Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Benihssane Abderahim

3 Classification of Attacks Over Cloud Environment

Authors: Karim Abouelmehdi, Loubna Dali, Elmoutaoukkil Abdelmajid, Hoda Elsayed, Eladnani Fatiha, Benihssane Abderahim


The security of cloud services is the concern of cloud service providers. In this paper, we will mention different classifications of cloud attacks referred by specialized organizations. Each agency has its classification of well-defined properties. The purpose is to present a high-level classification of current research in cloud computing security. This classification is organized around attack strategies and corresponding defenses.

Keywords: cloud computing, classification, risk, security

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2 Microalgae as Promising Biostimulants of Plant Tolerance Against Heavy Metals

Authors: Soufiane Fal, Abderahim Aasfar, Ali Ouhssain, Hasnae Choukri, Abelaziz Smouni, Hicham El Arroussi


Heavy metals contamination is a major environmental concern around the world. It has a harmful impact on plant productivity and poses a serious risk to humans and animals health. In the present study, the effect of Microalgae Crude Extract (MCE) on tomato growth and nutrients uptake exposed to 2 mM Pb2+ and Cd2+ was investigated. In results, 2 mM Pb2+ and Cd2+ showed a significant reduction of tomatobiomass and perturbation in nutrients absorption. Moreover, MCE application in tomato plant exposed to Pb2+ and Cd2+ showed a significant enhancement of biomass compared to tomato plants under Pb2+ and Cd2+. On the other hand, MCE application favoured heavy metals accumulation in root and inhibited their translocation to shoot as phytostabilisation mechanism. Tomato plants showed biochemical responses to Pb2+ and Cd2+ stress with elevation of scavenging enzymes and molecules such as POD, CAT, SOD, Proline, and polyphenols, etc. In addition, the treatment by MCE showed a significant reduction level of the majority of these parameters. Furthermore, the metabolomic analysis revealed a significant change in important metabolites. Pb2+ and Cd2+ showed decrease in SFA and increase of UFA, VLFA, alkanes, alkenes, sterols, which known accumulated as tolerance and resistance mechanism to heavy metal (H.M) stress. However, MCE treatment showed the inverse of these response to return tomato plants to normal state and enhanced tolerance and resistance to heavy metal stress. In the present study, we emphasized that MCE can alleviate H.M stress, enhance tomato plant growth nutrients absorption and improve biochemical responses.

Keywords: microalgae crude extract, heavy metal stress, nutrient uptake, metabolomic analysis, solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), phytostabilisation

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1 High Physical Properties of Biochar Issued from Cashew Nut Shell to Adsorb Mycotoxins (Aflatoxins and Ochratoxine A) and Its Effects on Toxigenic Molds

Authors: Abderahim Ahmadou, Alfredo Napoli, Noel Durand, Didier Montet


Biochar is a microporous and adsorbent solid carbon product obtained from the pyrolysis of various organic materials (biomass, agricultural waste). Biochar is distinguished from vegetable charcoal by its manufacture methods. Biochar is used as the amendment in soils to give them favorable characteristics under certain conditions, i.e., absorption of water and its release at low speed. Cashew nuts shell from Mali is usually discarded on land by local processors or burnt as a mean for waste management. The burning of this biomass poses serious socio-environmental problems including greenhouse gas emission and accumulation of tars and soot on houses closed to factories, leading to neighbor complaints. Some mycotoxins as aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds resulting from the secondary metabolism of molds that develop on plants in the field and during their conservation. They are found at high level on some seeds and nuts in Africa. Ochratoxin A, member of mycotoxins, is produced by various species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Human exposure to Ochratoxin A can occur through consumption of contaminated food products, particularly contaminated grain, as well as coffee, wine grapes. We showed that cashew shell biochars produced at 400, 600 and 800°C adsorbed aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) at 100% by filtration (rapid contact) as well as by stirring (long contact). The average percentage of adsorption of Ochratoxin A was 35% by filtration and 80% by stirring. The duration of the biochar-mycotoxin contact was a significant parameter. The effect of biochar was also tested on two strains of toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus (producers of Aflatoxins) and Aspergillus carbonarius (producers of Ochratoxins). The growth of the strain Aspergillus carbonarius was inhibited at up to 60% by the biochar at 600°C. An opposite effect to the inhibition was observed on Aspergillus parasiticus using the same biochar. In conclusion, we observed that biochar adsorbs mycotoxins: Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A to different degrees; 100% adsorption of aflatoxins under all conditions (filtration and stirring) and adsorption of Ochratoxin A varied depending on the type of biochar and the experiment conditions (35% by filtration and 85% by stirring). The effects of biochar at 600 °C on the toxigenic molds: Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus carbonarius, varied according to the experimental conditions and the strains. We observed an opposite effect on the growth with an inhibition of Aspergillus carbonarius up to 60% and a stimulated growth of Aspergillus parasiticus.

Keywords: biochar, cashew nut shell, mycotoxins, toxicogenic molds

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