rise building facade skins will be modelled by Grasshopper. Then a variety of analyzed patterns can also be applied on other facade skins through this parametric mechanism. Using these patterns established in the models, researchers can analyze each single item to do more detail tests and architects can apply each of these items to construct their facades for other buildings through various combinations and permutations. The goal of these models is to develop a mechanism to generate prototypes in order to facilitate generation of various facade skins.

Keywords: facade skin, grasshopper, high-rise residential building, shape grammar

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1796 Energy Efficiency Retrofitting of Residential Buildings Case Study: Multi-Family Apartment Building in Tripoli, Lebanon

Authors: Yathreb Sabsaby

Abstract:

Energy efficiency retrofitting of existing buildings was long ignored by public authorities who favored energy efficiency policies in new buildings, which are easier to implement. Indeed, retrofitting is more complex and difficult to organize because of the extreme diversity in existing buildings, administrative situations and occupation. Energy efficiency retrofitting of existing buildings has now become indispensable in all economies—even emerging countries—given the constraints imposed by energy security and climate change, and because it represents considerable potential energy savings. Addressing energy efficiency in the existing building stock has been acknowledged as one of the most critical yet challenging aspects of reducing our environmental footprint on the ecosystem. Tripoli, Lebanon chosen as case study area is a typical Mediterranean metropolis in the North Lebanon, where multifamily residential buildings are all around the city. This generally implies that the density of energy demand is extremely high, even the renewable energy facilities are involved, they can just play as a minor energy provider at the current technology level in the single family house. It seems only the low energy design for buildings can be made possible, not the zero energy certainly in developing country. This study reviews the latest research and experience and provides recommendations for deep energy retrofits that aim to save more than 50% of the energy used in a typical Tripoli apartment building.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, existing building, multifamily residential building, retrofit

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1795 Energy Efficient Building Design in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Effect of the Sun on Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings

Authors: Ekele T. Ochedi, Ahmad H. Taki, Birgit Painter

Abstract:

The effect of the sun and its path on thermal comfort and energy consumption in residential buildings in tropical climates constitute a serious concern for designers, building owners, and users. Passive design approaches based on the sun and its path have been identified as a means of reducing energy consumption as well as enhancing thermal comfort in buildings worldwide. Hence, a thorough understanding regarding the sun path is key to achieving this. This is necessary due to energy need, poor energy supply, and distribution, energy poverty, and over-dependence on electric generators for power supply in Nigeria. These challenges call for a change in the approach to energy-related issues, especially in terms of buildings. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of building orientation, glazing and the use of shading devices on residential buildings in Nigeria. This is intended to provide data that will guide designers in the design of energy-efficient residential buildings. The paper used EnergyPlus to analyze a typical semi-detached residential building in Lokoja, Nigeria using hourly weather data for a period of 10 years. Building performance was studied as well as possible improvement regarding different orientations, glazing types and shading devices. The simulation results show some reductions in energy consumption in response to changes in building orientation, types of glazing and the use of shading devices. The results indicate 29.45% reduction in solar gains and 1.90% in annual operative temperature using natural ventilation only. This shows a huge potential to reduce energy consumption and improve people’s well-being through the use of proper building orientation, glazing and appropriate shading devices on building envelope. The study concludes that for a significant reduction in total energy consumption by residential buildings, the design should focus on multiple design options rather than concentrating on one or few building elements. Moreover, the investigation confirms that energy performance modeling can be used by building designers to take advantage of the sun and to evaluate various design options.

Keywords: energy consumption, energy-efficient buildings, glazing, thermal comfort, shading devices, solar gains

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1794 Optimization of Energy Consumption with Various Design Parameters on Office Buildings in Chinese Severe Cold Zone

Authors: Yuang Guo, Dewancker Bart

Abstract:

The primary energy consumption of buildings throughout China was approximately 814 million tons of coal equivalents in 2014, which accounts for 19.12% of China's total primary energy consumption. Also, the energy consumption of public buildings takes a bigger share than urban residential buildings and rural residential buildings among the total energy consumption. To improve the level of energy demand, various design parameters were chosen. Meanwhile, a series of simulations by Energy Plus (EP-Launch) is performed using a base case model established in Open Studio. Through the results, 16%-23% of total energy demand reductions can be found in the severe cold zone of China, and it can also provide a reference for the architectural design of other similar climate zones.

Keywords: energy consumption, design parameters, indoor thermal comfort, simulation study, severe cold climate zone

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1793 Integration of PV Systems in Residential Buildings: A Solution for Supporting Electrical Grid in Kuwait

Authors: Nabil A. Ahmed, Nasser A. N. Mhaisen

Abstract:

The paper presents a solution to enhance the power quality and to reduce the peak load demand in Kuwait electric grid as a solution to the shortage of electricity production. Technical, environmental and economic feasibility study of utilizing integrated grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system in residential buildings for supplying 7.1% of electrical power consumption in Kuwait is carried out using RETScreen software. A 10 KWp on-grid PV power generation system spread on the rooftop of the residential buildings is adopted and investigated and the complete system performance is simulated using PSIM software. Taking into account the international prices of electricity and natural gas, the proposed solution is investigated and tested for four different types of installation systems in terms of power generation and costs which includes horizontal installation, 25º tilted angle, single axis tracking and dual axis tracking. Results shows that the 25º tilted angle fixed mounted system is the most efficient type. The payback period as a tool of benefit analysis of the proposed system is calculated and it found to be 2.55 years.

Keywords: photovoltaics, residential buildings, electrical grid, production capacity, on-grid, power generation

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1792 Integrated Passive Cooling Systems for Tropical Residential Buildings: A Review through the Lens of Latent Heat Assessment

Authors: O. Eso, M. Mohammadi, J. Darkwa, J. Calautit

Abstract:

Residential buildings are responsible for 22% of the global end-use energy demand and 17% of global CO₂ emissions. Tropical climates particularly present higher latent heat gains, leading to more cooling loads. However, the cooling processes are all based on conventional mechanical air conditioning systems which are energy and carbon intensive technologies. Passive cooling systems have in the past been considered as alternative technologies for minimizing energy consumption in buildings. Nevertheless, replacing mechanical cooling systems with passive ones will require a careful assessment of the passive cooling system heat transfer to determine if suitable to outperform their conventional counterparts. This is because internal heat gains, indoor-outdoor heat transfer, and heat transfer through envelope affects the performance of passive cooling systems. While many studies have investigated sensible heat transfer in passive cooling systems, not many studies have focused on their latent heat transfer capabilities. Furthermore, combining heat prevention, heat modulation and heat dissipation to passively cool indoor spaces in the tropical climates is critical to achieve thermal comfort. Since passive cooling systems use only one of these three approaches at a time, integrating more than one passive cooling system for effective indoor latent heat removal while still saving energy is studied. This study is a systematic review of recently published peer review journals on integrated passive cooling systems for tropical residential buildings. The missing links in the experimental and numerical studies with regards to latent heat reduction interventions are presented. Energy simulation studies of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings are also discussed. The review has shown that comfortable indoor environment is attainable when two or more passive cooling systems are integrated in tropical residential buildings. Improvement occurs in the heat transfer rate and cooling performance of the passive cooling systems when thermal energy storage systems like phase change materials are included. Integrating passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings can reduce energy consumption by 6-87% while achieving up to 17.55% reduction in indoor heat flux. The review has highlighted a lack of numerical studies regarding passive cooling system performance in tropical savannah climates. In addition, detailed studies are required to establish suitable latent heat transfer rate in passive cooling ventilation devices under this climate category. This should be considered in subsequent studies. The conclusions and outcomes of this study will help researchers understand the overall energy performance of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical climates and help them identify and design suitable climate specific options for residential buildings.

Keywords: energy savings, latent heat, passive cooling systems, residential buildings, tropical residential buildings

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1791 Natural Patterns for Sustainable Cooling in the Architecture of Residential Buildings in Iran (Hot and Dry Climate)

Authors: Elnaz Abbasian, Mohsen Faizi

Abstract:

In its thousand-year development, architecture has gained valuable patterns. Iran’s desert regions possess developed patterns of traditional architecture and outstanding skeletal features. Unfortunately increasing population and urbanization growth in the past decade as well as the lack of harmony with environment’s texture has destroyed such permanent concepts in the building’s skeleton, causing a lot of energy waste in the modern architecture. The important question is how cooling patterns of Iran’s traditional architecture can be used in a new way in the modern architecture of residential buildings? This research is library-based and documental that looks at sustainable development, analyzes the features of Iranian architecture in hot and dry climate in terms of sustainability as well as historical patterns, and makes a model for real environment. By methodological analysis of past, it intends to suggest a new pattern for residential buildings’ cooling in Iran’s hot and dry climate which is in full accordance to the ecology of the design and at the same time possesses the architectural indices of the past. In the process of cities’ physical development, ecological measures, in proportion to desert’s natural background and climate conditions, has kept the natural fences, preventing buildings from facing climate adversities. Designing and construction of buildings with this viewpoint can reduce the energy needed for maintaining and regulating environmental conditions and with the use of appropriate building technology help minimizing the consumption of fossil fuels while having permanent patterns of desert buildings’ architecture.

Keywords: sustainability concepts, sustainable development, energy climate architecture, fossil fuel, hot and dry climate, patterns of traditional sustainability for residential buildings, modern pattern of cooling

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1790 The Impact of the Windows Opening on the Design of Buildings in Islamic Architecture

Authors: Salma I. Dwidar, Amal A. Abdel-Sattar

Abstract:

The window openings are the key to the relationship between the inside and the outside of any building. It is the eye that sees from, the lunges of the construction, and the ear to hear. The success of the building, as well as the comfort of the uses, depends mainly on this relationship. Usually, windows are affected by human factors like religious, social, political and economic factors as well as environmental factors like climatic, aesthetic and functional factors. In Islamic architecture, the windows were one of the most important elements of physiological and psychological comfort to the users of the buildings. Windows considered one of the main parameters in designing internal and external facade, where the window openings occupied a big part of the formation of the external facade of the buildings. This paper discusses the importance of the window openings and its relationship to residential buildings in the Islamic architecture. It addresses the rules that have been followed in the design of windows in Islamic architecture to achieve privacy and thermal comfort while there are no technological elements within the dwellings. Also, it demonstrates the effects of windows on the building form and identity and how it gives a distinctive fingerprint of the architecture buildings.

Keywords: window openings, thermal comfort, residential buildings, the Islamic architecture, human considerations

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1789 The Role of Building Services in Energy Conservation into Residential Buildings

Authors: Osama Ahmed Ibrahim Masoud, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed Abdelhadi, Ahmed Mohamed Seddik Hassan

Abstract:

The problem of study focuses on thermal comfort realization in a residential building during hot and dry climate periods consumes a major electrical energy for air conditioning operation. Thermal comfort realization in a residential building during such climate becomes more difficult regarding the phenomena of climate change, and the use of building and construction materials which have the feature of heat conduction as (bricks-reinforced concrete) and the global energy crises. For that, this study aims to how to realize internal thermal comfort through how to make the best use of building services (temporarily used service spaces) for reducing the electrical energy transfer and saving self-shading. In addition, the possibility of reduction traditional energy (fossil fuel) consumed in cooling through the use of building services for reducing the internal thermal comfort and the relationship between them. This study is based on measuring the consumed electrical energy rate in cooling (by using Design-Builder program) for a residential building (the place of study is: Egypt- Suez Canal- Suez City), this design model has lots of alternatives designs for the place of building services (center of building- the eastern front- southeastern front- the southern front- the south-west front, the western front). The building services are placed on the fronts with different rates for determining the best rate on fronts which realizes thermal comfort with the lowest of energy consumption used in cooling. Findings of the study indicate to that the best position for building services is on the west front then the south-west front, and the more the building services increase, the more energy consumption used in cooling of residential building decreases. Recommendations indicate to the need to study the building services positions in the new projects progress to select the best alternatives to realize ‘Energy conservation’ used in cooling or heating into the buildings in general, residential buildings particularly.

Keywords: residential buildings, energy conservation, thermal comfort, building services, temporary used service spaces, DesignBuilder

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1788 Monitoring Energy Reduction through Applying Green Roofs to Residential Buildings in Dubai

Authors: Hanan M. Taleb

Abstract:

Since buildings are a major consumer of energy, their potential impact on the environment is considerable. Therefore, expanding the application of low energy architecture is of the utmost importance. Designing with nature is also one of the most attractive methods of design for many architects and designers because it creates a pathway to sustainability. One feature of designing with nature is the use of green roofing which aims to cover the roof with vegetation either partially or completely. Appreciably, green roofing in a building has many advantages including absorbing rainwater, providing thermal insulation, enhancing the ecology, creating a peaceful retreat for people and animals, improving air quality and helping to offset the air temperature and heat island effect. The aim of this paper is to monitor energy saving in the residential buildings of Dubai after applying green roofing techniques. The paper also attempts to provide a thermal analysis after the application of green roofs. A villa in Dubai was chosen as a case study. With the aid of energy simulation software, namely Design Builder, as well as manual recording and calculations, the energy savings after applying the green roofing were detected. To that extent, the paper draws some recommendations with regard to the types of green roofing that should be used in these particular climatic conditions based on this real experiment that took place over a one year period.

Keywords: residential buildings, Dubai, energy saving, green roofing, CFD, thermal comfort

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1787 Refurbishment Methods to Enhance Energy Efficiency of Brick Veneer Residential Buildings in Victoria

Authors: Hamid Reza Tabatabaiefar, Bita Mansoury, Mohammad Javad Khadivi Zand

Abstract:

The current energy and climate change impacts of the residential building sector in Australia are significant. Thus, the Australian Government has introduced more stringent regulations to improve building energy efficiency. In 2006, the Australian residential building sector consumed about 11% (around 440 Petajoule) of the total primary energy, resulting in total greenhouse gas emissions of 9.65 million tonnes CO2-eq. The gas and electricity consumption of residential dwellings contributed to 30% and 52% respectively, of the total primary energy utilised by this sector. Around 40 percent of total energy consumption of Australian buildings goes to heating and cooling due to the low thermal performance of the buildings. Thermal performance of buildings determines the amount of energy used for heating and cooling of the buildings which profoundly influences energy efficiency. Employing sustainable design principles and effective use of construction materials can play a crucial role in improving thermal performance of new and existing buildings. Even though awareness has been raised, the design phase of refurbishment projects is often problematic. One of the issues concerning the refurbishment of residential buildings is mostly the consumer market, where most work consists of moderate refurbishment jobs, often without assistance of an architect and partly without a building permit. There is an individual and often fragmental approach that results in lack of efficiency. Most importantly, the decisions taken in the early stages of the design determine the final result; however, the assessment of the environmental performance only happens at the end of the design process, as a reflection of the design outcome. Finally, studies have identified the lack of knowledge, experience and best-practice examples as barriers in refurbishment projects. In the context of sustainable development and the need to reduce energy demand, refurbishing the ageing residential building constitutes a necessary action. Not only it does provide huge potential for energy savings, but it is also economically and socially relevant. Although the advantages have been identified, the guidelines come in the form of general suggestions that fail to address the diversity of each project. As a result, it has been recognised that there is a strong need to develop guidelines for optimised retrofitting of existing residential buildings in order to improve their energy performance. The current study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of residential brick veneer buildings in Victoria (Australia). Proposing different remedial solutions for improving the energy performance of residential brick veneer buildings, in the simulation stage, annual energy usage analyses have been carried out to determine heating and cooling energy consumptions of the buildings for different proposed retrofitting techniques. Then, the results of employing different retrofitting methods have been examined and compared in order to identify the most efficient and cost-effective remedial solution for improving the energy performance of those buildings with respect to the climate condition in Victoria and construction materials of the studied benchmark building.

Keywords: brick veneer residential buildings, building energy efficiency, climate change impacts, cost effective remedial solution, energy performance, sustainable design principles

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1786 Simulation-Based Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality and Comfort Control in Non-Residential Buildings

Authors: Torsten Schwan, Rene Unger

Abstract:

Simulation of thermal and electrical building performance more and more becomes part of an integrative planning process. Increasing requirements on energy efficiency, the integration of volatile renewable energy, smart control and storage management often cause tremendous challenges for building engineers and architects. This mainly affects commercial or non-residential buildings. Their energy consumption characteristics significantly distinguish from residential ones. This work focuses on the many-objective optimization problem indoor air quality and comfort, especially in non-residential buildings. Based on a brief description of intermediate dependencies between different requirements on indoor air treatment it extends existing Modelica-based building physics models with additional system states to adequately represent indoor air conditions. Interfaces to corresponding HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system and control models enable closed-loop analyzes of occupants' requirements and energy efficiency as well as profitableness aspects. A complex application scenario of a nearly-zero-energy school building shows advantages of presented evaluation process for engineers and architects. This way, clear identification of air quality requirements in individual rooms together with realistic model-based description of occupants' behavior helps to optimize HVAC system already in early design stages. Building planning processes can be highly improved and accelerated by increasing integration of advanced simulation methods. Those methods mainly provide suitable answers on engineers' and architects' questions regarding more exuberant and complex variety of suitable energy supply solutions.

Keywords: indoor air quality, dynamic simulation, energy efficient control, non-residential buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1785 Protective Custody in Child Protection: Reflection of Residential Care Workers in the Philippines

Authors: Hazel S. Cometa-Lamberte

Abstract:

This paper presents the residential care workers reflections in working with children who were under protective custody and placed in a residential care facility for children. Key informant interviews and focus group discussion were employed in this study to analyze the views of residential care workers on the programs and services and case management system in residential care for children. Results suggest that working in a residential care facility for children needs the interplay of both the worker’s personal and professional values, knowledge and skills in working with children. Analyzing the residential care workers experiences in handling children in residential care facilities is vital for the improvement of the policies, programs and services, the repertoire of techniques and facilitate the creation of a new social work practice framework/model in child protection specifically in residential care facilities.

Keywords: child protection, residential care, residential care workers, social workers

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1784 Effect of Residential Block Scale Envelope in Buildings Energy Consumption: A Vernacular Case Study in an Iranian Urban Context

Authors: M. Panahian

Abstract:

A global challenge which is of paramount significance today is the issue of devising innovative solutions to tackle the environmental issues, as well as more intelligent and foresightful consumption of and management of natural resources. Changes in global climate resulting from the burning of fossil fuel and the rise in the level of energy consumption are a few examples of environmental issues detrimental to any form of life on earth, which are aggravated year by year. Overall, energy-efficient designs and construction strategies can be studied at three scales: building, block, and city. Nevertheless, as the available literature suggests, the greatest emphasis has been on building and city scales, and little has been done as to the energy-efficient designs at block scale. Therefore, the aim of the current research is to investigate the influences of residential block scale envelope on the energy consumption in buildings. To this end, a case study of residential block scale has been selected in the city of Isfahan, in Iran, situated in a hot and dry climate with cold winters. Eventually, the most effective variables in energy consumption, concerning the block scale envelope, will be concluded.

Keywords: sustainability, passive energy saving solutions, residential block scale, energy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
1783 Evaluation of Negative Air Ions in Bioaerosol Removal: Indoor Concentration of Airborne Bacterial and Fungal in Residential Building in Qom City, Iran

Authors: Z. Asadgol, A. Nadali, H. Arfaeinia, M. Khalifeh Gholi, R. Fateh, M. Fahiminia

Abstract:

The present investigation was conducted to detect the type and concentrations of bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in one room (bedroom) of each selected residential building located in different regions of Qom during February 2015 (n=9) to July 2016 (n=11). Moreover, we evaluated the efficiency of negative air ions (NAIs) in bioaerosol reduction in indoor air in residential buildings. In the first step, the mean concentrations of bacterial and fungal in nine sampling sites evaluated in winter were 744 and 579 colony forming units (CFU)/m3, while these values were 1628.6 and 231 CFU/m3 in the 11 sampling sites evaluated in summer, respectively. The most predominant genera between bacterial and fungal in all sampling sites were detected as Micrococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. and also, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., respectively. The 95% and 45% of sampling sites have bacterial and fungal concentrations over the recommended levels, respectively. In the removal step, we achieved a reduction with a range of 38% to 93% for bacterial genera and 25% to 100% for fungal genera by using NAIs. The results suggested that NAI is a highly effective, simple and efficient technique in reducing the bacterial and fungal concentration in the indoor air of residential buildings.

Keywords: bacterial, fungal, negative air ions (NAIs), indoor air, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1782 Scope of Rainwater Harvesting in Residential Plots of Dhaka City

Authors: Jubaida Gulshan Ara, Zebun Nasreen Ahmed

Abstract:

Urban flood and drought has been a major problem of Dhaka city, particularly in recent years. Continuous increase of the city built up area, and limiting rainwater infiltration zone, are thought to be the main causes of the problem. Proper rainwater management, even at the individual plot level, might bring significant improvement in this regard. As residential use pattern occupies a significant portion of the city surface, the scope of rainwater harvesting (RWH) in residential buildings can be investigated. This paper reports on a research which explored the scope of rainwater harvesting in residential plots, with multifamily apartment buildings, in Dhaka city. The research investigated the basics of RWH, contextual information, i.e., hydro-geological, meteorological data of Dhaka city and the rules and legislations for residential building construction. The study also explored contemporary rainwater harvesting practices in the local and international contexts. On the basis of theoretical understanding, 21 sample case-studies, in different phases of construction, were selected from seven different categories of plot sizes, in different residential areas of Dhaka city. Primary data from the 21 case-study buildings were collected from a physical survey, from design drawings, accompanied by a questionnaire survey. All necessary secondary data were gathered from published and other relevant sources. Collected primary and secondary data were used to calculate and analyze the RWH needs for each case study, based on the theoretical understanding. The main findings have been compiled and compared, to observe residential development trends with regards to building rainwater harvesting system. The study has found that, in ‘Multifamily Apartment Building’ of Dhaka city, storage, and recharge structure size for rainwater harvesting, increases along with occupants’ number, and with the increasing size of the plot. Hence, demand vs. supply ratio remains almost the same for different sizes of plots, and consequently, the size of the storage structure increases significantly, in large-scale plots. It has been found that rainwater can meet only 12%-30% of the total restricted water demand of these residential buildings of Dhaka city. Therefore, artificial groundwater recharge might be the more suitable option for RWH, than storage. The study came up with this conclusion that, in multifamily residential apartments of Dhaka city, artificial groundwater recharge might be the more suitable option for RWH, than storing the rainwater on site.

Keywords: Dhaka city, rainwater harvesting, residential plots, urban flood

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1781 From 'Segregation' to 'Integration': The Dynamic Mechanism of Residential Segregation and the Responsive Sustainable Regeneration Methods in China

Authors: Yang Chen

Abstract:

The property-led regeneration has played an important role in the process of rapid urbanization during the past twenty years in China, but it is also been criticized unsustainable as it always focuses on the economic aspect and overlooks the social issues, especially it has exacerbated the residential segregation in the inner city. Based on author’s studying the area around Nanjing railway station, this paper demonstrates that residential segregation indeed exists in the inner city through synthetic analysis on patterns of residents’ living, consumption and welfare, and to some extent, the segregation distribution characteristics represent in a concentric ring model. According to author’s further investigation on the property right and age of the dwelling buildings, the housing-commercialization-led regeneration is defined as the mainspring of the segregation. To solve these problems, the system of sustainable community should be established in both policy and practice, above all, well-designed public facilities including green infrastructure will be appropriate to promote the residential integration and sustainable development in contemporary China.

Keywords: China, dynamic mechanism, residential segregation, sustainable regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 326