Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22357

Search results for: nearest neighbour object based classification

22357 Urban Land Cover from GF-2 Satellite Images Using Object Based and Neural Network Classifications

Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha, Ashraf Sharawi


China launched satellite GF-2 in 2014. This study deals with comparing nearest neighbor object-based classification and neural network classification methods for classification of the fused GF-2 image. Firstly, rectification of GF-2 image was performed. Secondly, a comparison between nearest neighbor object-based classification and neural network classification for classification of fused GF-2 was performed. Thirdly, the overall accuracy of classification and kappa index were calculated. Results indicate that nearest neighbor object-based classification is better than neural network classification for urban mapping.

Keywords: GF-2 images, feature extraction-rectification, nearest neighbour object based classification, segmentation algorithms, neural network classification, multilayer perceptron

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
22356 Human Gait Recognition Using Moment with Fuzzy

Authors: Jyoti Bharti, Navneet Manjhi, M. K.Gupta, Bimi Jain


A reliable gait features are required to extract the gait sequences from an images. In this paper suggested a simple method for gait identification which is based on moments. Moment values are extracted on different number of frames of gray scale and silhouette images of CASIA database. These moment values are considered as feature values. Fuzzy logic and nearest neighbour classifier are used for classification. Both achieved higher recognition.

Keywords: gait, fuzzy logic, nearest neighbour, recognition rate, moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
22355 An Analysis of Classification of Imbalanced Datasets by Using Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique

Authors: Ghada A. Alfattni


Analysing unbalanced datasets is one of the challenges that practitioners in machine learning field face. However, many researches have been carried out to determine the effectiveness of the use of the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) to address this issue. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effectiveness of the SMOTE over different models on unbalanced datasets. Three classification models (Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbour) were tested with multiple datasets, then the same datasets were oversampled by using SMOTE and applied again to the three models to compare the differences in the performances. Results of experiments show that the highest number of nearest neighbours gives lower values of error rates. 

Keywords: imbalanced datasets, SMOTE, machine learning, logistic regression, support vector machine, nearest neighbour

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22354 Application of Fuzzy Approach to the Vibration Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Jalel Khelil


In order to improve reliability of Gas Turbine machine especially its generator equipment, a fault diagnosis system based on fuzzy approach is proposed. Three various methods namely K-NN (K-nearest neighbors), F-KNN (Fuzzy K-nearest neighbors) and FNM (Fuzzy nearest mean) are adopted to provide the measurement of relative strength of vibration defaults. Both applications consist of two major steps: Feature extraction and default classification. 09 statistical features are extracted from vibration signals. 03 different classes are used in this study which describes vibrations condition: Normal, unbalance defect, and misalignment defect. The use of the fuzzy approaches and the classification results are discussed. Results show that these approaches yield high successful rates of vibration default classification.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, fuzzy classification k-nearest neighbor, vibration

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22353 Mapping of Arenga Pinnata Tree Using Remote Sensing

Authors: Zulkiflee Abd Latif, Sitinor Atikah Nordin, Alawi Sulaiman


Different tree species possess different and various benefits. Arenga Pinnata tree species own several potential uses that is valuable for the economy and the country. Mapping vegetation using remote sensing technique involves various process, techniques and consideration. Using satellite imagery, this method enables the access of inaccessible area and with the availability of near infra-red band; it is useful in vegetation analysis, especially in identifying tree species. Pixel-based and object-based classification technique is used as a method in this study. Pixel-based classification technique used in this study divided into unsupervised and supervised classification. Object based classification technique becomes more popular another alternative method in classification process. Using spectral, texture, color and other information, to classify the target make object-based classification is a promising technique for classification. Classification of Arenga Pinnata trees is overlaid with elevation, slope and aspect, soil and river data and several other data to give information regarding the tree character and living environment. This paper will present the utilization of remote sensing technique in order to map Arenga Pinnata tree species

Keywords: Arenga Pinnata, pixel-based classification, object-based classification, remote sensing

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22352 A Reliable Multi-Type Vehicle Classification System

Authors: Ghada S. Moussa


Vehicle classification is an important task in traffic surveillance and intelligent transportation systems. Classification of vehicle images is facing several problems such as: high intra-class vehicle variations, occlusion, shadow, illumination. These problems and others must be considered to develop a reliable vehicle classification system. In this study, a reliable multi-type vehicle classification system based on Bag-of-Words (BoW) paradigm is developed. Our proposed system used and compared four well-known classifiers; Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), and Decision Tree to classify vehicles into four categories: motorcycles, small, medium and large. Experiments on a large dataset show that our approach is efficient and reliable in classifying vehicles with accuracy of 95.7%. The SVM outperforms other classification algorithms in terms of both accuracy and robustness alongside considerable reduction in execution time. The innovativeness of developed system is it can serve as a framework for many vehicle classification systems.

Keywords: vehicle classification, bag-of-words technique, SVM classifier, LDA classifier, KNN classifier, decision tree classifier, SIFT algorithm

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22351 Pose Normalization Network for Object Classification

Authors: Bingquan Shen


Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have demonstrated their effectiveness in synthesizing 3D views of object instances at various viewpoints. Given the problem where one have limited viewpoints of a particular object for classification, we present a pose normalization architecture to transform the object to existing viewpoints in the training dataset before classification to yield better classification performance. We have demonstrated that this Pose Normalization Network (PNN) can capture the style of the target object and is able to re-render it to a desired viewpoint. Moreover, we have shown that the PNN improves the classification result for the 3D chairs dataset and ShapeNet airplanes dataset when given only images at limited viewpoint, as compared to a CNN baseline.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, object classification, pose normalization, viewpoint invariant

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22350 Kernel-Based Double Nearest Proportion Feature Extraction for Hyperspectral Image Classification

Authors: Hung-Sheng Lin, Cheng-Hsuan Li


Over the past few years, kernel-based algorithms have been widely used to extend some linear feature extraction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminate analysis (LDA), and nonparametric weighted feature extraction (NWFE) to their nonlinear versions, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), generalized discriminate analysis (GDA), and kernel nonparametric weighted feature extraction (KNWFE), respectively. These nonlinear feature extraction methods can detect nonlinear directions with the largest nonlinear variance or the largest class separability based on the given kernel function. Moreover, they have been applied to improve the target detection or the image classification of hyperspectral images. The double nearest proportion feature extraction (DNP) can effectively reduce the overlap effect and have good performance in hyperspectral image classification. The DNP structure is an extension of the k-nearest neighbor technique. For each sample, there are two corresponding nearest proportions of samples, the self-class nearest proportion and the other-class nearest proportion. The term “nearest proportion” used here consider both the local information and other more global information. With these settings, the effect of the overlap between the sample distributions can be reduced. Usually, the maximum likelihood estimator and the related unbiased estimator are not ideal estimators in high dimensional inference problems, particularly in small data-size situation. Hence, an improved estimator by shrinkage estimation (regularization) is proposed. Based on the DNP structure, LDA is included as a special case. In this paper, the kernel method is applied to extend DNP to kernel-based DNP (KDNP). In addition to the advantages of DNP, KDNP surpasses DNP in the experimental results. According to the experiments on the real hyperspectral image data sets, the classification performance of KDNP is better than that of PCA, LDA, NWFE, and their kernel versions, KPCA, GDA, and KNWFE.

Keywords: feature extraction, kernel method, double nearest proportion feature extraction, kernel double nearest feature extraction

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22349 Roof Material Detection Based on Object-Based Approach Using WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

Authors: Ebrahim Taherzadeh, Helmi Z. M. Shafri, Kaveh Shahi


One of the most important tasks in urban area remote sensing is detection of impervious surface (IS), such as building roof and roads. However, detection of IS in heterogeneous areas still remains as one of the most challenging works. In this study, detection of concrete roof using an object-oriented approach was proposed. A new rule-based classification was developed to detect concrete roof tile. The proposed rule-based classification was applied to WorldView-2 image. Results showed that the proposed rule has good potential to predict concrete roof material from WorldView-2 images with 85% accuracy.

Keywords: object-based, roof material, concrete tile, WorldView-2

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
22348 High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Lidar Data for Object-Based Tree Species Classification in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Bilel Chalghaf, Mathieu Varin


Forest characterization in Quebec, Canada, is usually assessed based on photo-interpretation at the stand level. For species identification, this often results in a lack of precision. Very high spatial resolution imagery, such as DigitalGlobe, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), have the potential to overcome the limitations of aerial imagery. To date, few studies have used that data to map a large number of species at the tree level using machine learning techniques. The main objective of this study is to map 11 individual high tree species ( > 17m) at the tree level using an object-based approach in the broadleaf forest of Kenauk Nature, Quebec. For the individual tree crown segmentation, three canopy-height models (CHMs) from LiDAR data were assessed: 1) the original, 2) a filtered, and 3) a corrected model. The corrected CHM gave the best accuracy and was then coupled with imagery to refine tree species crown identification. When compared with photo-interpretation, 90% of the objects represented a single species. For modeling, 313 variables were derived from 16-band WorldView-3 imagery and LiDAR data, using radiance, reflectance, pixel, and object-based calculation techniques. Variable selection procedures were employed to reduce their number from 313 to 16, using only 11 bands to aid reproducibility. For classification, a global approach using all 11 species was compared to a semi-hierarchical hybrid classification approach at two levels: (1) tree type (broadleaf/conifer) and (2) individual broadleaf (five) and conifer (six) species. Five different model techniques were used: (1) support vector machine (SVM), (2) classification and regression tree (CART), (3) random forest (RF), (4) k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and (5) linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Each model was tuned separately for all approaches and levels. For the global approach, the best model was the SVM using eight variables (overall accuracy (OA): 80%, Kappa: 0.77). With the semi-hierarchical hybrid approach, at the tree type level, the best model was the k-NN using six variables (OA: 100% and Kappa: 1.00). At the level of identifying broadleaf and conifer species, the best model was the SVM, with OA of 80% and 97% and Kappa values of 0.74 and 0.97, respectively, using seven variables for both models. This paper demonstrates that a hybrid classification approach gives better results and that using 16-band WorldView-3 with LiDAR data leads to more precise predictions for tree segmentation and classification, especially when the number of tree species is large.

Keywords: tree species, object-based, classification, multispectral, machine learning, WorldView-3, LiDAR

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22347 Adaptive Online Object Tracking via Positive and Negative Models Matching

Authors: Shaomei Li, Yawen Wang, Chao Gao


To improve tracking drift which often occurs in adaptive tracking, an algorithm based on the fusion of tracking and detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, object tracking is posed as a binary classification problem and is modeled by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. Secondly, tracking object frame by frame via particle filtering. Thirdly, validating the tracking reliability based on both positive and negative models matching. Finally, relocating the object based on SIFT features matching and voting when drift occurs. Object appearance model is updated at the same time. The algorithm cannot only sense tracking drift but also relocate the object whenever needed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms on many challenging sequences.

Keywords: object tracking, tracking drift, partial least squares analysis, positive and negative models matching

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22346 A Comparative Study of k-NN and MLP-NN Classifiers Using GA-kNN Based Feature Selection Method for Wood Recognition System

Authors: Uswah Khairuddin, Rubiyah Yusof, Nenny Ruthfalydia Rosli


This paper presents a comparative study between k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) and Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN) classifier using Genetic Algorithm (GA) as feature selector for wood recognition system. The features have been extracted from the images using Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The use of GA based feature selection is mainly to ensure that the database used for training the features for the wood species pattern classifier consists of only optimized features. The feature selection process is aimed at selecting only the most discriminating features of the wood species to reduce the confusion for the pattern classifier. This feature selection approach maintains the ‘good’ features that minimizes the inter-class distance and maximizes the intra-class distance. Wrapper GA is used with k-NN classifier as fitness evaluator (GA-kNN). The results shows that k-NN is the best choice of classifier because it uses a very simple distance calculation algorithm and classification tasks can be done in a short time with good classification accuracy.

Keywords: feature selection, genetic algorithm, optimization, wood recognition system

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22345 Hybrid Fuzzy Weighted K-Nearest Neighbor to Predict Hospital Readmission for Diabetic Patients

Authors: Soha A. Bahanshal, Byung G. Kim


Identification of patients at high risk for hospital readmission is of crucial importance for quality health care and cost reduction. Predicting hospital readmissions among diabetic patients has been of great interest to many researchers and health decision makers. We build a prediction model to predict hospital readmission for diabetic patients within 30 days of discharge. The core of the prediction model is a modified k Nearest Neighbor called Hybrid Fuzzy Weighted k Nearest Neighbor algorithm. The prediction is performed on a patient dataset which consists of more than 70,000 patients with 50 attributes. We applied data preprocessing using different techniques in order to handle data imbalance and to fuzzify the data to suit the prediction algorithm. The model so far achieved classification accuracy of 80% compared to other models that only use k Nearest Neighbor.

Keywords: machine learning, prediction, classification, hybrid fuzzy weighted k-nearest neighbor, diabetic hospital readmission

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22344 Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Urban Growth and Land Use Change in Islamabad Using Object-Based Classification Method

Authors: Rabia Shabbir, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Amna Butt


Rapid land use changes have taken place in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, over the past decades due to accelerated urbanization and industrialization. In this study, land use changes in the metropolitan area of Islamabad was observed by the combined use of GIS and satellite remote sensing for a time period of 15 years. High-resolution Google Earth images were downloaded from 2000-2015, and object-based classification method was used for accurate classification using eCognition software. The information regarding urban settlements, industrial area, barren land, agricultural area, vegetation, water, and transportation infrastructure was extracted. The results showed that the city experienced a spatial expansion, rapid urban growth, land use change and expanding transportation infrastructure. The study concluded the integration of GIS and remote sensing as an effective approach for analyzing the spatial pattern of urban growth and land use change.

Keywords: land use change, urban growth, Islamabad, object-based classification, Google Earth, remote sensing, GIS

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22343 A Human Activity Recognition System Based on Sensory Data Related to Object Usage

Authors: M. Abdullah, Al-Wadud


Sensor-based activity recognition systems usually accounts which sensors have been activated to perform an activity. The system then combines the conditional probabilities of those sensors to represent different activities and takes the decision based on that. However, the information about the sensors which are not activated may also be of great help in deciding which activity has been performed. This paper proposes an approach where the sensory data related to both usage and non-usage of objects are utilized to make the classification of activities. Experimental results also show the promising performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Naïve Bayesian, based classification, activity recognition, sensor data, object-usage model

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22342 Image Classification with Localization Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Bhuyain Mobarok Hossain


Image classification and localization research is currently an important strategy in the field of computer vision. The evolution and advancement of deep learning and convolutional neural networks (CNN) have greatly improved the capabilities of object detection and image-based classification. Target detection is important to research in the field of computer vision, especially in video surveillance systems. To solve this problem, we will be applying a convolutional neural network of multiple scales at multiple locations in the image in one sliding window. Most translation networks move away from the bounding box around the area of interest. In contrast to this architecture, we consider the problem to be a classification problem where each pixel of the image is a separate section. Image classification is the method of predicting an individual category or specifying by a shoal of data points. Image classification is a part of the classification problem, including any labels throughout the image. The image can be classified as a day or night shot. Or, likewise, images of cars and motorbikes will be automatically placed in their collection. The deep learning of image classification generally includes convolutional layers; the invention of it is referred to as a convolutional neural network (CNN).

Keywords: image classification, object detection, localization, particle filter

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22341 Radar-Based Classification of Pedestrian and Dog Using High-Resolution Raw Range-Doppler Signatures

Authors: C. Mayr, J. Periya, A. Kariminezhad


In this paper, we developed a learning framework for the classification of vulnerable road users (VRU) by their range-Doppler signatures. The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar raw data is first pre-processed to obtain robust object range-Doppler maps per coherent time interval. The complex-valued range-Doppler maps captured from our outdoor measurements are further fed into a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the classification. This CNN has gone through a hyperparameter optimization process for improved learning. By learning VRU range-Doppler signatures, the three classes 'pedestrian', 'dog', and 'noise' are classified with an average accuracy of almost 95%. Interestingly, this classification accuracy holds for a combined longitudinal and lateral object trajectories.

Keywords: machine learning, radar, signal processing, autonomous driving

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22340 6D Posture Estimation of Road Vehicles from Color Images

Authors: Yoshimoto Kurihara, Tad Gonsalves


Currently, in the field of object posture estimation, there is research on estimating the position and angle of an object by storing a 3D model of the object to be estimated in advance in a computer and matching it with the model. However, in this research, we have succeeded in creating a module that is much simpler, smaller in scale, and faster in operation. Our 6D pose estimation model consists of two different networks – a classification network and a regression network. From a single RGB image, the trained model estimates the class of the object in the image, the coordinates of the object, and its rotation angle in 3D space. In addition, we compared the estimation accuracy of each camera position, i.e., the angle from which the object was captured. The highest accuracy was recorded when the camera position was 75°, the accuracy of the classification was about 87.3%, and that of regression was about 98.9%.

Keywords: 6D posture estimation, image recognition, deep learning, AlexNet

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22339 Feature Weighting Comparison Based on Clustering Centers in the Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Kemal Polat


In this paper, three feature weighting methods have been used to improve the classification performance of diabetic retinopathy (DR). To classify the diabetic retinopathy, features extracted from the output of several retinal image processing algorithms, such as image-level, lesion-specific and anatomical components, have been used and fed them into the classifier algorithms. The dataset used in this study has been taken from University of California, Irvine (UCI) machine learning repository. Feature weighting methods including the fuzzy c-means clustering based feature weighting, subtractive clustering based feature weighting, and Gaussian mixture clustering based feature weighting, have been used and compered with each other in the classification of DR. After feature weighting, five different classifier algorithms comprising multi-layer perceptron (MLP), k- nearest neighbor (k-NN), decision tree, support vector machine (SVM), and Naïve Bayes have been used. The hybrid method based on combination of subtractive clustering based feature weighting and decision tree classifier has been obtained the classification accuracy of 100% in the screening of DR. These results have demonstrated that the proposed hybrid scheme is very promising in the medical data set classification.

Keywords: machine learning, data weighting, classification, data mining

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22338 A Psychophysiological Evaluation of an Effective Recognition Technique Using Interactive Dynamic Virtual Environments

Authors: Mohammadhossein Moghimi, Robert Stone, Pia Rotshtein


Recording psychological and physiological correlates of human performance within virtual environments and interpreting their impacts on human engagement, ‘immersion’ and related emotional or ‘effective’ states is both academically and technologically challenging. By exposing participants to an effective, real-time (game-like) virtual environment, designed and evaluated in an earlier study, a psychophysiological database containing the EEG, GSR and Heart Rate of 30 male and female gamers, exposed to 10 games, was constructed. Some 174 features were subsequently identified and extracted from a number of windows, with 28 different timing lengths (e.g. 2, 3, 5, etc. seconds). After reducing the number of features to 30, using a feature selection technique, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) methods were subsequently employed for the classification process. The classifiers categorised the psychophysiological database into four effective clusters (defined based on a 3-dimensional space – valence, arousal and dominance) and eight emotion labels (relaxed, content, happy, excited, angry, afraid, sad, and bored). The KNN and SVM classifiers achieved average cross-validation accuracies of 97.01% (±1.3%) and 92.84% (±3.67%), respectively. However, no significant differences were found in the classification process based on effective clusters or emotion labels.

Keywords: virtual reality, effective computing, effective VR, emotion-based effective physiological database

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22337 Towards a Balancing Medical Database by Using the Least Mean Square Algorithm

Authors: Kamel Belammi, Houria Fatrim


imbalanced data set, a problem often found in real world application, can cause seriously negative effect on classification performance of machine learning algorithms. There have been many attempts at dealing with classification of imbalanced data sets. In medical diagnosis classification, we often face the imbalanced number of data samples between the classes in which there are not enough samples in rare classes. In this paper, we proposed a learning method based on a cost sensitive extension of Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm that penalizes errors of different samples with different weight and some rules of thumb to determine those weights. After the balancing phase, we applythe different classifiers (support vector machine (SVM), k- nearest neighbor (KNN) and multilayer neuronal networks (MNN)) for balanced data set. We have also compared the obtained results before and after balancing method.

Keywords: multilayer neural networks, k- nearest neighbor, support vector machine, imbalanced medical data, least mean square algorithm, diabetes

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22336 Classification Using Worldview-2 Imagery of Giant Panda Habitat in Wolong, Sichuan Province, China

Authors: Yunwei Tang, Linhai Jing, Hui Li, Qingjie Liu, Xiuxia Li, Qi Yan, Haifeng Ding


The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species, mainly live in central China, where bamboos act as the main food source of wild giant pandas. Knowledge of spatial distribution of bamboos therefore becomes important for identifying the habitat of giant pandas. There have been ongoing studies for mapping bamboos and other tree species using remote sensing. WorldView-2 (WV-2) is the first high resolution commercial satellite with eight Multi-Spectral (MS) bands. Recent studies demonstrated that WV-2 imagery has a high potential in classification of tree species. The advanced classification techniques are important for utilising high spatial resolution imagery. It is generally agreed that object-based image analysis is a more desirable method than pixel-based analysis in processing high spatial resolution remotely sensed data. Classifiers that use spatial information combined with spectral information are known as contextual classifiers. It is suggested that contextual classifiers can achieve greater accuracy than non-contextual classifiers. Thus, spatial correlation can be incorporated into classifiers to improve classification results. The study area is located at Wuyipeng area in Wolong, Sichuan Province. The complex environment makes it difficult for information extraction since bamboos are sparsely distributed, mixed with brushes, and covered by other trees. Extensive fieldworks in Wuyingpeng were carried out twice. The first one was on 11th June, 2014, aiming at sampling feature locations for geometric correction and collecting training samples for classification. The second fieldwork was on 11th September, 2014, for the purposes of testing the classification results. In this study, spectral separability analysis was first performed to select appropriate MS bands for classification. Also, the reflectance analysis provided information for expanding sample points under the circumstance of knowing only a few. Then, a spatially weighted object-based k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classifier was applied to the selected MS bands to identify seven land cover types (bamboo, conifer, broadleaf, mixed forest, brush, bare land, and shadow), accounting for spatial correlation within classes using geostatistical modelling. The spatially weighted k-NN method was compared with three alternatives: the traditional k-NN classifier, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) method and the Classification and Regression Tree (CART). Through field validation, it was proved that the classification result obtained using the spatially weighted k-NN method has the highest overall classification accuracy (77.61%) and Kappa coefficient (0.729); the producer’s accuracy and user’s accuracy achieve 81.25% and 95.12% for the bamboo class, respectively, also higher than the other methods. Photos of tree crowns were taken at sample locations using a fisheye camera, so the canopy density could be estimated. It is found that it is difficult to identify bamboo in the areas with a large canopy density (over 0.70); it is possible to extract bamboos in the areas with a median canopy density (from 0.2 to 0.7) and in a sparse forest (canopy density is less than 0.2). In summary, this study explores the ability of WV-2 imagery for bamboo extraction in a mountainous region in Sichuan. The study successfully identified the bamboo distribution, providing supporting knowledge for assessing the habitats of giant pandas.

Keywords: bamboo mapping, classification, geostatistics, k-NN, worldview-2

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22335 The Change of Urban Land Use/Cover Using Object Based Approach for Southern Bali

Authors: I. Gusti A. A. Rai Asmiwyati, Robert J. Corner, Ashraf M. Dewan


Change on land use/cover (LULC) dominantly affects spatial structure and function. It can have such impacts by disrupting social culture practice and disturbing physical elements. Thus, it has become essential to understand of the dynamics in time and space of LULC as it can be used as a critical input for developing sustainable LULC. This study was an attempt to map and monitor the LULC change in Bali Indonesia from 2003 to 2013. Using object based classification to improve the accuracy, and change detection, multi temporal land use/cover data were extracted from a set of ASTER satellite image. The overall accuracies of the classification maps of 2003 and 2013 were 86.99% and 80.36%, respectively. Built up area and paddy field were the dominant type of land use/cover in both years. Patch increase dominantly in 2003 illustrated the rapid paddy field fragmentation and the huge occurring transformation. This approach is new for the case of diverse urban features of Bali that has been growing fast and increased the classification accuracy than the manual pixel based classification.

Keywords: land use/cover, urban, Bali, ASTER

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22334 A Comparative Study for Various Techniques Using WEKA for Red Blood Cells Classification

Authors: Jameela Ali, Hamid A. Jalab, Loay E. George, Abdul Rahim Ahmad, Azizah Suliman, Karim Al-Jashamy


Red blood cells (RBC) are the most common types of blood cells and are the most intensively studied in cell biology. The lack of RBCs is a condition in which the amount of hemoglobin level is lower than normal and is referred to as “anemia”. Abnormalities in RBCs will affect the exchange of oxygen. This paper presents a comparative study for various techniques for classifyig the red blood cells as normal, or abnormal (anemic) using WEKA. WEKA is an open source consists of different machine learning algorithms for data mining applications. The algorithm tested are Radial Basis Function neural network, Support vector machine, and K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm. Two sets of combined features were utilized for classification of blood cells images. The first set, exclusively consist of geometrical features, was used to identify whether the tested blood cell has a spherical shape or non-spherical cells. While the second set, consist mainly of textural features was used to recognize the types of the spherical cells. We have provided an evaluation based on applying these classification methods to our RBCs image dataset which were obtained from Serdang Hospital-Malaysia, and measuring the accuracy of test results. The best achieved classification rates are 97%, 98%, and 79% for Support vector machines, Radial Basis Function neural network, and K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm respectively

Keywords: red blood cells, classification, radial basis function neural networks, suport vector machine, k-nearest neighbors algorithm

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22333 Performance Evaluation of Contemporary Classifiers for Automatic Detection of Epileptic EEG

Authors: K. E. Ch. Vidyasagar, M. Moghavvemi, T. S. S. T. Prabhat


Epilepsy is a global problem, and with seizures eluding even the smartest of diagnoses a requirement for automatic detection of the same using electroencephalogram (EEG) would have a huge impact in diagnosis of the disorder. Among a multitude of methods for automatic epilepsy detection, one should find the best method out, based on accuracy, for classification. This paper reasons out, and rationalizes, the best methods for classification. Accuracy is based on the classifier, and thus this paper discusses classifiers like quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), classification and regression tree (CART), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes classifier (NBC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Results show that ANN is the most accurate of all the above stated classifiers with 97.7% accuracy, 97.25% specificity and 98.28% sensitivity in its merit. This is followed closely by SVM with 1% variation in result. These results would certainly help researchers choose the best classifier for detection of epilepsy.

Keywords: classification, seizure, KNN, SVM, LDA, ANN, epilepsy

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22332 Identity Verification Using k-NN Classifiers and Autistic Genetic Data

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot


DNA data have been used in forensics for decades. However, current research looks at using the DNA as a biometric identity verification modality. The goal is to improve the speed of identification. We aim at using gene data that was initially used for autism detection to find if and how accurate is this data for identification applications. Mainly our goal is to find if our data preprocessing technique yields data useful as a biometric identification tool. We experiment with using the nearest neighbor classifier to identify subjects. Results show that optimal classification rate is achieved when the test set is corrupted by normally distributed noise with zero mean and standard deviation of 1. The classification rate is close to optimal at higher noise standard deviation reaching 3. This shows that the data can be used for identity verification with high accuracy using a simple classifier such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN). 

Keywords: biometrics, genetic data, identity verification, k nearest neighbor

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22331 Identification of High-Rise Buildings Using Object Based Classification and Shadow Extraction Techniques

Authors: Subham Kharel, Sudha Ravindranath, A. Vidya, B. Chandrasekaran, K. Ganesha Raj, T. Shesadri


Digitization of urban features is a tedious and time-consuming process when done manually. In addition to this problem, Indian cities have complex habitat patterns and convoluted clustering patterns, which make it even more difficult to map features. This paper makes an attempt to classify urban objects in the satellite image using object-oriented classification techniques in which various classes such as vegetation, water bodies, buildings, and shadows adjacent to the buildings were mapped semi-automatically. Building layer obtained as a result of object-oriented classification along with already available building layers was used. The main focus, however, lay in the extraction of high-rise buildings using spatial technology, digital image processing, and modeling, which would otherwise be a very difficult task to carry out manually. Results indicated a considerable rise in the total number of buildings in the city. High-rise buildings were successfully mapped using satellite imagery, spatial technology along with logical reasoning and mathematical considerations. The results clearly depict the ability of Remote Sensing and GIS to solve complex problems in urban scenarios like studying urban sprawl and identification of more complex features in an urban area like high-rise buildings and multi-dwelling units. Object-Oriented Technique has been proven to be effective and has yielded an overall efficiency of 80 percent in the classification of high-rise buildings.

Keywords: object oriented classification, shadow extraction, high-rise buildings, satellite imagery, spatial technology

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22330 Improve Divers Tracking and Classification in Sonar Images Using Robust Diver Wake Detection Algorithm

Authors: Mohammad Tarek Al Muallim, Ozhan Duzenli, Ceyhun Ilguy


Harbor protection systems are so important. The need for automatic protection systems has increased over the last years. Diver detection active sonar has great significance. It used to detect underwater threats such as divers and autonomous underwater vehicle. To automatically detect such threats the sonar image is processed by algorithms. These algorithms used to detect, track and classify of underwater objects. In this work, divers tracking and classification algorithm is improved be proposing a robust wake detection method. To detect objects the sonar images is normalized then segmented based on fixed threshold. Next, the centroids of the segments are found and clustered based on distance metric. Then to track the objects linear Kalman filter is applied. To reduce effect of noise and creation of false tracks, the Kalman tracker is fine tuned. The tuning is done based on our active sonar specifications. After the tracks are initialed and updated they are subjected to a filtering stage to eliminate the noisy and unstable tracks. Also to eliminate object with a speed out of the diver speed range such as buoys and fast boats. Afterwards the result tracks are subjected to a classification stage to deiced the type of the object been tracked. Here the classification stage is to deice wither if the tracked object is an open circuit diver or a close circuit diver. At the classification stage, a small area around the object is extracted and a novel wake detection method is applied. The morphological features of the object with his wake is extracted. We used support vector machine to find the best classifier. The sonar training images and the test images are collected by ARMELSAN Defense Technologies Company using the portable diver detection sonar ARAS-2023. After applying the algorithm to the test sonar data, we get fine and stable tracks of the divers. The total classification accuracy achieved with the diver type is 97%.

Keywords: harbor protection, diver detection, active sonar, wake detection, diver classification

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22329 Comparative Study Using WEKA for Red Blood Cells Classification

Authors: Jameela Ali, Hamid A. Jalab, Loay E. George, Abdul Rahim Ahmad, Azizah Suliman, Karim Al-Jashamy


Red blood cells (RBC) are the most common types of blood cells and are the most intensively studied in cell biology. The lack of RBCs is a condition in which the amount of hemoglobin level is lower than normal and is referred to as “anemia”. Abnormalities in RBCs will affect the exchange of oxygen. This paper presents a comparative study for various techniques for classifying the RBCs as normal, or abnormal (anemic) using WEKA. WEKA is an open source consists of different machine learning algorithms for data mining applications. The algorithm tested are Radial Basis Function neural network, Support vector machine, and K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm. Two sets of combined features were utilized for classification of blood cells images. The first set, exclusively consist of geometrical features, was used to identify whether the tested blood cell has a spherical shape or non-spherical cells. While the second set, consist mainly of textural features was used to recognize the types of the spherical cells. We have provided an evaluation based on applying these classification methods to our RBCs image dataset which were obtained from Serdang Hospital-alaysia, and measuring the accuracy of test results. The best achieved classification rates are 97%, 98%, and 79% for Support vector machines, Radial Basis Function neural network, and K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm respectively.

Keywords: K-nearest neighbors algorithm, radial basis function neural network, red blood cells, support vector machine

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22328 Nearest Neighbor Investigate Using R+ Tree

Authors: Rutuja Desai


Search engine is fundamentally a framework used to search the data which is pertinent to the client via WWW. Looking close-by spot identified with the keywords is an imperative concept in developing web advances. For such kind of searching, extent pursuit or closest neighbor is utilized. In range search the forecast is made whether the objects meet to query object. Nearest neighbor is the forecast of the focuses close to the query set by the client. Here, the nearest neighbor methodology is utilized where Data recovery R+ tree is utilized rather than IR2 tree. The disadvantages of IR2 tree is: The false hit number can surpass the limit and the mark in Information Retrieval R-tree must have Voice over IP bit for each one of a kind word in W set is recouped by Data recovery R+ tree. The inquiry is fundamentally subordinate upon the key words and the geometric directions.

Keywords: information retrieval, nearest neighbor search, keyword search, R+ tree

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